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Chapter14 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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Chapter14 allen7e Chapter14 allen7e Presentation Transcript

  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Facilitating Self-Care, Adaptive, and Independence Skills
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Definitions • Functional skills—skills that, if a child cannot perform, someone does for them. • Adaptive behaviors are determined by culture, but include eating, dressing, toileting. • Self-determination—people with disabilities are taking an active role in making choices about their own life.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Curriculum • Self-care skills are taught so that the children can be as independent as possible with or without their disability. • Culture impacts the age that these skills are taught. • They should be taught throughout the day when they are naturally occurring.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Curriculum (continued) – Embedding self-care learning • Self-care skills should be taught to generalize skills. • Self-care skills like eating can combine eating and pre-academic skills like color words, vocabulary, and number. • Communication can take place encouraging a child to share information during the teaching of self- care skills.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Curriculum (continued) – Individualizing self-care programs • Building independence—allow children to demonstrate their independence in skills and practice, practice, practice. • Building in success—celebrate the success of doing a skill on their own, rejoice in the accomplishment.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher – Let the child do it • As much as the children are able to do, let them do. • Encourage them to try, and reward the success. – How much assistance? • Teachers need to evaluate each child and learn when to help, how to help, and how much to help. • Avoid teaching learned helplessness because of your lack of time and experience.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – When to help • Least intrusive assistance – Offer help in unnoticeable ways so that the child feels success. • Excessive demands – Watch for children who are seeking attention by demanding adult help. • When children can’t – If a child is having an “off” day, offer support and encouragement; if needed, a little assistance as well.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – Game-like assistance • Making learning fun is a way to keep a child involved and interested. • It is also more fun to play a game than complete rote practice activities.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – How to help • Demonstrate • Encourage • Assist • Practice • Reinforce
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – Five steps of a systematic approach to teaching self-care skills • Specify a goal for learning • Break the skill into small steps • Use a systematic teaching approach • Use data to evaluate progress • Modify the teaching as necessary
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – Step-by-step planning • Evaluate each child on a skill and plan the steps needed to help the child be successful. – Maturation and learning • As children mature, their skills level should as well. • Toilet training programs are available to ease the traumatic events involved. • Chaining is linking events together like you would a chain to organize skills.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – Monitoring progress and communication • All parties working with the child need to know the skill sequence and the accomplishments of each child. • As the child progresses, the skill chart is updated showing that the child is now more independent than before.
  • ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Self-Care Skills and the Teacher (continued) – Special considerations • When demonstrating a skill, do so from the child’s perspective. • When zipping, stand behind the child. • When learning to tie, put the shoe in front of them the way their shoe looks on their foot. • When learning to dress, try to avoid pretty shaped buttons, tight fitting clothing, and tags in funny places. • Use clothes with elastic waists and items that are a little large.