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KCL MUN Study Guide - The Bosnian Crisis (21/02/2012)

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Transcript of "KCL MUN Study Guide - The Bosnian Crisis (21/02/2012)"

  1. 1. “The  Bosnian  Crisis”     UN  Historical  Security   Council  (1993)     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of   the  KCL  Model  United  Nations   Chairing  Training  Program  2012   A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University       http://www.mununiversity.org  
  2. 2. 2   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”      Table  of  Contents  Introduction  .........................................................................................................................................................  4   The  concept  of  a  historical  simulation  .......................................................................................................................  4   Workings  of  the  Security  Council   ..............................................................................................................................  4   .The  Bosnian  Crisis  ..............................................................................................................................................  6   Historical  setting  –  a  timeline  of  events  .....................................................................................................................  6  Entities  involved  and  important  terms  ...........................................................................................................  9   Introduction  ...................................................................................................................................................................  9   Socialist  Republic  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  .......................................................................................................  10   Herzeg-­‐‑Bosna   ...............................................................................................................................................................  10   Republika  Srpska  ........................................................................................................................................................  10   Croatia  ..........................................................................................................................................................................  10   Serbia  .............................................................................................................................................................................  11   Slovenia  ........................................................................................................................................................................  11   FR  Yugoslavia  ..............................................................................................................................................................  11   JNA  ................................................................................................................................................................................  11  Key  events  leading  up  to  the  crisis  ................................................................................................................  12   Siege  of  Sarajevo   .........................................................................................................................................................  12   . Operation  Koridor:  .....................................................................................................................................................  12   Operation  Vrbas  92:  ....................................................................................................................................................  12   Višegrad  massacre  ......................................................................................................................................................  12   Prijedor  massacre  ........................................................................................................................................................  12  Attempts  at  Peacekeeping  ...............................................................................................................................  13   Carrington-­‐‑Cutileiro  plan  ..........................................................................................................................................  13   Arms  Embargo  ............................................................................................................................................................  13   Vance-­‐‑Owen  Plan   .......................................................................................................................................................  13   . The  Brijuni  Agreement  ...............................................................................................................................................  13   Graz  Agreement  ..........................................................................................................................................................  14   Karadordevo  Meeting  ................................................................................................................................................  14   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  3. 3. 3   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Ethnic  wars  defined  ..........................................................................................................................................  15  Academic  solutions  to  ethnic  conundrums   .................................................................................................  16   . Suppression   .................................................................................................................................................................  16   . Reconstruction  of  ethnic  identities  ...........................................................................................................................  16   Power-­‐‑sharing  .............................................................................................................................................................  16   State  building  ...............................................................................................................................................................  16  Issues  and  solutions  .........................................................................................................................................  17   Key  issues  .....................................................................................................................................................................  17       A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  4. 4. 4   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”      Introduction  The  concept  of  a  historical  simulation     A  Historical  Security  Council  is,  in  essence,  a  simulation  of  a  session  of  the  Security  Council,  in  the  past.  The   historical  approach  replays  historic  Security  Council  sessions;  simulating  the  debates,  negotiations  and  decision   making  on  past  crises.  It  is,  if  you  will,  a  ‘return’  to  peak  conflicts  and  an  attempt  to  address  them  in  a  more   effective  and  feasible  manner.  There  is  a  strict  cut-­‐‑off  date  mentioned  and  no  anachronistic  statements  are   permitted;  thus  no  references  beyond  the  date  indicated  may  be  made.  No  facts  or  events  after  the  assigned  date   may  be  referred  to.  However,  this  does  not  impede  the  working  of  the  council  as  the  council  functions  following   the  functions  and  powers  granted  to  it  by  the  Charter  of  the  United  Nations.  The  issues  are  to  be  addressed  as  if   the  issues  given  were  occurring  currently.       Delegates  have  a  chance  to  re-­‐‑live,  not  necessarily  re-­‐‑enact  the  crisis.  Delegates  are  restricted  by  the  foreign  policy   of  their  respective  member-­‐‑states  and  must  bear  in  mind  to  adequately  adhere  to  the  realpolitik  of  the  set  time   frame.  However,  it  also  presents  the  delegates,  and  the  committee  as  a  whole,  a  unique  opportunity  to  re-­‐‑write   history.  They  have  the  privilege  of  hindsight  and  better  judgment  and  the  possibility  of  avoiding  the  pitfalls  of   their  predecessors.  Yet  delegates  must  remember,  that  in  order  to  have  a  veritable  simulation  of  a  past  crisis,  they   must  maintain  a  strong  delegation  identity  and  uphold  the  foreign  policy  and  protect  the  interests  of  their   respective  governments.    Workings  of  the  Security  Council     One  of  the  six  principal  organs  of  the  United  Nations,  based  at  UN  headquarters  in  New  York,  the  United   Nations  Security  Council  was  established  to  serve  as  the  organ  with  primary  responsibility  for  preserving  peace   and  preventing  armed  conflict.  It  met  for  the  first  time  at  Church  House  in  London  in  1946,  adopting  its  rules  of   procedure  and  in  the  past  has  occasionally  held  meetings  in  various  cities  across  the  world  including  Paris,  Addis   Ababa  and  Nairobi.  For  the  most  part  however  the  Security  Council  remains  in  New  York.  Unlike  the  General   assembly  however,  the  Security  Council  in  theory  exists  in  permanent  session.  Any  member  can  call  for  a  meeting   by  informing  the  council’s  President  and  the  meeting  must  be  held  within  an  hour  of  this  notification.   The  council  is  comprised  of  15  members,  of  which  5  sit  on  the  council  on  a  permanent  basis  (France,  China,   Russia,  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States).  The  remaining  10  members  are  elected  for  2-­‐‑year  terms   without  the  possibility  of  immediate  re  election  with  5  new  non-­‐‑permanent  members  being  elected  every  year.   Each  member  of  the  council  has  one  vote.  Procedural  decisions  require  an  affirmative  vote  of  9  out  of  15   members.  Substantive  issues  on  the  other  hand  require  the  affirmative  vote  of  9  out  of  15  members,  including  all   P5  members.  A  ‘no’  vote  from  any  permanent  member  (they  may  however  abstain  from  voting  and  abstention   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  5. 5. 5   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”     doesn’t  count  as  a  ‘no’  vote  any  more  as  it  did  originally)  automatically  results  in  a  failure  of  the  issue  being  voted   upon.  This  has  come  to  be  known  as  the  veto  power.   The  Security  Council  is  the  primary  executive  organ  of  the  United  Nations.  Its  primary  task  is  to  maintain   International  Peace  and  Security.  Under  Chapter  VI,  Article  35  of  the  UN  charter:     “The  Security  Council  may  investigate  any  dispute,  or  any  situation  which  might  lead  to  international  friction  or  give  rise  to   a  dispute,  in  order  to  determine  whether  the  continuance  of  the  dispute  or  situation  is  likely  to  endanger  the  maintenance  of   international  peace  and  security.”     Under  the  aforementioned  chapter  VI  of  the  charter  the  Security  Council  may  issue  recommendation  to   conflicting  parties  to  arrive  at  a  peaceful  settlement  of  disputes.  However  if  a  situation  continues  to  jeopardize   International  security,  the  council  may  invoke  Chapter  VII  of  the  charter  (Action  with  Respect  to  Threats  to  the   Peace,  Breaches  of  the  Peace  and  Acts  of  Aggression).  Decisions  taken  under  Chapter  VII  are  legally  binding   under  international  law  and  must  be  carried  out  by  the  member  state  in  question.   The  Security  Council  gains  its  authority  from  article  25  of  the  charter:     “The  Members  of  the  United  Nations  agree  to  accept  and  carry  out  the  decisions  of  the  Security  Council  in  accordance  with   the  present  Charter”     In  addition  to  the  maintaining  of  International  Peace  and  Security  the  Council,  in  accordance  with  the  charter  is   also  tasked  with:     Formulating  plans  for  the  establishment  of  a  system  to  regulate  armaments;   Calling  on  Members  to  apply  economic  sanctions  and  other  measures  not  involving  the  use  of  force  to   prevent  or  stop  aggression;   Taking  military  action  against  an  aggressor;   Recommending  the  admission  of  new  Members;   Exercising  the  trusteeship  functions  of  the  United  Nations  in  "ʺstrategic  areas"ʺ;   Recommending  to  the  General  Assembly  the  appointment  of  the  Secretary-­‐‑General  and,  together  with  the   Assembly,  to  elect  the  Judges  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice.       A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  6. 6. 6   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    The  Bosnian  Crisis  Historical  setting  –  a  timeline  of  events     1989-­‐‑  The  Serbian  government  takes  power  over  the  provinces  of  Kosovo  and  Vojvodina,  thus  giving  it  an   effective  3  out  of  8  votes  in  the  Yugoslavian  Federal  Government.     20th  January,  1990-­‐‑  At  the  14th  Extraordinary  Congress  of  the  League  of  Communists  of  Yugoslavia,  the   delegations  of  the  republics  could  not  agree  on  the  main  issues  in  the  Yugoslav  federation.  As  a  result,  the   Slovenian  and  Croatian  delegates  left  the  Congress.  The  Slovenian  delegation,  headed  by  Milan  Kucan  demanded   democratic  changes  and  a  looser  federation,  while  the  Serbian  delegation,  headed  by  Milošević,  opposed  it.  This   is  considered  the  beginning  of  the  end  of  Yugoslavia.     Throughout  1990  -­‐‑  All  nationalistic  parties  begin  to  attain  power  in  the  other  Republics,  most  importantly  being   the  Croatian  Democratic  Union.     March,  1990-­‐‑  The  Karadordevo  Agreement  takes  place.  Serbia  and  Croatia  decide  to  partition  B  &  H  (Bosnia  and   Herzegovina)  and  consequently  divide  it  between  both  of  them.  The  newly  formed  Bosnian  government  was  ill   equipped  and  when  Serbs  within  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  began  to  attack  from  within  (with  the  Serbian   government’s  aid)  the  Bosnians  were  not  prepared  to  meet  these  attacks.  Serbia  began  to  claim  all  Serbian   majority  provinces  within  B  &  H  as  its  own.  The  Bosnian  government  began  to  lose  power  over  the  nation.  Croat   leader  Franjo  Tudman  also  had  an  extremely  aggressive  policy  towards  Bosnia,  with  the  ultimate  goal  of  Croatian   expansion.     November  1990-­‐‑  The  first  multi-­‐‑  party  elections  takes  place,  and  the  three  most  nationalistic  parties  win,  the  Party   of  Democratic  Action,  The  Croatian  Democratic  Union  and  the  Serbian  Democratic  Party.  The  power  is  divided   among  ethnic  lines,  giving  the  three  most  important  positions  being  given  to  one  Serb,  one  Bosniak,  and  one   Croat.     22nd  December,  1990-­‐‑  The  Croatian  government  creates  and  adopts  a  new  constitution  which  takes  away  some   of  the  rights  of  Serbia,  which  had  previously  been  granted  to  it.  This  spearheads  the  process  towards  complete   independence.  Slovenia  follows  suit.     25th  June,  1991-­‐‑  Slovenia  and  Croatia  declare  independence  which  leads  to  much  widespread  violence.  The  Ten-­‐‑ Day  war  begins,  which  is  a  conflict  between  the  Slovenian  army  and  the  Yugoslavian  Army  (JNA).  Meanwhile,   the  Croatian  War  of  Independence  raises  substantial  international  attention,  causing  the  United  Nations  Security   Council  to  intervene  with  the  creation  of  a  ‘Protection  Force’.     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  7. 7. 7   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”     15th  October,  1991-­‐‑  The  nation  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  declares  independence.  This  requires  a  2/3rd  majority   to  pass.  A  memorandum  takes  place,  but  Serbs  boycott  it.  The  voter  turnout  is  63.4%  with  nearly  all  voting  for   independence.  Having  failed  to  reach  the  2/3rd  majority  required,  Bosnia  technically  could  not  declare   independence  but  goes  ahead  and  does  it  anyways  on  March  5th,  1992,  much  to  the  frustration  of  Serbian   politicians.     October  24th,  1991-­‐‑  Serbian  members  of  Parliament  in  B  &  H  decide  to  part  themselves  from  the  rest  of  the   nation,  forming  their  own  Serbian  Nation  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  known  officially  as  the  Republic  of  Sprska.     18th  November,  1991-­‐‑  Following  Serbian  example,  the  Croatian  leaders  (with  the  support  of  Franjo  Tudman)   establish  a  Croatian  Republic  of  Herzeg-­‐‑Bosna  as  a  completely  separate  entity  from  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.   Thus  the  idea  of  dividing  B  &  H  between  the  Serbs  and  Croats  has  materialized.     September  1991-­‐‑  March  1992-­‐‑  The  Lisbon  Agreement   The  Carrington-­‐‑Cutileiro  plan,  AKA  the  Lisbon  agreement  was  a  plan  devised  by  the  Portuguese  to  end  the   conflict.  In  short-­‐‑  it  was  a  plan  that  devised  a  sort  of  power  sharing  along  the  ethnic  lines  at  the  administrative   levels.  It  also  recognized  all  provinces  as  belonging  one  of  the  three  distinct  communities-­‐‑  Bosniak,  Serb  or  Croat.   Finally  on  March  18th  all  three  sides  accepted  the  agreement.  Sadly,  only  10  days  later,  Izetbogevic,  met  with  US   ambassador  to  Yugoslavia  and  withdrew  his  support,  thus  rendering  it  null  and  void.     September  1991-­‐‑  Temporary  ‘End  of  conflict’   The  UN  resolution  passed  called  for  an  arms  embargo  in  the  entire  region.  However  this  was  somewhat  unfare  as   the  Serbian  army  was  far  better  equipped  than  the  Bosnians,  who  got  a  very  small  share  of  JNA  arms.  Also,  many   reports  that  surfaced  showed  that  the  Serbs  were  importing  weapons  illicitly  from  many  European  nations.  The   US  lobbied  for  this  to  be  withdrawn,  but  when  it  did  not  happen  they  also  began  to  funnel  arms  into  Bosnia,   along  with  a  few  Islamic  nations  who,  for  obvious  reasons  were  supporting  Bosnia.     1992-­‐‑  This  year  was  characterized  by  the  actual  start  of  the  war,  as  well  by  the  first  real  instances  of  an  organized   and  systematic  ethnic  cleansing.  The  first  casualty  of  the  war  is  widely  believed  to  have  occurred  on  the  1st  of   March  1992.     7th  January  1992-­‐‑  Allegations  surface  which  shows  a  very  clear  plan  to  clear  cut  plan  for  the  Serb  takeover  of   municipalities  within  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.  It  also  included  the  creation  of  a  crises  committee.  The  head  of   this  assembly  was  the  notorious  Miliomir  Stakic,  later  convicted  of  human  rights  abuses.     9th  January  1992  -­‐‑  a  declaration  proclaimed  the  creation  of  a  Serbian  Republic  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  which   was  basically  in  the  regions  with  a  high  frequency  Serb  population.     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  8. 8. 8   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”     28th  February  1992-­‐‑  under  the  ongoing  expansionist  policy,  the  Serbs  declared  that  parts  of  Bosnia  and   Herzegovina  that  may  have  had  a  Serb  majority  (were  it  not  for  the  genocides  during  the  Second  World  War)  also   as  part  of  the  new  Serbian  Republic  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.  Also,  they  changed  the  name  of  the  above  to   ‘Republika  Sprska’     March  to  May,  1992-­‐‑  These  months  were  characterized  by  heavy  gunfire,  violence  as  well  as  the  first  indications   of  large  scale  genocide  attempts.  The  war  had  finally  begun  to  materialize.  The  SDS,  together  with  the  JNA  now   began  to  create  a  sort  of  information  and  communication  blockade  on  the  Eastern  front.     The  1992  Ethnic  Cleansing   -­‐‑Serb  forces  began  in  1992,  to  target  and  capture  Serb  majority  towns.  With  the  help  of  the  Serb  population,  they   often  raided  the  houses  of  non  Serb-­‐‑subjects,  that  is  the  Bosniaks.    Then,  they  would  very  methodically  capture   them,  destroy  their  houses  and  detained  in  camps.  Men  and  women  were  separated.  Allegations  of  mass   murders,  rapes  and  beatings  were  very  common.     18th  June  1992  -­‐‑  the  Bosnian  Territorial  Defence  in  Novi  Tranik  received  an  ultimatum  from  the  HVO  that   included  demands  to  abolish  existing  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  institutions,  establish  the  authority  of  the  Croatian   Community  of  Herzeg-­‐‑Bosnia  and  pledge  allegiance  to  it,  subordinate  the  Territorial  Defense  to  the  HVO  and   expel  Muslim  refugees,  all  within  24  hours.  The  attack  was  launched  on  19  June.  The  elementary  school  and  the   Post  Office  were  attacked  and  damaged.  Croats  initially  attacked  Gornji  Vakuf  on  20  June  1992,  but  the  attack   failed.  Vastly  underequipped  Bosnian  forces,  fighting  on  two  fronts,  were  able  to  repel  Croats  and  gain  territory   against  them  on  every  front.  At  this  time,  due  to  its  geographic  position,  Croat  and  Serb  forces  from  all  sides   surrounded  Bosnia.  There  was  no  way  to  import  weapons  or  food.  What  saved  Bosnia  at  this  time  was  its  vast   Industrial  complex  (Steel  and  Heavy  Industries)  that  was  able  to  switch  to  military  hardware  production.     August  1992  -­‐‑  HOS  leader  Blaz  Krajilevik  was  killed  by  HVO  soldiers,  which  severely  weakened  the  moderate   group  who  hoped  to  keep  the  alliance  between  Bosniaks  and  Croats  alive.     October  1992  -­‐‑  Croat  forces  attacked  Bosniak  civilian  population  in  Prozor  burning  their  homes  and  killing   civilians.  According  to  Jadranco  Plidic  indictment,  HVO  forces  cleansed  most  of  the  Muslims  from  the  town  of   Prozor  and  several  surrounding  villages.  In  October  1992  the  Serbs  captured  the  town  of  Jajke  and  expelled  the   Croat  and  Bosniak  population.  The  fall  of  the  town  was  largely  due  to  a  lack  of  Bosniak-­‐‑Croat  cooperation  and   rising  tensions,  especially  over  the  previous  four  months.     January  8th,  1993  –  The  Prime  minister  of  the  RBiH  is  assassinated  by  Serbian  forces  while  being  escorted  to  the   airport  by  a  United  Nations  convoy.  Serbian  forces  are  the  chief  suspects.  Only  a  day  later,  we  the  members  of  the   United  Nations  Security  Council  are  supposed  to  resolve  the  crises  at  hand.     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  9. 9. 9   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Entities  involved  and  important  terms    Introduction     There  are  various  countries  and  political  entities  involved  in  the  Bosnian  war.  The  countries  included  in  this  war   are  The  Republic  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  Serbia,  Croatia,  Yugoslavia,  and  Slovenia  and  to  a  lesser  extent,   Montenegro  and  Macedonia.  On  the  other  hand,  the  political  entities  are  the  Republika  Srpska  and  the  Herzeg   Bosnia.  This  war  is  a  result  of  the  fragmentation  of  the  six  republics  of  Yugoslavia.  Slovenia  and  Croatia,  initially   a  part  of  Yugoslavia  declared  independence  in  1990,  which  led  to  a  mass  outbreak  followed  by  a  similar   declaration  from  Bosnia.  The  Serbians  however  were  against  such  a  division  and  this  conflict  led  to  a  prolonged   struggle.  This  matter  was  put  to  vote,  the  Serbians  boycotted  the  parliament  session,  and  Bosnia  was  declared   independent.  Fortunately  for  Bosnia,  the  European  community  and  the  United  States  of  America  recognized  them   as  a  country  in  1992.     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  10. 10. 10   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Socialist  Republic  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina     This  country  was  mainly  inhabited  by  Bosniak  Muslims,  orthodox  Serbs  and  Catholic  Croats  and  hence  has  been   divided  into  two,  along  the  lines  of  ethnicity,  into  the  Republika  Srpska  or  the  Serbians  and  Herzeg-­‐‑Bosna  or  the   Croats.  The  Yugoslavs  people’s  army  (JNA)  supported  this  format  as  they  stayed  on  in  Bosnia  and  joint  the   Republika  Srpska.    Herzeg-­‐‑Bosna     This  is  an  unrecognized  entity  supported  by  Croatia,  which  uses  their  language,  currency  and  are  even  citizens  of   the  Republic  of  Croatia.  They  define  themselves  as  a  distinct  "ʺpolitical,  cultural,  economic  and  territorial  whole,"ʺ   located  within  the  territory  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.  The  leaders  of  this  organization,  Mate  Boban  and  Dario   Kordic,  who  have  been  in  command  since  1991,  believe  in  ethnic  cleansing  of  the  non-­‐‑Croat  population.  Their   main  aim  is  to  take  control  of  all  the  areas  within  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  that  have  Croats.  This  however,   coincides  with  their  own  internal  struggle  for  independence.  Republika  Srpska     They  are  a  political  entity,  supported  by  Serbia  and  Montenegro  and  want  to  form  a  greater  Serbia  by  dividing   the  country  along  ethnic  lines.  They  declared  themselves  independent  in  1992  and  were  supported  by  the  United   States  of  America,  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  Italy,  Luxembourg  and  Netherlands.  Originally  the  Serbians  living   in  Bosnia,  they  later  broke  way  and  formed  this  political  organization  as  they  were  against  the  Bosniaks  who   wanted  to  break  away  from  Yugoslavia.  Their  army  is  known  as  the  Vojska  Republike  Srpska  and  has  orthodox   Serbians  as  their  officers  while  Russians  and  other  Serb  paramilitary  forces  form  an  integral  part  of  their  group.   They  are  supported  by  the  Yugoslavs  people’s  army  (JNA)  and  hence  receive  much  of  their  arms  and  ammunition   from  them.  This  resulted  in  many  massacres  and  severe  human  rights  violations  committed  by  this  organization   and  they  managed  to  get  a  large  portion  of  the  country  under  their  control.  Since  they  were  a  part  of  Yugoslavia,   they  could  enter  into  various  unions  with  political  bodies  representing  certain  people  within  Bosnia  and   Herzegovina.  According  to  their  constitution,  they  define  themselves  as  "ʺa  territorially  unified,  indivisible,  and   inalienable  constitutional  and  legal  entity  that  independently  performs  its  constitutional,  legislative,  executive   and  judicial  functions"ʺ.  Its  territory  includes  districts,  municipalities,  and  regions  where  Serbs  were  the  majority   and  also  those  where  they  had  become  a  minority  because  of  the  persecution  during  World  War  II.    Croatia   During  the  Second  World  War,  Croatia  was  a  fascist  puppet  state  but  after  Stalin  and  Broze  Tito  broke  of  all  ties,   the  country  became  socialist  and  was  a  Constitutional  Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia.  In  1991,  the  Yugoslav   Army  and  Serbians  fought  together  against  the  Croatian  paramilitary  units.  The  military  formation  of  the  Croats,   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  11. 11. 11   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”     The  Croatian  Defense  Council,  sieged  many  municipal  governments  and  services  and  removed  local  Bosniak   leaders.  Serbia   Serbians  never  wanted  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  to  break  away  from  Yugoslavia  and  hence  were  in  full  support  of   the  Republika  Srpska.  With  the  help  of  the  army  of  the  Republika  Srpska,  the  Serbians  brought  70%  of  the   territory  in  dispute  under  their  control.  The  Serbian  military  and  police  force  were  extremely  violent  and  believed   in  ethnic  cleansing.    Slovenia   They  declared  their  independence  from  Yugoslavia  on  the  25  of  June  1991.  On  the  same  day,  their  defense  units   captured  Yugoslav  control  posts  on  the  borders  of  Italy,  Hungary  and  Austria.  They  established  border  control   posts  on  their  own  border  with  Croatia.  As  a  result  of  these  actions,  the  Yugoslav  Peopleʹs  army  (JNA)  attacked   the  Slovenian  army.  They  only  withdrew  after  signing  the  Brijuni  agreement.    FR  Yugoslavia   FR  Yugoslavia  was  consisted  of  the  two  remaining  republics  of  Yugoslavia:  Serbia  and  Montenegro.  They  wanted   to  maintain  the  state  of  Yugoslavia  instead  of  split  up  into  various  republics.    JNA   The  Yugoslavs  people’s  army  was  formed  during  World  War  II.  In  1990,  the  Republic  of  Slovenia  stopped   contributing  to  the  annual  military  expenses  and  Croatia  tied  up  with  paramilitary  forces.  The  Yugoslavs  Army   withdrew  from  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  in  1992,  after  being  defeated  in  many  wars  and  losing  a  large  chunk  of   their  soldiers  and  equipment.  They  were  dissolved  in  1992,  on  the  20th  of  May.  Their  remnants  formed  a  part  of   the  new  military  of  the  Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia.         A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  12. 12. 12   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Key  events  leading  up  to  the  crisis  Siege  of  Sarajevo   Sarajevo  is  the  capital  of  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina.  From  5  April  1992,  till  date,  the  Serb  forces  of  the  Republika   Srpska  have  joint  forces  with  the  Yugoslav  Peopleʹs  Army  and  taken  over  this  city,  committing  heinous  human   rights  violations  and  destruction.    Operation  Koridor:   A  codename  for  an  operation  conducted  by  the  army  of  the  Republika  Srpska  in  June  of  last  year.  The  primary   motive  of  this  operation  was  to  unite  the  Western  and  Eastern  factions  of  the  Republic  Srpska.  Although  the   operation  was  successful,  there  were  a  shockingly  large  number  of  casualties.  Operation  Vrbas  92:   Military  attack  planned  by  the  army  of  the  Republika  Srpska  in  June  1992.  The  main  aim  was  to  capture  the  town   of  Jajce,  which  the  Croat  forces  wanted.  After  months  of  fighting,  the  Army  of  the  Republika  Srpska  captured  the   town  and  drove  out  their  forces.  Višegrad  massacre   Mass  murder  committed  against  the  civilians  of  Bosnia  in  1992,  where  3000  Bosniaks  were  murdered.    Prijedor  massacre   Ethnic  cleansing  committed  on  the  Bosniaks  in  1992  by  the  Serbians.   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  13. 13. 13   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Attempts  at  Peacekeeping   A  few  countries  and  the  United  Nations  tried  peacekeeping  methods  to  prevent  the  war.  However,  when  those   failed,  they  tried  to  stop  the  war.  These  plans  included:  Carrington-­‐‑Cutileiro  plan   The  Carrington-­‐‑Cutileiro  plan  was  a  peace-­‐‑making  plan,  created  during  the  European  Communityʹs  peace   conference  held  in  February  1992,  to  prevent  the  Bosnian  war.  The  plan  proposed,  "ʺethnic  power  sharing  on  all   administrative  levels  and  the  devolution  of  the  central  government  to  local  ethnic  communities."ʺ  The  districts  of   Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  would  be  classified  based  on  ethnic  majority  and  in  some  cases  even  if  there  was  no   clear  majority.  On  18  March  1992,  all  three  sides  signed  the  agreement:  Alija  Izetbegovic  for  the  Bosniaks,   Radovan  Karadzic  for  the  serbs  and  Mate  Boban  for  the  Croats.  On  March  28,  Izetbegovic  withdrew  his  signature   from  the  agreement  after  he  met  with  US  ambassador  Zimmerman  and  opposed  any  kind  of  division  of  Bosnia   and  Herzegovina  which  entailed  the  division  of  Bosnia  into  three,  based  on  ethnic  grouping.  This  showed  a   certain  level  of  support  towards  Bosnia  by  the  United  States  of  America  because  Zimmerman  supposedly  told   Izetbegovic  to  disagree  with  the  document  and  stated  that  The  US  would  recognize  them  as  an  independent   country  if  he  did  so.    Arms  Embargo   This  was  declared  by  the  United  Nations  Security  Council  and  hurt  the  sentiments  of  the  Bosniak  leaders  because   Serbia  had  got  their  arms  from  the  JNA  while  Croatia  could  smuggle  them  through  the  coast  and  hence,  Bosnia   and  Herzegovina  were  left  with  very  few  armaments.  The  few  barracks  and  arms  remaining  in  Bosnia  were   controlled  by  Serbia  or  could  not  be  utilized  owing  to  poor  electricity  and  scarce  raw  material.  the  United  States   of  America  supported  them  in  their  plea  to  have  the  embargo  lifted  but  UK,  Russia  and  France  opposed  it,  as  a   result  of  which  US  smuggled  weapons  in  discretely  as  they  didnʹt  want  to  offend  the  opposing  countries  or  lose   their  support.    Vance-­‐‑Owen  Plan   A  peace  plan,  which  entailed  negotiating  a  proposal  with  the  leaders  of  Bosniaʹs  warring  factions  to  divide  it  into   ten  autonomous  states,  backed  by  the  United  Nations.  The  European  community  supported  this  plan.    The  Brijuni  Agreement   A  document  signed  by  the  representatives  of  the  Republic  of  Slovenia,  Republic  of  Croatia  and  the  Socialist   Federal  Republic  of  Yugoslavia  on  July  7th,  1991.  This  was  under  the  political  sponsorship  of  the  European   community  and  hence  was  supported  by  Luxembourg,  Netherlands  and  Portugal.  As  per  this  document,  the   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  14. 14. 14   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”     SFRY  would  stop  all  hostilities  on  Slovenia,  thus  ending  the  Slovenian  war  and  Slovenia  and  Croatia  would   freeze  independence  activities  for  three  months.    Graz  Agreement   This  was  a  partition  agreement  signed  by  the  Bosnian  Serb  leader,  Radovan  Karadzic  and  the  Bosnian  Croat   leader  Mate  Boban  on  May  6th,  1992  in  Austria.  According  to  this  document,  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  would  be   divided  between  the  Republika  Srpska  and  the  Herzeg-­‐‑Bosnia.  The  Bosniaks,  were  not  in  favor  of  this  settlement   and  the  Bosnian  croats  felt  they  would  be  betraying  their  Bosniak  allies  by  seizing  their  land.    Karadordevo  Meeting   The  aim  of  this  plan  was  to  divide  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  between  Croatia  and  Serbia  in  such  a  way  that   territories  with  either  majority  would  be  annexed.  This  meeting  ,  however  ,  did  not  discuss  the  share  of  the   largest  group  ,the  Bosniaks.     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  15. 15. 15   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Ethnic  wars  defined   Civil  wars  are  not  all  alike.  Ethnic  conflicts  are  disputes  between  communities,  which  see  themselves  as  having   distinct  heritages,  over  the  power  relationship  between  the  communities.  Ethnic  war  also  shrinks  scope  for   individual  identity  choice.  Even  those  who  put  little  value  on  their  ethnic  identity  are  pressed  towards  ethnic   mobilization  for  two  reasons.  Extremists  within  each  community  are  likely  to  impose  sanctions  on  those  who  do   not  contribute  to  the  cause.  In  1992  the  leader  of  the  Croatian  Democratic  Union  in  Bosnia  was  dismissed  on  the   ground  that  he  "ʺwas  too  much  Bosnian,  too  little  Croat."ʺ  Once  ethnic  groups  are  mobilized  for  war,  the  war   cannot  end  until  the  populations  are  separated  into  defensible,  mostly  homogeneous  regions.  Even  if  an   international  force  or  an  imperial  conqueror  were  to  impose  peace,  the  conflict  would  resume  as  soon  as  it  left.   Even  if  a  national  government  were  somehow  re-­‐‑created  despite  mutual  suspicions,  neither  group  could  safely   entrust  its  security  to  it.  Continuing  mutual  threat  also  ensures  perpetuation  of  hypernationalist  propaganda,   both  for  mobilization  and  because  the  plausibility  of  the  threat  posed  by  the  enemy  gives  radical  nationalists  an   unanswerable  advantage  over  moderates  in  intra-­‐‑group  debates.      Once  populations  are  separated,  both  cleansing  and  rescue  imperatives  disappear;  war  is  no  longer  compulsory.   At  the  same  time,  any  attempt  to  grab  more  territory  requires  a  major  conventional  military  offensive.  Thus  the   conflict  changes  from  one  of  mutual  pre-­‐‑emptive  ethnic  cleansing  to  something  approaching  conventional   interstate  war  in  which  normal  deterrence  dynamics  apply.  Mutual  deterrence  does  not  guarantee  that  there  will   be  no  further  violence,  but  it  reduces  the  probability  of  outbreaks,  as  well  as  the  likely  aims  and  intensity  of  those   that  do  occur.     A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  16. 16. 16   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Academic  solutions  to  ethnic  conundrums    Suppression   Many  ethnic  civil  wars  lead  to  the  complete  victory  of  one  side  and  the  forcible  suppression  of  the  other.  This  may   reduce  violence  in  some  cases,  but  will  never  be  an  aim  of  outsiders  considering  humanitarian  intervention    Reconstruction  of  ethnic  identities   The  most  ambitious  program  to  end  ethnic  violence  would  be  to  reconstruct  ethnic  identities  according  to  the   "ʺConstructivist  Model"ʺ  of  nationalism.  Constructivists  argue  that  individual  and  group  identities  are  fluid,   continually  being  made  and  re-­‐‑made  in  social  discourse.  Replacement  of  ethnicity  by  some  other  basis  for   political  identification  requires  that  political  parties  have  cross-­‐‑ethnic  appeal,  but  examples  of  this  in  the  midst  of   ethnic  violence  are  virtually  impossible  to  find.  In  late  1992  Yugoslav  Prime  Minister  Milan  Panic  attempted  to   reconstruct  Serbian  identity  in  a  less  nationalist  direction.  Running  for  the  Serbian  presidency  against  Miloševic,   Panic  promised  democratization,  economic  reform,  and  ends  to  the  war  in  Bosnia  as  well  as  to  UN  sanctions.   Miloševic  painted  him  as  a  tool  of  foreign  interests,  and  Panic  lost  with  34  percent  of  the  vote.    Power-­‐‑sharing   The  best-­‐‑developed  blueprint  for  civic  peace  in  multiethnic  states  is  power-­‐‑sharing  or  "ʺconsociational   democracy,"ʺ     The  key  components  are:   Joint  exercise  of  governmental  power;   Proportional  distribution  of  government  funds  and  jobs;   Autonomy  on  ethnic  issues  (which,  if  groups  are  concentrated  territorially,  may  be  achieved  by  regional   federation);  and   A  minority  veto  on  issues  of  vital  importance  to  each  group.  State  building   As  with  imposing  power  sharing,  this  requires  occupying  the  country  (and  may  require  conquering  it),  coercing   all  sides  to  accept  a  democratic  constitution,  enforcing  peace  until  elections  can  be  held,  and  administering  the   economy  and  the  elections.  Conservatorship  thus  requires  even  more  finesse  than  enforced  power-­‐‑sharing  and   probably  more  military  risks.   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  
  17. 17. 17   “The  Bosnian  Crisis”    Issues  and  solutions   It  is  widely  agreed  by  international  analysts  that  in  lead  up  to  the  war,  European  powers  took  decisions  keeping   in  mind  only  regional  problems  and  without  the  involvement  of  international  institutions  or  international  powers   like  USA.  This  is  also  one  of  the  reasons  for  the  escalation  of  the  issue.  Key  issues   Three  important  issues  that  the  international  community  must  handle  are:   Working  towards  a  diplomatic  solution  that  would  uphold  the  value  of  tolerance  in  the  form  of   preserving  a  multiethnic  community;   Moderating  the  fight  and  attempting  to  end  it  through  diplomacy;   Protecting  human  rights  and  providing  humanitarian  aid.     One  of  the  reasons  why  the  war  has  gone  on  for  so  long  was  that  the  global  powers  chose  a  strategy  that   preserved  their  power  and  cooperation  rather  than  a  strategy  that  would  halt  the  bloodshed.   A  study  guide  written  as  part  of  the  KCL  MUN  Chairing  Training  Program  2012     A  didactic  program  by  MUN  University  

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