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Events Critical to the creation of the Arab-Israeli Dilemma
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The 6 Days War 1967

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The Six Days War 1967 between Egypt and Israel

The 6 Days War 1967

  1. 1. Conflict Analysis Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH
  2. 2.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLcbG1t_lh0  0:01 – 1:01 Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 2
  3. 3. Background Stakeholders Conflict Aftermath Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 3
  4. 4. Background Stakeholders Conflict Aftermath Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 4
  5. 5. 1947 : After the second world war and the jews genocide, palestinian territory was divided into Israel and Arab state by UN decision 1949 : first Israel-Arab war, Israel started to occupy the south of Arab part 1957 : Suez Canal crisis, when Egyptian decided to nationalize the canal in 1956 Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 5
  6. 6. Direct Causes Indirect Causes  Military presence of Arab  Non recognition of Israel state from countries in Israel borders  Incident West Bank, 3 Israeli soldier killed by Al Fatah mine  17th May of 1967 : Withdrawal of UN “casques bleus” to Sinai, ordered by Nasser Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH Arab countries (Egypt, Syria, Jordan)  Arab alliance against “Imperialism”  Moshe Dayan appointed defense minister and chief of army in 1967 29.11.2013 6
  7. 7.  Does Israel show all the characteristics of a state? Characteristics Status Defined territory unclear Population unclear Judicial system yes Own currency, flag yes International recognition unclear Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 7
  8. 8. Background Stakeholders Conflict Aftermath Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 8
  9. 9. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 9
  10. 10. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 10
  11. 11. Gamal Abdel Nasser (* 1918 † 1970)  Provoquer of the Six Day War • 1958-1970 President of the United Arab Republic and President of Egyptian Republic Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 11
  12. 12. Abd al-Hakim Amer (* 1919 † 1967) • • Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 1968 -1965 Vice President of Egypt 1956–1967 Egyptian army´s Field Marshall and Minister of Defense 29.11.2013 12
  13. 13. King Hussein of Jordan (*1935 †1999) • 1952-1999 King of Jordan • Reluctant ally of Egypt Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 13
  14. 14. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 14
  15. 15. Levi Eshkol (* 1895 † 1969) • Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH Israel Arab countries • 1963-1969 Prime Minister of Israel 1963-1967 Minister of Defense 29.11.2013 15
  16. 16. Arab countries Israel Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH Moshe Dayan (* 1915 † 1981) • • 1967 -1974 Minister of Defense Lieutenant General 29.11.2013 16
  17. 17. Arab countries Israel Abba Eban (*1915 † 2002) • • Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 1963–1966 Deputy Prime Minister 1966–1974 Minister of Foreign Affairs 29.11.2013 17
  18. 18. Arab countries Israel Yitzhak Rabin (*1922 † 1955) • • Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 1964 – 67 Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) 1968 – 1973 Ambassador to the U.S 29.11.2013 18
  19. 19. Arab countries Israel U.S. President Johnson: „ Israel will not be alone, unless it decides to go alone.“ Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 19
  20. 20.  Factors causing misperceptions ISRAEL Exaggeration of threats Poor judgment of intentions, situations Consideration of all relative information Identity- virile or victim Beliefs, moral authority, credibility, reputation Deployment of arms and occupation of a territory  Bipolar perspective – US vs. Them  Ideology/nationalism       Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH ARAB COUNTRIES       Overestimation of military capacity Military optimism Exaggeration of threats Bipolar perspective – US vs. Them Ideology/nationalism Beliefs, moral authority, credibility, reputation 29.11.2013 20
  21. 21. Background Stakeholders Conflict Aftermath Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 21
  22. 22. 11th Nov 1966 13rd Nov 1966 12th May 1967 25th /26th /27th May 1967 Israel’s foreign 3 Israeli soldiers Israeli retaliation Eviction of UN stepped on a mine raid crossed into forces and closing minister in patrolling along the West Bank to strike of Israel’s Southern Washington border between into an al-Fatah port Eilat by Nasser questioning the US position in case of Israel and West stronghold Wrong pretext an war outbreak Bank (then under BUT: Jordanian supplied by and the Egyptian Jordanian control) soldiers that wasn’t Soviets: Report of “operation Dawn” supposed to be Mine planted by an Israeli plan to plans for the 27th there crossed the al-Fatah invade Syria and to Israeli paths and capture Damascus Hotline message organization of between Johnson shots were Yasser Arafat and Soviet Premier exchanged Kosygin 14 killed Jordanians Operation and riots in Jordan canceled Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 30th June 1967 Jordan signs a mutual defense treaty with Egypt Israel calls upon Jordan numerous times to refrain from hostilities. 1st June 1967 Jordanian Army under command of Egyptian General Riad 29.11.2tepped 013 22
  23. 23. 5th June Operation Focus (Mivtza Moked) was launched at 7:45 am Israeli time. Israel Air Force (IAF) jets attack and destroy the air forces of Egypt, Syria and Jordan. Israel sends a message to Jordan’s leader King Hussein via the US State Department, the UN and the British Foreign Office, saying that, despite the outbreak of war, it would not attack the West Bank if Jordan maintained quiet on that front. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH King Hussein Emboldened by received false this information, information from Jordan launched Egypt denying immediate multiple Egyptian losses attacks on Israel and claiming a massive and successful Egyptian attack against Israel. 29.11.2013 23
  24. 24.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9CJowfomT0 Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 24
  25. 25. 5th June 6th June Operation Focus (Mivtza Moked) was launched at 7:45 am Israeli time. IAF was used against Egyptian, Jordanian, Syrian, and Iraqi ground forces. No reaction of Isreal on Jordanians opening fire in Jerusalem. Misleading information of General Riad about destroyed Isreali airforce. 7th June 8th June 9th June Israel completed Battle of the Golan the capture of the Heights Sinai by sending Syria announceds infantry units to its acceptance of Ras Sudar on the the cease-fire western coast of Despite this, four the peninsula hours later at 7 am, Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan Israeli paratroopers "gives the order in the Old City to go into action By the end of the against Syria” third day Jordanian IAF destroyed hundreds of Egyptian vehicles trying to flee and trapped thousands more in narrow Sinai passes.. Israeli forces entering West Bank military no longer in the fight. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 10th June In some locations, Israeli troops advanced after an agreed-upon cease-fire to occupy strategically strong positions Fighting is over. Israel had complete air superiority over Israel, the Golan Heights, the West Bank, and the entire Sinai desert. 29.11.2013 25
  26. 26. Israel 776–983 killed 4,517 wounded 15 captured ------400 tanks destroyed 46 aircraft destroyed Arab Countries 10,000 – 15,000 killed or missing 4,338 captured 6,000 killed or missing 533 captured 2,500 killed 591 captured hundreds of tanks destroyed 452+ aircraft destroyed 10 killed 30 wounded Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 26
  27. 27.  Realism  The state is the dominant actor  Power maximization (homo politicus, material gains)  Recognize non-state actors but view them as unable to compete with the state  International institutions and law = state creation and work for state interests  Constructivism  The state is the central actor but not always rational (also based on emotions)  Homo symbolicus = interests are determined by identity, ideology, cultural links or recognition  For constructivists, material goods (disarmament) can be symbolic Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 27
  28. 28.  Levels of the Conflict  International: cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union  Regional: between progressive and conservative Arab regimes  Bilateral: intractable Arab-Israeli conflict (perennial source of instability throughout the region).  Religious: entering the Old City of Jerusalem complicating relationship with Catholic countries as well as deteriote the relationship with Muslim countries  Power in International Relations  Eshkol promoting soft power  Military (Amer, Dayan, Rabin, etc.) promoting hard power Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 28
  29. 29. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 29
  30. 30. Background and Pretext Stakeholders Conflict Aftermath Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 30
  31. 31.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UKuxPyrpx0  40:37 -end Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 31
  32. 32. UN 242 Resolution Khartoum Resolution, “The Three No resolution"  Required the withdrawal of  No peace with Israel israeli forces in occupied territories  "Termination of all claims  No recognition of Israel  No negociation with Israel or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force." Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Nasser of Egypt, Sallal of Yemen, Sabah of Kuwait and Arif of Iraq, the 29th August 1967 Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 32
  33. 33. Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013 33
  34. 34. 34 Mathilde BERTRAND, Margareta HEIDT, Kerstin KNOBLOCH 29.11.2013
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The Six Days War 1967 between Egypt and Israel

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