KCL MUN 2011-12 Delegate Conference Preparation Guide
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012Delegate Conference Preparation Guide
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 1Table of ContentsAn introduction to the Committee ............................................................................ 2Introduction to the topic.......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.Summary and areas a Resolution must address ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined.
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 2Guide to researchThe key to a successful Model United Nations experience is throughpreparation. Your research should begin by obtaining a strong backgroundabout your nation’s history, culture and political structure. You shouldthen learn about the workings of the United Nations and you need to havean understanding regarding the issues at hand. All of this together willenable you to successfully role-play your country. The research on yourassigned country should encompass a wide range of topics, such aspolitical stability and structure, economic condition, culture, religion,history and geographical location. Keep in mind that you do not want tooverlook negative aspects of any country’s national policy. Research theproblems within your nation: what caused them and why they still exist.The United NationsKnowledge of the United Nations is key to participating in any ModelUnited Nations program. Delegates should familiarize themselves with theUnited Nation’s functions and its basic organization and structure andprocedure. Most importantly, you must understand your country’s policiesbased upon past action of the United Nations on the topics that will bediscussed. A good first step to learn about the United Nations is to accessthe UN website. There are also dozens of United Nation depositories,which are affiliated with many public and university libraries. Thesehouse sources of information in all fields that affect the United Nations.Johns Hopkins University is the only UN Depository in the Mid-Atlanticregion. The Milton S. Eisenhower library holds most UN publications,documents and records as well as a wealth of information on the library’swebsite. The website offers country and regional studies, internationallaw, economic and trade studies and current international news as well aslinks to other useful resources.Country researchDelegates will need to become familiar with the nation they arerepresenting. Obtaining statistics and general information is a goodstarting point, however, research should be inclusive of understanding anation’s culture, government structure and procedure, economy, militaryand political history. Delegates may find accessing their nation’s and UNMission’s Web site helpful as it may contain links to other relevant sites.Also the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and State Department Web sitesprovide an excellent resource on country specific information includingcurrent country news and bulletins. The CIA Web site is availableat http://www.cia.gov and the State Department’s Web siteis http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/. The UN Bibliographic InformationSystem (UNBISnet) is the bibliographic database for the United NationsDag Hammarskjöld Library in New York and the UN Office in Geneva’sLibrary. This database corresponds closely to the contents of each UNdepository library and indexes documentation published since 1979.UNBISnet also includes searchable voting records for all resolutions whichwere adopted, either without a vote or by roll-call or recorded vote, by
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 3the General Assembly beginning with its 38th session (1983-) and theSecurity Council beginning with its 1st year (1946-). And a searchableindex to citations to speeches made in the General Assembly beginningwith its 38th session (1983-), the Security Council beginning with its 38thyear (1983-), the Economic and Social Council beginning in 1983 and theTrusteeship Council beginning with its 15th special session (1982). AccessUNBISnet at http://unbisnet.un.org.Topic researchDelegates should familiarize themselves with their nation’s policies androle in piracy on the high seas. To a certain extent, this will involveintegrating the information obtained through researching the UnitedNations and the specifics on each nation. Some important points to keepin mind when evaluating your country’s policy on this topic: • What does the nation recognize to be the problem associated with the topic? • Would the nation see it as a problem? If so, how big of a problem? • What interests does the nation associate with the topic? • Would the nation want to see committee or general UN involvement? • What action(s) or non-action(s) on this issue has the nation taken in the past?The policies of other nations are extremely relevant to a delegate’sresearch. Having a strong grasp of these becomes even more important ata MUN simulation. Delegates should learn which nations will beneficial towork with and how to work with them. Recognize that these will varyfrom topic to topic and that other delegates will often interpret eachother’s policies differently.
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 4Position PapersIn an effort to expand upon the high quality of debate, delegates areusually required to submit position papers prior to a conference. Positionpapers allow delegates to organize their ideas and aid in formatting andrepresenting a countrys policy. The position papers will also aid delegatesin creating their speeches. Each position paper should relate to a topic onthe agenda, answer the "Questions to Consider" that are provided in thebackground guides and define the topics relationship to the countrysnational interests.LengthPosition papers are a maximum of one page (single-spaced) within thecommittee (e.g., in ECOSOC, the delegation-whether composed of one ortwo students-will write one paper on each topic).ContentThe paper should include a brief introduction and a comprehensivebreakdown of the countrys position on the topics being discussed in thecommittee. An excellent position paper includes:1.A brief introduction to the country and its history regarding the topicand/or UN body;2.The countrys background on the topic, including:3.Political and/or foreign policy;4.Action taken by the government in relation to the topic;5.Resolutions, conventions and declarations that the country supports;6.Quotes taken from speeches made by heads of government;7.Statistics regarding the issue; and8.The countrys recommendation for a resolution for the topic.Sample position paperCommittee: Commission on Human RightsTopic: Violence against WomenCountry: DenmarkDelegate(s): XXXX, XXXX UniversityThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, "no one shall besubjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment orpunishment." Although this doctrine was adopted in 1948, the world hasfallen quite short of this goal. Violence against women pervades all statesand it is the duty of the international community to ensure that all peopleare given respect. Despite efforts to combat gross human rights abuses,such as the adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violenceagainst Women, the United Nations has not been able to alleviate theinjustice women worldwide experience daily.The Kingdom of Denmark believes that in order to end violence againstwomen, nations must look to empower women in all aspects of society.This includes promoting equal gender roles in government, civil society,
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 5education and business. However, Denmark also recognizes the need tocombat human rights abuses against women as they occur, and no nationis immune to gender violence.In 2002, the Danish Government launched an extensive action plan tocombat domestic violence against women. The plan includes measures tohelp treat abused women, identify and prosecute the perpetrators, andincorporate professional medical and psychological staff into therehabilitation process. The action plan reaches out to both governmentaland nongovernmental groups on the local level throughout the nation.The Danish Centre for Human Rights in Copenhagen, Denmark’s foremostnational human rights institution, also promotes and protects humanrights. Based on the Centre’s research, Denmark’s parliament canpromote human-rights-based legislation and education/awarenessprograms throughout the nation. The Centre also addresses the UNCommission on Human Rights annually regarding human rightsdevelopments.Denmark has no record of committing major human rights violations, mostimportantly any targeted at women. In its 2003 Annual Report, AmnestyInternational also found no human rights violations against Danish women.Women are invaluable to Denmark’s society and have achieved significanteconomic and social gains in the 20th century. Currently, 75 percent ofmedical students in Denmark are women.Education remains the most useful tool in protecting victims of gender-based violence. Governments, UN agencies and nongovernmentalorganizations (NGOs) can plan a coordinated campaign that educatesnational populations on the ways women are violently targeted. Similarly,harmful traditions, such as honor killings and female genital mutilation,must be stopped by reforming traditional views of women in society.Children of both sexes need to be taught at an early age to value therights of women in order to prevent such violence in their generation.In order to prevent gender violence, nations must work together to builda culture of support, equality and community. As such, the Kingdom ofDenmark looks forward to offering its support, in whatever form possible,to nations firmly committed to ending violence against women in all itsforms.Here you would cite your sources. If it’s a website, just paste the link inhere, for books give the name of the book, the authors and it’s year ofpublication, for movies the name of the movie and the names of thedirector and screenwriter as well as it’s year of release.
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 6DebateDiscussion on a topic begins with debate and ends with voting on anyresolutions that were created during debate and caucusing. Due to thefact that the Diplomat for a Day simulation will only address one topic,the simulation will dispense with topic setting and open the debate floorwith the setting of speakers’ time.How to debate?Writing and delivering speeches is an important aspect of the MUNsimulation. Speeches help delegates convey the positions of their MemberStates, build consensus and start formulating resolutions. Usually, thecommittee sets the speaking time for each state. To accomplish this, adelegate makes a motion to set the duration and if the motion has beenseconded, the body then votes upon the suggestion. Althoughspeechmaking is integral to the MUN simulation, many delegates’ biggestfear is public speaking. It is essential that delegates come to theconference well prepared: that they have completed prior research, knowtheir country’s position and even have objectives for a resolution.Delegates should always consider the audience when making a speech.They should be aware of the listeners and their diversity. As there are noset guidelines for how delegates should execute their speeches, delegatesshould decide how they feel most comfortable addressing the committee.Some delegates utilize their position papers as their opening speeches,others just write out some key points and many speak without any aids.Since public speaking is a skill, it is important to practice. A good openingspeech should: 1. Open with: “Thank you Mr./Madame/Honorable Chair/President, etc.” 2. Include: • A brief introduction of your country’s history on the topic; • The current situation of the topic; • The country’s overall position on the topic/reason for position (i.e. religious ideologies):; • The country’s position in relation to its bloc, major powers, etc.; • Past actions taken by the U.N. and Member States to combat the problem; • Possible ideas or objectives for a resolution; • The role of non-governmental organization in combating the issue (if applicable); and • Whether there is room for negotiation.
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 7CaucassingCaucusing blocks should be used as an initial tool in preparation andresearch for MUN. All delegates should be generally aware of thepositions and dynamics of the bloc in which their country belongs. Pleasekeep in mind that the intricate nature of international relations oftenresults in an over-simplification of regional blocs. Therefore, it isextremely important that delegates are prepared to represent theircountries and not the blocs themselves. Nonetheless, blocs can be veryhelpful at the beginning of a committee session as a means to open linesof communications with delegates from like-minded countries.
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 8Resolution writingMost United Nations committees are unable to pass binding legislation.Instead, many committees (including the General Assembly PlenaryCommittee) pass resolutions. The main purpose of these resolutions is toapply political pressure to member states, voice an opinion on an issue orto recommend that the UN or another agency take a specific action. Theonly UN organ with binding power is the Security Council.Drafting a resolutionA resolution is the final product of a committee session’s conclusion of atopic. Committees may pass more than one resolution on a topic, butshould not pass two or more nearly identical resolutions. Nor can thecommittee pass conflicting resolutions on the same topic. A resolution isa proposal that calls for action by the United Nations. This action is to betaken by the Secretariat, member states or the various UN organizations.The wording of a resolution can greatly influence other member states.Your resolution should be clear, concise, specific and well researched.Sponsors should be prepared to discuss and defend their resolution.Resolutions follow a basic format. Each resolution should have threeparts: the heading, the perambulatory clauses and the operative clauses.The whole resolution consists of one long sentence with commas andsemi- colons throughout with a period only at the very end.Delegates submit draft resolutions to the Dais for consideration anddistribution to the entire body. Type- written resolutions should besingle-spaced, with each line numbered in the left-hand margin and thefirst word in each clause underlined. Handwritten resolutions shouldunderline the first word in each clause. Please note that all hand-writtenresolutions will be typed-up before copied for the committee.Once approved by the chair, the resolution will be assigned a number forcommittee consideration. The resolution will be distributed to thecommittee and sponsors will be afforded an opportunity to explain theresolution before the body and answer questions.Sponsors and signatoriesSponsors of a resolution are those countries that have been the principalauthories of the document and agree and its substance. Signatories arecountries that may or may not agree with the substance of the resolution,but would like to see the resolution on the floor.Resolution formattingHeading:Committee:Subject:Sponsors:Signatories:
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 9Perambulatory clausesThe perambulatory clauses supply historical background for the issue andjustifies the action to be recommended. The preamble should refer tospecific factual information, situations and incidents. Finally, thepreamble may include appeals to human nature or common sense withreference to the UN Charter or other declarations. Each clause in thepreamble should begin with an appropriate phrase and end with acommon. A semi-colon should follow the last clause in the peramble.Phrases for perambulatory clauses: • Affirming • Deeply disturbed • Guided by • Alarmed by • Deeply regretting • Having adopted • Having considered • Observing • Having considered further • Aware of • Emphasizing • Having devoted attention • Believing • Expecting • Realizing • Bearing in mind • Having examined • Recalling • Confident • Having studied • Recognizing • Contemplating • Fulfilling • Having heard • Convinced • Fully aware
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 10 • Having received • Declaring • Fully alarmed • Keeping in mind • Deeply concerned • Fully believing • Noting with regret • Deeply conscious • Further deploring • Noting with satisfaction • Deeply convinced • Further recalling • Noting with deep concern • Taking note • Welcoming • Desiring • Noting further • Seeking • ReferringOperative clausesThe purpose of operative clauses is to present a solution to address theproblem at hand in a logical manner. The clauses should be numbered andcan be as vague or specific as the sponsors would like them. Remember,only the Security Council may pass binding resolutions. All othercomments may pass recommendations for needed action. Also, theGeneral Assembly Plenary may only make recommendations for action ofUN organs. It may only suggest working with other tertiary groups like theInternational Red Cross.Operative clauses begin with active, present tense verbs and are followedby a semi-colon, with a period at the very end.Active verbs for operative clauses: • Accepts • Affirms • Approves • Authorizes
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 11• Calls• Calls upon• Condemns• Confirms• Considers• Declares accordingly• Deplores• Designates• Draws attention• Emphasizes• Encourages• Endorses• Expresses its hope• Further invites• Further proclaims• Further recommends• Further reminds• Further requests• Further resolves• Notes• Proclaims• Reaffirms• Ally have guys• Recommends• Regrets• Reminds• Renews• Requests• Resolves• Solemnly affirms• Supports• Takes note of• Urges
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 12AmendmentsAn amendment is a clarification or change to the wording of a resolutionto incorporate additional interests and concerns once the resolution hasbeen formally introduced to the committee. Prior to formal submission,changes may be made at any time if all the sponsors of the originalresolution are in agreement. The process usually takes place in caucuses.There are two types of amendments: friendly and unfriendly. A friendlyamendment is added usually to clarify wording. It is automaticallyincorporated if all of the sponsors are in favor of the amendment. Thereis no need to vote if this occurs. On the other hand, an unfriendlyamendment is when the sponsors are against the proposed modification.An unfriendly amendment must be formally introduced to the committeechair with the appropriate number of signatories. The amendment will bevoted on separately before voting takes place on the resolution itself.Acceptable amendments may:• Amend by addition (adds words and/or phrases);• Amend by striking (deletes a word and/or phrase); or• Amend by addition and strike.An amendment that changes the intent of the resolution is not acceptableupon determination of the chair. However, the amendment sponsors mayformally submit the amendment as a separate resolution.Sample resolutionDraft Resolution 1.1GA/1.1Sponsors: United States, Austria and ItalySignatories: Greece, Tajikistan, Japan, Canada, Mali, the Netherlands andGabonTopic: Strengthening UN Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance inComplex EmergenciesThe General Assembly,Reminding all nations of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the inherentdignity,equality and inalienable rights of all global citizens, [use commas toseparate preambulatory clauses]Reaffirming its Resolution 33/1996 of 25 July 1996, which encouragesGovernments to work with UN bodies aimed at improving the coordinationandeffectiveness of humanitarian assistance,Noting with satisfaction the past efforts of various relevant UN bodiesand
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 13nongovernmental organizations,Stressing the fact that the United Nations faces significant financialobstacles and is in need of reform, particularly in the humanitarianrealm,1. Encourages all relevant agencies of the United Nations to collaboratemoreclosely with countries at the grassroots level to enhance the carrying outof relief efforts; [use semicolons to separate operative clauses]2. Urges member states to comply with the goals of the UN DepartmentofHumanitarian Affairs to streamline efforts of humanitarian aid;3. Requests that all nations develop rapid deployment forces to betterenhancethe coordination of relief efforts of humanitarian assistance in complexemergencies;4. Calls for the development of a United Nations Trust Fund thatencouragesvoluntary donations from the private transnational sector to aid infundingthe implementation of rapid deployment forces;5. Stresses the continuing need for impartial and objective information onthepolitical, economic and social situations and events of all countries;6. Calls upon states to respond quickly and generously to consolidatedappealsfor humanitarian assistance; and [add “and” to the second-to-lastoperativeclause7. Requests the expansion of preventive actions and assurance of post-conflictassistance through reconstruction and development. [end resolutions withaperiod
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 14Flow of debateRole CallThe Chairperson will announce each country’s name. After delegates heartheir country, they should answer "present" or “present and voting”.Setting the agendaWhen Model UN committees have more than one topic available, the bodymust set the agenda to begin working on one of these issues. At this timea delegate typically makes a motion, stating "The country of [name]moves to place [topic A] first on the agenda, followed by [topic B] andthen [topic C]." Once the motion has been made, three delegations mustspeak in favor of the motion, and three other delegations will speakagainst it. These speeches should alternate between those in favor andthose opposed. Once these six speeches have been given, a vote is taken.Setting the agenda requires a simple majority vote.DebateFormal Debate: Formal debate revolves around a speakers list. The Chairbegins by asking all delegates interested in addressing the other membersto raise their placards. The Chair then chooses delegates to be placed onthe speakers list. A country may only be on the speakers list once, butdelegates may add their country to the end of the list after their speech.Informal Debate: Informal debate involves discussion outside of thespeakers list. During moderated caucuses, the Chair calls on delegatesone-by-one so that each can address the committee in short speeches.During unmoderated caucuses, the committee breaks for a temporaryrecess so that delegates may meet with each other and discuss ideas.1a. When the session begins, speeches focus on stating country positionsand offering recommendations for action. 1b. After several countriesstate their positions, the committee breaks for caucuses (often in blocs)to develop regional positions.2a. After blocs have met, speeches focus on describing bloc positions tothe entire body. 2b. Writing begins as countries work together tocompose draft resolutions.3a. Delegates now make statements describing their draft resolutions tothe committee. 3b. Countries and groups meet to gather support forspecific draft resolutions.4a. Delegates try to garner more support through formal speeches andinvite others to offer their ideas. 4b. Delegates finalize draft resolutions.5a. Delegates make statements supporting or disagreeing with specificdraft resolutions. 5b. Draft-resolution sponsors build greater support fortheir resolution and look to incorporate others’ ideas through friendlyamendments.6a. Delegates present any amendments they have created.
KCL Model United Nations Society 2011/2012 "The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Humanitarian Crisis in Gaza” 15Close of debateOnce the speakers list is exhausted, the committee automatically movesto voting. Also, once a delegate feels that his or her country’s position isclear to others and that there are enough draft resolutions on the floor,he or she may make a motion to proceed into voting procedure by movingfor the closure of debate.Voting proceduresOnce a motion to close debate has been approved, the committee movesinto voting procedure. Amendments are voted on first, then resolutions.Once all of the resolutions are voted on, the committee moves to thenext topic on the agenda.