The Bubonic Plague “The Black Death” Named because of the color of skin of victim and buboes Spread throughout Europe from 1347-1350 Preempted by…
Great Famine “Seven lean years” (1315-1322) A lack of food due to an increase in storms Now thought to be a major climate change Also known as the Little Ice Age (LIA) As a result, people were more susceptible to diseases
Caused by bacteria called YersiniaPestis Carried in stomach of fleas which bit rats, who then transferred it to humans by biting them Can be transmitted Bubonic (flea is transmitter) Pneumonic, means?from human to human
The Bubonic Plague(Cont’d) Originated in Asia circa 1331 Mongol warriors carried it on horseback Travelled to Europe on merchant ships headed to Italy Introduced to Europe (Messina, Italy) in 1347 Spread of the plague was instigated by poor living conditions Many blamed the Jews Thought they poisoned well waters Resulting in the killing of thousands of Jews Flagellants? If you’ve seen The DaVinci code, you witnessed it.
Manuscript illumination…on page 348
Dance of Death…fresco…pg. 349
Care of the Sick--Plague Doctor—pp. 345 Review of the “Questions for Analysis” Quote by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenous-pp. 345 Effective treatment? 1947—effective treatment discovered by, Am. Microbiologist Selman Waksman…streptomycin..6 Centuries later!!!!!!
"Ring Around the Rosie" Ring around the rosey: Referring to ring that appear on the skin because of the plague. -Pocket full of posies: Poises are a strong smelling flower, so people filled their pockets with them to hide the smell that the plague gave off so people wouldn't know they had it. -Ashes, Ashes: Refers to people being burnt to ashes after they died because they couldn't be buried or the infection would spread. -We all fall down!: Referring to people dying. Could be an urban legend????????
Giovanni Boccaccio-1313-1375 Italian writer that described the course of the Black Death Pinpointed rats as the spread of the disease Preface of his book The Decameron Collection of small novels 7 women and 3 men fleeing from the plague to a villa told stories to pass the time
1st Great Schism (1054) Schism means to split Split of the Christian world between east and west East is the Eastern Orthodox Church Led by Bishop of Constantinople (Patriarch) Spoke Greek West it the Catholic Church Led by Bishop of Rome (Pope) Spoke Latin Patriarch of Constantinople: Bartholomew Pope Benedict XVI
Great Schism (cont’d) Controversy followed over who was the real leader of the Christian world Pope Leo IX said that Rome was the only authority Petrine Theory: Theory that states that Peter received keys to church and became the first Bishop of Rome (Pope) Differences between Orthodox and Catholic Churches Philosophical Understanding Liturgical Usage Language Custom
Pope Urban II and The Crusades Religious wars between Christians and Muslims Estimated about 8 different crusades (not definite) Christians were called upon by Pope Urban II to take back holy land (Jerusalem) from Turks (Muslims) In return, they were promised heaven, to be saved Unsuccessful in winning back Jerusalem
Council of Clermont
Issued cry for first crusade
Battle Cry- “God wills it!”
Third Crusade Also known as “The Crusade of 3 Kings” During Pope Gregory VIII term as Pope (1189-1192) 3 Kings accompanied troops to Jerusalem Philip Augustus, King of France Abandoned the cause and returned to France Frederick I (Barbarosa). Holy Roman Emperor Fell off horse and drowned in river on the way to Jerusalem Richard I the Lion-hearted, King of England In Jerusalem, meets Muslim leader Saladin Come to a truce: Christians could visit Jerusalem without paying, but it was still under Muslim control Saladin dies in 1198, and treaty is broken.
Crusades (cont’d) “Successful failures” Christians did not accomplish their goal, but as a result trade is increased with the middle-east As a result of the Crusades, Feudalism is weakeneddue to lack of serfs because of the Plague
Pope Gregory IX and Inquisition Pope Gregory IXWanted to investigate heresy and correct errors within Catholic faith Thought it was “poisoning society spiritually” Causing people to stray from church Eliminated heresy by killing or excommunicating anyone who questioned Catholicism Doctrine Occurred in Spain, Rome, and throughout Western Europe
Avignon Papacy (1309-1378) When the seat of power in the Catholic Church was in Avignon, France(southeastern France) Claimed to be more important than Rome Papacy was under control of French Kings Originally moved because Pope Clement V was pressured by King Philip of France Wanted French Monarchy to have more influence on the Catholic church 7 popes held power while seated in Avignon
Avignon Papacy (cont’d) AKA: Babylonian Captivity 70 years Hebrews were held captive by Babylonians 1378- seat of power moved back to Rome 1378-1414: Second Great Schism (Papal) Confusion as to who was the real Pope; Pope in Rome? or Pope in Avignon? Cardinals didn’t like incumbent pope Urban VI They elected to new pope- Clement VII Council of Constance (1414-1418) Council created to end Papal Schism **both the Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism demonstrate the vulnerability of the papacy to the increasingly powerful monarchies!!!!
The Conciliar Movement Reform Movement in the Catholic Church following the Second Great Schism (Papal Schism) Emerged as response to Avignon Papacy Resulted in having two or three different Popes (antipopes) Gave Pope supreme power Conciliarists—Definition? Pg. 356…
3 Reformers of Church Marsiglio of Padua (1275-1342) John Wyclif (1324-1384) Jan Huss (1369-1415)
Marsiglio de Padua:1275–1342 Italian Scholar Thought that Papacy’s power was dangerous to individual country’s government Church should be under state **focused on political & administrative issues Was excommunicated by Papacy
John Wyclif: 1330–1384 Started the political and religious movement of the mid-14th century Followers were called, Lollards(from a Dutch word for mumble) Mumbled prayers and songs wherever they went Believed that church should lead a simple life Such as the Apostles did in biblical times Scriptures alone should be standard **Focused on theological issues
Jan Huss: 1372–1415 Czech priest, philosopher turned reformer Key predecessor of Protestant Movement Had similar ideals as Wycliffe Criticized the Church's wealth & attached the issuing of indulgences Burned at the stake for crimes of heresy Examine a the manuscript illustration of his execution on page 357!
Peasant revolts Why? Jacquerie(zhah-kuh-ree)? Pp. 358 Uprising of the French peasantry, after the costs of the Hundred Years’ War fell disproportionately on the poor (nobles killed, their families were attacked). The upper class united to put down the revolt 1381-English peasant revolts? Revolt by Eng. Peasants in 1381 in response to changing economic conditions. Could this happen today with our current economic strife? View Map on pg. 360 on the 14th C. revolts
Lay Piety 14th & 15th Centuries—rise of laypeople due to the weakening of the Church during this time 1. confraternities: Voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood or charitable activity