Graph Theory #searchlove The theory that underpins how all search engines work @kelvinnewman

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At #searchlove I spoke about Graph Theory which is a theory that underpins how all the search engines work.

At #searchlove I spoke about Graph Theory which is a theory that underpins how all the search engines work.

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  • 1. LINK SOCIAL GRAPH graph GRAPH theory ! The theory that underpins how all search KNOWLEDGE work engines ETC. GRAPH @kelvinnewman
  • 2. Graph Theory The most important theory in search that nobody talks about Kelvin Newman @kelvinnewman JD Hancock
  • 3. Organiser BrightonSEO / Content Marketing Show / MeasureFest Three Free (and awesome) Conferences
  • 4. Strategy Director SiteVisibility A digital agency specialising in retail, travel and financial services
  • 5. Co-Founder Clockwork Talent Decent Digital Recruitment
  • 6. shhhhh! JD Hancock
  • 7. JD Hancock I might get in trouble for this JD Hancock
  • 8. I’ve been let into a secret future beta of Google, and I’m going to reveal it to you
  • 9. Joking aside; I think FB GraphSearch is a great indicator of the future of G JD Hancock
  • 10. as it helps us better understand one of the theories that underlies all search engines JD Hancock
  • 11. graph theory !
  • 12. graph theory ! Hugely Important
  • 13. graph theory ! Rarely Spoken About
  • 14. LINK GRAPH
  • 15. LINK GRAPH SOCIAL GRAPH
  • 16. LINK GRAPH KNOWLEDGE GRAPH SOCIAL GRAPH
  • 17. LINK GRAPH SOCIAL GRAPH KNOWLEDGE GRAPH OPEN GRAPH
  • 18. LINK GRAPH SOCIAL GRAPH KNOWLEDGE GRAPH SORT OF
  • 19. LINK GRAPH SOCIAL GRAPH KNOWLEDGE GRAPH ETC.
  • 20. LINK SOCIAL GRAPH graph GRAPH theory ! ETC. Hugely Important KNOWLEDGE GRAPH
  • 21. but we’ve been distracted, from what our job really is
  • 22. which is understanding how the search engines fundamentally work jronaldlee
  • 23. LINK SOCIAL GRAPH graph GRAPH theory KNOWLEDGE is central to that GRAPH ! understanding ETC.
  • 24. this presentation may contain maths Benson Kua
  • 25. hartjeff12
  • 26. Will Critchlow Maths MA - University of Cambridge will - cambridge maths Dana Lookadoo - Yo! Yo! SEO
  • 27. Tom Anthony PhD Artificial Intelligence University of Hertfordshire
  • 28. Kelvin Newman Media Studies University of Sussex
  • 29. I’m no computer scientist or mathematician jlwo
  • 30. graph theory ! “a mathematical model for any system involving a binary relation” Frank Harary, 1969
  • 31. “perhaps even more than to the contact between mankind and nature, graph theory owes to the contact of human beings between each other” Dénes König, 1936
  • 32. http://www.slideshare.net/digitalmethods/gephi-rieder-23834788
  • 33. Vertices or Nodes dominicotine
  • 34. edges Matt Seppings
  • 35. Nodes are Nouns
  • 36. Edges are Verbs
  • 37. basic graph visualisation
  • 38. This Graph is Isomorphic of the other one, aka it’s the same but looks different
  • 39. Matrix view of graph V1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6
  • 40. Matrix view of graph V1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 0 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6
  • 41. Matrix view of graph V1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V2 0 1 V3 V4 V5 V6
  • 42. Matrix view of graph V1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V2 V3 V4 0 1 1 1 V5 V6
  • 43. Matrix view of graph V1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 0 1 1 1 0 0
  • 44. Matrix view of graph V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 0 1 1 1 0 0 V2 1 0 V3 V4 V5 V6
  • 45. Matrix view of graph V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 0 1 1 1 0 0 V2 1 0 0 0 0 0 V3 1 0 0 0 0 0 V4 V5 V6
  • 46. Matrix view of graph V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 0 1 1 1 0 0 V2 1 0 0 0 0 0 V3 1 0 0 0 0 0 V4 1 0 0 0 1 0 V5 0 0 0 1 0 1 V6 0 0 0 0 1 0
  • 47. Or maybe? Blogger 1 Blogger 2 Blogger 3 Blogger 4 Blogger 5 Blogger 6 Blogger1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Blogger 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 Blogger 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 Blogger 4 1 0 0 0 1 0 Blogger 5 0 0 0 1 0 1 Blogger 6 0 0 0 0 1 0
  • 48. Cardinality is the number of Nodes or Vertices in a Graph Prayitno/
  • 49. Degrees of Vertex is how many edges a vertex has. chedder
  • 50. Trees & Circuits Our Graph here is known as a tree, because you can’t loop back on yourself. If you could loop back on yourself it would be known as a circuit This is interesting to think about in the context of your site, or an area of the link graph
  • 51. Watch PatrickJMT’s Graph Theory Videos http://patrickjmt.com/graph-theory-an-introduction/
  • 52. What’s the first thing you teach your team? http://i.imgur.com/PGE2D2n.gif
  • 53. For me it is PageRank http://computationalculture.net/article/what_is_in_pagerank
  • 54. Jim Seward is a legend http://computationalculture.net/article/what_is_in_pagerank
  • 55. What is PageRank? http://i.imgur.com/aNXqGNT.gif
  • 56. A set of rules which can be used to give a numerical weighting to assess the importance of document within linked data set
  • 57. A set of rules which can be used to give a numerical weighting to assess the importance of nodes document within linked data set
  • 58. it is not
  • 59. PageRank is used for than the Algo natalielucier
  • 60. Understand Lung Cancer http://www.news-medical.net/news/20130326/Algorithm-similar-to-Google-PageRank-helps-map-spread-of-lung-cancer.aspx jasleen_kaur
  • 61. Rank Scientific Significance http://bulib4research.blogspot.co.uk/2008/11/eigenfactor-scimago-journal-rankings.html
  • 62. Predict Traffic http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-5468/2008/07/P07008/ deepsan
  • 63. three different surfers Chris Hunkeler
  • 64. three different surfers Random Surfer Chris Hunkeler
  • 65. Random Surfer Reflects the chance that the random surfer will leave the site through a link chosen at random, so all equally likely, and therefore valuable
  • 66. three different surfers Reasonable Surfer Chris Hunkeler
  • 67. Reasonable Surfer The reasonable surfer model supposes that some links are more likely to be clicked on and therefore should be given more value.
  • 68. three different surfers Intentional Surfer Chris Hunkeler
  • 69. Intentional Surfer The intentional surfer model supposes that links which ‘actually’ receive the most links should be given more value. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank#The_intentional_surfer_model
  • 70. A lot has changed at Google, but it will always be a search engine which relies upon PageRank; which is a practical application of Graph Theory
  • 71. Insert Audience Participation
  • 72. Hands up who thinks FB GraphSearch is the best search engine in the world?
  • 73. Just me?
  • 74. Not here to convince you GraphSearch will catch on but...
  • 75. If the area of this slide represents all the traffic on the internet
  • 76. This much is Facebook http://mashable.com/2010/11/19/facebook-traffic-stats/
  • 77. And every thing in white is the rest of the internet
  • 78. Google, YouTube, Wikipedia, The Daily Mail, etc.
  • 79. your website, my website, her website etc.
  • 80. If anyone can build a Google-Killer it’s Facebook...
  • 81. There’s a fundamental difference between Facebook & Google
  • 82. is about...
  • 83. documents and links JD Hancock
  • 84. is about...
  • 85. things and relationships JD Hancock
  • 86. this difference is subtle but huge
  • 87. but I think it works better for the web as we know it JD Hancock
  • 88. Google are trying to catchup but will struggle zoom images
  • 89. Facebook’s data has a far more explicit structure than traditional web text JD Hancock
  • 90. it’s not that tricky for Google to parse “I Like Nerf Guns” porkist
  • 91. they could even have a go at “I was at Bodeans on Poland Street for Lunch Yesterday”* *if you mark it up in the right way R_Savvy
  • 92. but has a much harder job understanding “Kelvin is married to Carolyn”
  • 93. Facebook knows that happened in 2007
  • 94. And who attended the ceremony
  • 95. And when we got engaged
  • 96. etc.
  • 97. Google have to infer structure
  • 98. Facebook know the structure
  • 99. On GraphSearch you’re not really making a search. You’re just filtering a structured database of all the data Facebook has.
  • 100. On GraphSearch you’re not really making a search. You’re just filtering a structured database of all the data Facebook has.
  • 101. But it’s a bloody big database JD Hancock
  • 102. 1 Billion Users Every Month
  • 103. 240 Million Photo’s Per Day
  • 104. 2.7 Billion Likes Everyday
  • 105. People share billions of pieces of content everyday
  • 106. One trillion connections of a thousand different types
  • 107. 1,000,000,000,000
  • 108. http://mashable.com/2013/07/08/facebook-launch-graph-search/
  • 109. Every User, Page, Photo, Post & Place is a Node https://thetribe.s3.amazonaws.com/ferris.gif
  • 110. http://maxlutz.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/coffee2.gif Every friendship, checkin, tag or like is an Edge
  • 111. Each Node has Meta-Data like description, this how the old FB Search “worked”
  • 112. GraphSearch Allows you search the Edges as well as the Nodes JD Hancock JD Hancock
  • 113. GraphSearch makes it easy to find nodes that are connected to another node by searching for an edge-type combined with an input node.  E.g.: ■Your friends:  friend:10003 ■People who live in new york: lives-in:111 ■People who like downtown abbey: like:222
  • 114. ‘Facebook use query-independent signals to come up with a numeric value for importance. This value is called the “static rank” of the entity.’ JD Hancock
  • 115. What makes up static rank is still up for debate, but sensibly could be informed by the elements of Edgerank aka the (old name for) newsfeed algo
  • 116. Affinity
  • 117. Weight
  • 118. Decay
  • 119. The value of legitimate likes from well connected people just increased
  • 120. There’s also been lot going on at Google
  • 121. not a new update Martin Cathrae
  • 122. but a new paradigm
  • 123. introducing Knowledge Graph*
  • 124. introducing Knowledge Graph* *and things not technically Knowledge Graph but sort of along the same lines
  • 125. The Knowledge Graph enables you to search for things, people or places that Google knows about—landmarks, celebrities, cities, sports teams, buildings, geographical features, movies, celestial objects, works of art and more—and instantly get information that’s relevant to your query. Amit Singhal, Google
  • 126. Knowledge Graph is part of a huge change in how Google deliver search results
  • 127. I’m now going to give you lots of examples of changes in the way Google present results, not all of them are truly ‘Knowledge Graph’ but do indicate a general shift in the way they present results.
  • 128. There’s more than 85 of these features that Dr. Pete from Moz has documented http://www.slideshare.net/crumplezone/ beyond-10-blue-links-the-future-of-ranking
  • 129. But they’re just for informational queries... Right?
  • 130. a change in purpose: help find pages help find answers
  • 131. a change in purpose: help find pages help find answers
  • 132. You can no longer rely on Google to send you traffic
  • 133. or even tell you about it Alex E. Proimos
  • 134. for nearly a year iPhone search traffic appeared as direct JD Hancock
  • 135. and we’re rapidly approaching the point where we have no data on keyword traffic
  • 136. Search isn’t about keywords anymore
  • 137. It's about entities. chukgawlikphotography
  • 138. Entities are normally, people, places, brands etc JD Hancock
  • 139. but can be any ‘thing’ which has a relationship to another ‘thing’ JD Hancock
  • 140. how can you make money if nobody ever goes to your site? JD Hancock
  • 141. You may need to revisit your business model kennymatic
  • 142. I love the Business Model Canvas http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_Model_Canvas
  • 143. sit down and ask yourself could your business have an api
  • 144. as every business is really just a database and a front end JD Hancock
  • 145. and Google wants to become that front-end JD Hancock
  • 146. So what can I do?
  • 147. Familiarize yourself with Freebase http://www.freebase.com/
  • 148. And DBpedia http://wiki.dbpedia.org/Datasets
  • 149. It’s amazing the data they have yaph
  • 150. If any of your keywords contain entities you MUST be prepared http://i.imgur.com/GLCC0bd.gif
  • 151. Use BlueNod to Visualise Social Networks http://bluenod.com/
  • 152. Different communities manifest themselves in different ways http://www.beautifullife.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/11/05.gif
  • 153. Play with VisualDataWeb http://www.visualdataweb.org/relfinder
  • 154. Mark Up using the Open Graph Protocol http://ogp.me/
  • 155. Implement Schema.org http://schema.org/
  • 156. No schema? Create one/extend one http://schema.org/docs/extension.html
  • 157. Follow Peter Mika @pmika
  • 158. Read Matthew J. Brown’s Mozcon Deck http://www.slideshare.net/MatthewBrownPDX/strings-to-things-the-move-to-semantic-seo-mozcon-2013
  • 159. Watch WSDM Videos Web Search and Data Mining Conference http://videolectures.net/wsdm/
  • 160. Do Good Marketing
  • 161. tl;dr SEO is changing it’s not about optimising your website for search engines, it’s about optimising your business for search engines
  • 162. Kelvin Newman kelvin@brightonseo.com @kelvinnewman