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Internal Migration Online

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  • 1. Major internal migrations ◦ Rural to urban ◦ Manifest destiny in the US The push west ◦ Westward movement in Brazil From the coast inward ◦ Northwestward movement in Canada ◦ Northward movement in Australia From the initial site of settlement in the state of New South Wales 2
  • 2. In the US movement has been ◦ Westward and coastward See fig in the text Westward movement has always been the largest flow Now the south has gained significance 3
  • 3. In the US movement has been ◦ Southward and to the Southwest This has results in the growth of the Sunbelt Advent of air conditioning helped with acclimation to the heat Shift of manufacturing activities out of the Midwest and Northeast to the South region Retirement meccas 4
  • 4. In the US movement has been ◦ Rural Renaissance of the 1970s Also called counter urbanization “Back to the boonies” movement Large movement of people out of urbanized areas to rural areas 5
  • 5. http://pewsocialtrends.org/maps/migration/ Pew Center has Interactive Maps Go this link and take some time to look at how internal migration patterns have changed over time. ◦ The magnitude and direction of flows have changed over time ◦ Hold the cursor over each region. ◦ Be sure to look a each time period (click on each link)
  • 6. Urbanization is defined as BOTH ◦ An increase in the number of urban dwellers ◦ An increase in the % of urban dwellers 7
  • 7. Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs. 8
  • 8. Cities with 2 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs. 9
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  • 12. Although under half of the people in most less developed regions are urban, Latin America and the Middle East have urban percentages comparable to MDCs. 13
  • 13. Drives the urbanization process Urbanization in LDCs now is different when compared to MDCs in earlier times ◦ MDCs urbanized over a much longer period of time ◦ Size and pace of growth of LDC cities are surpassing anything seen before
  • 14. Push factors of rural to urban (R2U) migration ◦ Large gap in standard of living between elites and the rest of the population ◦ Poor rural conditions Environmental degradation Population pressure Skewed distribution of resources Land fragmentation Crop failures
  • 15. Pull factors of R2U migration Construction jobs in the cities Demand for domestic workers Waged work/higher wages Social networks Family members who have already migrated
  • 16. In LDCs: trends in R2U migration ◦ Continued rapid growth ◦ Population concentration E.g., Port-au Prince: 33% of the total pop of Haiti lived there at the time of the quake ◦ A diversity of urban areas ◦ Unplanned settlements; lack of services & infrastructure Squatter settlements Favelas in Brazil, etc
  • 17. Factors affecting rapid urbanization in LDCs ◦ Overall population growth in these countries is very rapid ◦ Information is much more ubiquitous Potential migrants have access to more info about destination Migration is usually within fixed boundaries (i.e., within one country)