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  1. 1. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>When we say urban center or urban area, it is a town, city, megha city; some times classified as class - I , II, III , IV etc. There are criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of population: for example more than 1 lakh is class - I, 50,000 to 1,00,000 class - II, 25,000 to 50,000 class - III, and less than 25,000 are class - IV etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations: Majority of the people are engaged in non - agricultural occupations. </li></ul><ul><li>There is planning of land use for roads, public parks, transport, infrastructure of roads, water supply and sanitation etc. Cont…. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>In urban planning there are different zones for different activities - industrial, residential, services, parks, commercial, recreation, green covered etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization by way of several small centers spread over the state or the country has different implications than the growth of one megha city. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution control and environment are important issues. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>In the process of economic development massive movement of people from rural to urban area have taken place and take place. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a complex problem as to why people migrate? There are two major theoretical approaches for explanation of rural - urban transfer of population. There are also non-economic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>There are policy issues regarding how to reduce such large scale migration particularly in big cities and urban un employment also becomes a major problem. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>Conceptually and in practice migration of people has many dimensions - rural - urban; rural - rural; urban - urban; urban - rural. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration could be - permanent type; short term / temporary; seasonal; journey to work and back. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand migration it is necessary to know some features of what is urban and rural. </li></ul><ul><li>In rural areas / villages most people are engaged in agricultural and traditional occupations - artisans, village servants; rural society is cast based. Social tabooes, customs and traditions play important role in the society. There are restriction on freedom and opportunities are unequal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>On the other hand in urban areas there are many problems. Housing is the major problem; cost of living is high, society is impersonal and hence, one can enjoy freedom also. One can feel free from cast and social restriction and can come up with hard work and talent. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more opportunities in relations to rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>One can also enjoy public goods - Gardens,Roads, bright lights, exhibition, theatres etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive migration to big cities not only give rise to slums but also impact infrastructure and over all quality of life of the people. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>Massive migration gives rise to many social problems because people often migrate single, live in slums, find difficult to earn sufficient from legal means. </li></ul><ul><li>Under such circumstances they some times engaged in illegal activities - anti social, anti national activities, crimes and so on. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>There are many factors which influence the decision to migrate: </li></ul><ul><li>Social factors : To break free from traditional social constraints ; </li></ul><ul><li>Physical factors : Climate and weather disaster, floods, droughts etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic factors : heavy population pressure on limited resources of land and other livelihood. </li></ul><ul><li>Push factors : Poverty, social oppression, danger to life, lack of opportunities for work, education, career, lack of social life and communal / cast conflict. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>Pull Factors : romantic ideas about the life in the city - roads, cinema, city lights, markets, people and opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication factors : T.V, Radio, Cinema, Telephone, Road transport, railway transport etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration on marriage ; </li></ul><ul><li>Migration for education; </li></ul><ul><li>Migration for joining the family. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Migration Theories, Policies and Implications <ul><li>Characteristics of migrants : </li></ul><ul><li>They are young generally between the age of 15-24 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are less but their proportion is now on the rise. </li></ul><ul><li>They are educated and their chances of getting the job and finding their own way in the city is better with education. For example high school drop outs often migrate to towns and cities. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early stages only the poor, land less migrated to towns and cities in search of work but, now people from all Socio- economic classes migrate in search of their percieved better opportunities. </li></ul>