Theme 6 prelude to revolutions


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Theme 6 prelude to revolutions

  1. 1. American Colonies: Prelude to Revolutions<br />by Kariss Miller<br />
  2. 2. Revolutions- Pirates<br />Piracy was useful back in the 16th & 17th centuries as an aid to the English when attacking the Spanish.<br />By the end of the 17th century, pirates were disrupting trade becoming a “thorn” in Britain's side.<br />Pirates took pride in their lifestyle of eating, drinking, gambling, dancing, and promiscuity.The lifestyle was addictive.<br />Pirates invited disgruntled sailors to retaliate against cruel owners & operators of merchant ships.<br />Pirates would hold ship captains hostage. Those guilty of sailor abuse would endure whipping and sometimes execution.<br />Pirates were equal sharing partners. Wounded or crippled <br /> pirates would sometimes receive more than their fair share.<br />Captain Kidd was perhaps the most famous pirate. <br />The War of Spanish Succession suspended suppression <br /> of pirates because every available sailor was needed for <br /> duty against the French & Spanish. But piracy resumed after the <br /> war.<br />In the early 1700’s, colonists assisted the navy in gaining control <br /> over piracy. 400-600 were executed, and over 1000 died in an <br /> attempt to escape.<br />By 1730 piracy was virtually exterminated.<br />
  3. 3. The Atlantic- Trade<br />18th century trade became complicated. It was no longer simple trade. Forms of currency were used in addition to a credit & debit system.<br />Debts would slowly increase among the mainland colonists, as they were a demanding consumer.<br />The Navigation Act was put in to affect and restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England, after 1707 for Great Britain; and its colonies, which started in 1651.<br />During the 18th century, New England struggled to grow enough wheat for its booming population.<br />A parasite also impacted wheat harvest.<br />Slaves played a critical role in the success or failure of the trade system and the commodities that supported it. Success of the colonial regions were attributed solely to the work of slaves.<br />Accessto good farmland was critical as well.<br />As productive members of society, the free colonists enjoyed a comfortable life rich in resources.<br />
  4. 4. The Atlantic- Poverty<br />In the mid 1700’s poverty was growing among the urban seaports.<br />Employment shrank in the winter due to ice and poor sea conditions.<br />A flood of emigrants from Europe in the 1760’s only made it worse.<br />Urban colonists were at the mercy of Britain’s capitalist economy.<br />Tenancy became common, and while the situation was better than the “beggars” of London, the poor would become poorer.<br />Frontier settlements weren’t much better. They were undesirable geographically, access was bad, forests were dense, and danger of wildlife was always present.<br />Land speculators would often drain resources and demand payment from colonists leading them further in to debt.<br />
  5. 5. Awakenings- Race<br />Religion played a role in race. Ministers didn’t care to try and convert slaves to Christianity. And masters didn’t encourage it for fear religion would encourage resentment and resistance.<br />Revivalists preferred to convert everyone, however. <br />A few Evangelicals demanded the right to convert slaves, but were uncomfortable in challenging the system itself.<br />The Quakers would take on the challenge but at a cost of reduction in member numbers.<br />With The Great Awakening came a sharp increase in the interest of religion.<br />Evangelicals enjoyed success among the Indians which enabled them to build their own bridge between tradition & assimilation into the dominant society.<br />German emigrant Priber founded the Kingdom of Paradise which would unite the Indians in to a confederacy that would strengthen the colonies and welcome runaway servants, slaves and debtors. South Carolina officials did not like this and eventually captured and imprisoned Priber until his death in 1744.<br />
  6. 6. The Great Plains- Horses & Guns<br />Once extinct to North America, the horse returned during the 16th century.<br />Via horseback, men could cover far more ground than on foot and in much less time. Horses were also better than buffalo in many ways.<br />The horse improved life greatly by being able to extend seasonal hunts and bring back more meat and robes back to villages.<br />Migration and newcomers to the Plains increased.<br />The Great Plains people would eventually acquire firearms in the 18th century in order to defend villages and raid against enemies.<br />The villagers typically prevailed over nomads, but eventually village numbers would dwindle as a result of diseases brought by Europeans making it more difficult to fight.<br />Nomads would gain success acquiring larger horse herds and more wives which were needed to tend to the kills they’d return home with.<br />Horses & women would become synonymous with high status. However, women would outnumber men, as the Great Plains warriors led shorter lives due to increased violence.<br />Horses took on great burdens with regard to work, and also great horse concentrations would prove more than local grass could bear. This caused a chain reaction with the Buffalo herds as well.<br />
  7. 7. The Great Plains- Comanche & Apache<br />During the 18th century, the Great Plains was a warzone with people competing for horses, buffalo, and women.<br />People who prevailed grew in numbers, with horses, and also firearms.<br />Comanche’s were dominant along the southern plains and were aggressive toward their competition, the Apache’s especially when it came to resources such as water.<br />The Comanche’s held strong and allied with Wichita, using captives for various trade.<br />The Apache’s began raiding various settlements in the south in order to offset their losses to the Comanche’s.<br />Indian raids including the one upon the San Saba mission in 1758 would reduce New Mexico to a poverty stricken state and to deplorable conditions.<br />
  8. 8. Imperial Wars & Crisis- Balance of Power<br />Indian nations such as the Iroquois heavily patrolled the forest passages between the rival empires of the French & British; along Lake Champlain.<br />The Indians would exploit the rival empires by charging inflated prices and seeking presents from both sides.<br />Numbers of the British eventually grew and a once friendly empire turned arrogant toward the Indians.<br />The French continued to treat the Indians with respect as an ally against the growing numbers of the British. <br />The French constructed forts along the Great Lakes and the Indians welcomed this.<br />The British eventually began controlling the sea lanes which transported many trade goods that the Indians were heavily dependant on. The Indians would eventually make peace with British officials so they could obtain trade goods.<br />
  9. 9. The Pacific- Kamehameha<br />In the late 1700’s, the Hawaiian islands proved to be a great location for Pacific trade.<br />Here, people and ships could find rest, repairs, water, food, and wood.<br />Many left life as a merchant marine or British <br /> Navy to the Hawaiian life of land, wealth, prestige, <br /> and Hawaiian women.<br />During the late 1700’s, Chief Kamehameha became <br /> chief of the islands and would exploit newcomers for his <br /> own gain and eventually conquered Hawaii’s surrounding <br /> islands.<br />Hawaiian’s too experienced European germs, livestock, <br /> weeds, weapons, and missionaries.<br />Despite those challenges, Kamehameha always managed <br /> to mitigate shock to their land.<br />