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Basics Of Oil and Gas Upstream (E& P)

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  • Source:Wikipedia
  • Soucre:13th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery– Budapest, Hungary, 25-27 April 2005
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: NTNU, autumn 2009.
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Source: NTNU, autumn 2009.
  • Source: NTNU, autumn 2009.
  • Source: NTNU, autumn 2009.
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Source: Technology Strategy for Enhanced Recovery; OG21
  • Source: Technology Strategy for Enhanced Recovery; OG21
  • Source: Google Images
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: Technology Strategy for Enhanced Recovery; OG21
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: Technology Strategy for Enhanced Recovery; OG21
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Source: www.cseg.ca
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: Google Images
  • Sources: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Source: Google Images
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: Department of Petroleum Engineering Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Source: OGJ Survey
  • Oil & gas

    1. 1. OIL & GAS EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION Great Lakes Institute Of Energy Management GurgaonImage Sources:ABB Oil and Gas Production Handbook
    2. 2. AGENDA• Geophysical data• Rigs, Drilling,Casing & Cementing• Wireline Logging• Completion of well(Well head, Christmas Tree)• Production, Well Testing• Decision Making• EOR• Case Study• Abandonment of a well
    3. 3. GEOPHYSICAL DATA Riches in RocksImage Sources:ABB Oil and Gas Production Handbook, Schlumberger WesternGeco Public Site.
    4. 4. RIGS • Land Rigs • Jack up Rigs • Drill ShipsImage Sources:ABB Oil and Gas Production Handbook,SchlumbergerVideos:From You Tube
    5. 5. Different Types Of Rigs• SubmersibleThis is a drilling structure which is used in relatively shallowwater, usually 80 feet or less. It is towed to its location where it issubmerged until it sits on the bottom. This submerging serves as itsmooring system, although anchors may also be used.• Semi SubmersibleThis rig has the hull design of a catamaran and is either towed or self-propelled. A semi-submersible can also be dynamically positioned or itcan use anchors. When the rig is on location, it is ballasted down, inabout the same way a submarine submerges, fifty feet or so to give itstability. Semis are heavy-duty rigs and are designed for adverseweather conditions.Image Sources:Google Images and Schlumberger.
    6. 6. • Drill ShipA drillship can be one of two types:1) It can be a ship which was designed and built to be a drilling vessel; or2) A drillship can be an older vessel which has been refitted with drilling equipment.Drill ships are self-propelled, carrying a complete ships crew while underway, as well asa crew of drilling personnel. Drill ships are moored either by the standard anchoringsystem or by dynamic positioning of the vessel. Dynamic positioning is the use of acomputer-operated inboard thruster system which keeps the vessel on location withoutthe use of anchors. This arrangement allows vessels to drill in ultra-deep water.• Jack upJack-ups are towed to their location where rig personnel use heavy machinery tojack the legs down into the water until they are on the ocean floor. When this iscompeted, the platform containing the work area rises above the water. After theplatform his risen about 50 feet out of the water, the rig is ready to begin drilling.Jack-up rigs are limited to a water depth of about 300 feet or less.Image Sources: Schlumberger and Google Images
    7. 7. • BargeThis is used to make extremely heavy lifts (The record to-date is 4,400 tons!) or to layunderwater pipelines. When these lifts are being made, there are usually a lot ofsupport personnel on board (up to 200) including welders, electricians, riggers,operators, etc. Derrick barges can be either self-propelled or towed. Image Sources: Google Images
    8. 8. PLATFORMS• Fixed Platform• Complaint Tower• Sea Star• Floating Production Systems• Tension Leg Platforms• Subsea Systems• Spar Platform Source: www.naturalgas.org
    9. 9. FIXED PLATFORMUsedIn shallower water, if it is possible to physically attach a platform to the seafloor.HowThe legs are constructed with concrete or steel, extending down from theplatform, and fixed to the seafloor with piles.Weight of the legs and seafloor platform is substantial, so they do not have tobe physically attached to the seafloor, but instead simply rest on their ownmass.Many possible designs for these fixed, permanent platforms.AdvantageThe main advantages of these types of platforms are their stability, as they areattached to the sea floor there is limited exposure to movement due to windand water forces.LimitationThese platforms cannot be used in extremely deep water, not economical tobuild legs that long. Source: www.naturalgas.org
    10. 10. COMPLAINT TOWERMuch like fixed platforms. Each consists of a narrow tower, attached toa foundation on the seafloor and extending up to the platformAdvantagesThe tower is flexible, as opposed to the relatively rigid legs of a fixedplatform. This flexibility allows it to operate in much deeper water thanfixed platformsDisadvantagesThe stability is far lesser than the fixed platforms. They get easilyaffected by rough weather and winds. Source: www.naturalgas.org
    11. 11. SEASTAR PLATFORMS• Seastar Platforms are similar to tension leg platforms.• The platform consists of a floating rig, A lower hull is filled with water when drilling,.• Seastar platforms also incorporate the tension leg system employed in larger platforms. Tension legs are long, hollow tendons that extend from the seafloor to the floating platform.AdvantagesSeastar platforms are typically used for smaller deep-waterreservoirs, when it is not economical to build a largerplatform. They can operate in water depths of up to 3,500feet. Source: www.naturalgas.org
    12. 12. TENSION LEG PLATFORMTension leg platform is similar to sea star platform. But unlikein sea star, the tension legs dont go all the way to the seafloor. The structure is held in a fixed position by tensionedtendons, which provide for use of the TLP in a broad waterdepth range up to about 2000m. The tendons are constructedas hollow high tensile strength steel pipes that carry the sparebuoyancy of the structure and ensure limited vertical motion.Due to this the platform experiences more horizontal motiondue to the jerks from the rough weather. This platform allowsdrilling at an amazing depth of 7000 feet. A variant is Seastar. Source: www.naturalgas.org
    13. 13. SUBSEA SYSTEM• This platform has features from all the platforms that we discussed earlier. are wells located on the sea floor, as opposed to at the surface. Like in a floating production system, the petroleum is extracted at the seafloor, and then can be tied-back to an already existing production platform or even an onshore facility .• It is used to drill at depths of 7000 and above. The drilling apparatus is fixed on the sea bed and the drilled oil is sent up with the help of risers. Source: www.naturalgas.org
    14. 14. SPAR PLATFORMThe SPAR consists of a single tall floating cylinder hull, supporting a fixed deck. The cylinderhowever does not extend all the way to the seafloor, but instead is tethered to the bottom by aseries of cables and lines.SPAR is not an acronym, but refers to its likeness with a ship’s spar. Spars can support drycompletion wells, but is more often used with subsea wells. Subsea production systems arewells located on the sea floor, as opposed to at the Source: www.naturalgas.org
    15. 15. References• 8 References• Web on line sources and references that has been used in compiling this document:• · Schlumberger oilfield glossary:• http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/default.cfm• · Norsk Hydro, Njord Main Process and Oil Process Description.• http://www.hydro.com/en/our_business/oil_energy/production/oil_gas_nor• way/njord.html• · Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page• · Oklahoma State, Marginal Well Commission, Pumper’s Manual• http://www.marginalwells.com/MWC/pumper_manual.htm• · Natural Gas Supply Association. See Natural Gas - From Wellhead to• Burner Tip• http://www.naturalgas.org/index.asp• · US geological survey: http://www.usgs.gov/• · US department of energy: http://www.doe.gov/• · NORSOK standards, Standards Norway (SN),• http://www.standard.no/imaker.exe?id=244• · UK Offshore Operators Association (UKOOA)• http://www.oilandgas.org.uk/issues/storyofoil/index.htm• · National Biodiesel Board http://www.biodiesel.org/• · PBS – Public Broadcasting Service - Extreme Oil• http://www.pbs.org/wnet/extremeoil/index.html• · http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html
    16. 16. COST COMPARISION FLOATING RIGS Rig Type Rigs Working Total Rig Fleet Average Day Rate Drillship < 4000’ WD 6 rigs 8 rigs $241000 Drillship 4000’ + WD 48 rigs 61 rigs $462000 Semisub < 1500’ WD 10 rigs 17 rigs $241000 Semisub 1500’ + WD 63 rigs 87 rigs $302000 Semisub 4000’ + WD 85 rigs 105 rigs $418000Source: rigzone public site
    17. 17. JACKUP RIGS Rig Type Rigs Working Total Rig Fleet Average Day Rate Jackup IC < 250’ WD 32 rigs 53 rigs $68000 Jackup IC 250’ WD 37 rigs 63 rigs $80000 Jackup IC 300’ WD 94 rigs 131 rigs $89000 Jackup IC 300’ + WD 122 rigs 151 rigs $144000 Jackup IS < 250’ WD 5 rigs 53 rigs $68000 Jackup IS 250’ WD 7 rigs 53 rigs $68000 Jackup IS 300’ WD 2 rigs 53 rigs $68000 Jackup IS 300’ + WD 1 rigs 53 rigs $68000 Jackup MC < 200’ WD 2 rigs 53 rigs $68000 Jackup MC 200’ + WD 12 rigs 28 rigs $46000 Jackup MS < 200’ WD 2 rigs 2 rigs - Jackup MS 200’ + WD 4 rigs 19 rigs $43000Source: rigzone public site
    18. 18. OTHER OFFSHORE RIGS Rig Type Rigs Working Total Rig Fleet Average Day Rate Drill Barge < 150’ WD 18 rigs 39 rigs - Drill Barge 150’ WD 6 rigs 9 rigs - Inland Barge 27 rigs 74 rigs $47000 Platform Rg 144 rigs 250 rigs $37000 Submersible 0 rigs 5 rigs - Tender 23 rigs 32 rigs $132000Source: rigzone public site
    19. 19. Classes of Oil well• Oil wells can generally be grouped into two categories: – Exploration or ‘Wild Cat’ • A potential ‘oil-field’ never drilled before – could be no oil – Development Oil field already present – simply extracting more oil
    20. 20. DRILLING Horizontal Drilling It is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or gas recovery method . Casing Three different types Surface Intermediate Production Blow Out Preventer(BOP)Videos Source: You TubeImage Sources: Google Images
    21. 21. BOP • Subsea Blow-out Preventor (BOP) stacks are specially designed to operate under water at great depths. • They are located on the sea bed, rather than above water on the rig. • Subsea BOPs are used only on floating rigs. • They are a very important safety device to prevent the well ‘blowing’ oilSource: ABB handbook
    22. 22. WIRELINE LOGGING • Geological logs visual inspection of samples brought to the surface • Geophysical logs physical measurements made by instruments lowered into the hole . • Well logging is done during all phases of a wells development; drilling, completing, producing and abandoning.Image Source: SchlumbergerVideo Source: You Tube
    23. 23. Cementing• Two processes – Wet and Dry• Sets through a chemical does not need air to set• Very complex chemistry Contains silica, alumina and iron oxide• Grind the resulting product to a fine powder DryCement RecipesA ‘recipe’ – a specific combination of chemicals mixedwith neat cement and water to achieve a desiredslurry/set cement.Many different additives in use • accelerators, retarders, dispersants, fluid-loss, extenders • Schlumberger uses ‘D’ codes to designate an additive Wet Source: Schlumberger
    24. 24. Objectives of Cement Job• There are three main objectives: – Provide complete isolation of zones – Support the casing – Protect casing string Image Source: Schlumberger
    25. 25. CompletionEarly wells were drilled in very shallow reservoirs which were sufficiently consolidatedto prevent caving. As deeper wells were drilled, the problems associated with surfacewater prompted the use of a casing or conductor to isolate water and prevent cavingof the wellbore walls. Further development of this process led to fully cased wellboresin which the interval of interest is perforated.Modern completions are now commonly undertaken in deep, hot and difficultconditions. In all cases, achieving the completion and eventual production objectivesare a result of careful planning and preparation.Completion TypesThe most common criteria for the classification of completions include the following• Open-hole or cased hole, horizontal completion• Producing zones, i.e., single zone or multiple zone production• Production method, i.e., natural flowing or artificially induced production (Artificial Lift)
    26. 26. • Open Hole CompletionBarefoot completions are only feasible in reservoirswith sufficient formation strength to prevent caving orsloughing. In such completions there are no means ofselectively producing or isolating intervals within thereservoir or open hole section. The production casingor liner is set and cemented in the reservoir caprock, leaving the wellbore through to the reservoiropen.The use of open hole completions is now restrictedprimarily to some types ofhorizontal wells and to wells where formation damagefrom (air drilling) drilling fluids is severe.To prevent an unstable formation from collapsing andplugging the wellbore, slotted screen or perforatedliners may be placed across the open Source: Schlumberger
    27. 27. • Cased Hole CompletionsModern perforating charges and techniques aredesigned to provide a clear perforation tunnelthrough the damaged zone surrounding the wellbore.This provides access to the undamageddeformation, allowing the reservoir to be producedto its full capability.Cased and cemented wells generally require lesscomplex pressure control procedures during the earlystages of installing the completion components• Natural FlowingWells completed in reservoirs which are capable ofproducing without assistance are typically moreeconomic to produce.In general, naturally flowing wells require lesscomplex downhole components and equipment. Inaddition, the long-term reliability and longevity ofthe downhole components is generally better thanthat of pumped completions. Source: Schlumberger
    28. 28. • Artificial CompletionsAll pumped, or artificially lifted, completions require the placement of specializeddownhole components. Such components are electrically or mechanically operated, orare precision engineered devices. These features often mean the longevity or reliableworking life of an artificial lift completion is limited. In addition, the maintenance orperiodic workover requirements will generally be greater than that of a naturallyflowing completion.• Artificial Lift Methods• Gas lift• Electric submersible pump• Plunger lift• Hydraulic or Jet Pump• Variable Cavity Pump (VCP)• Hydraulic or Jet pump• Progressive cavity pump (PCP)
    29. 29. COMPLETION Completion Tubing Completion Assembly 1. Packer 2. Permanent Downhole Gauge 3. Safety Valve 4. Christmas TreeVideo Source: You TubeImages Source: Google Images
    30. 30. WELL TESTINGSeparator:To separate different constituents of drawnoil.Flaring:Burning the first few barrels.Source: ABB Handbook
    31. 31. DECISION MAKING• Factors affecting the decision making in E&P.1. Reservoir Technological factors,2. Economic factors.Source: en.wikipedia.org
    32. 32. RESERVOIR TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS• Pressure,• Temperature,• Porosity,• Permeability,• API Gravity,• Sulphur Content. Source: en.wikipedia.org
    33. 33. CRUDE OIL ANALYSISSource: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    34. 34. PVT ANALYSISSource: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    35. 35. POROSITY & SORTINGSource: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    36. 36. POROSITY LEVEL IN RESERVOIRS POROSITYPercentage of Pores Usage Less than 10% Poor, Productivity Doubtful. 10 - 15% Fair. 15 - 25% Good, the most common range in production reservoirs. Over 25% Excellent, but rare.Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    37. 37. POROSITY Vs PERMEABILITYSource: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    38. 38. PERMEABILITY LEVEL IN RESERVOIRS Permeability Permeability Value Usage 10 mD Poor 100 mD Fair to Good 1000 mD Excellent, but rare.Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    39. 39. RELATIVE PERMEABILITYSource: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    40. 40. API GRAVITY Ideal value of API Gravity is 10 to 70.Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    41. 41. SULPHUR CONTENT Standard fuel oil - Sulphur content rate should not exceed 4.5% Low Sulphur fuel oil - Sulphur content rate should not exceed 1.5%. Sweet crude oil has a sulphur content less than 0.5%. Anything more than 0.5% is sour.Heavy crude is:• harder to handle (it is two thick to pump easily through pipelines unless diluted with light crude)• more expensive to refine to produce the most valuable petroleum products such as petrol, diesel and aviation fuel.• Sweet crude is preferable to sour because it is also (like light crude) more suited to the production of the most valuable refined products. Source: en.wikipedia.org
    42. 42. ECONOMIC FACTORS• Cost of benefit.• Funds.• Rate of Return.Source: en.wikipedia.org
    43. 43. Cost Benefit Analysis• Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a project for two purposes:• A) to determine if it is a sound investment to dig a well (justification/feasibility),• B) to see how it compares with alternate projects (ranking/priority assignment)• It involves comparing the total expected cost of each option against the total expected benefits, to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs, and by how much. Source: en.wikipedia.org
    44. 44. FUNDS• NPV (net present value)• PVB (present value of benefits)• PVC (present value of costs)• BCR (benefit cost ratio) = PVB / PVC• Net benefit = (PVB - PVC) Source: en.wikipedia.org
    45. 45. Rate of Return• Rate of Return indicate cash flow from an investment(Oil Well) to the investor over a specified period of time, usually a year.• ROR is a measure of investment profitability, not a measure of investment size.• The higher the investment risk, the greater the potential investment return, and the greater the potential investment loss.Source: en.wikipedia.org
    46. 46. PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION Improving Productivity is a huge problem. Various Factors :• Operational Costs• Hardware Damage• Reservoir Performance• Environmental Requirements• Operational DifficultiesSource: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    47. 47. Applications included in Production Optimization• Flow line ControlTo stabilize the Multiphase Flow in gathering systems, risers &Flow lines.• Well ControlTo stabilize and Optimize gas lift and naturally flowing wells.• Slug ManagementIt will help mitigate variations in Inflow impact.• Well Monitoring SystemUsed to estimate the flow rates of Oil, Gas & Water from allthe individual wells in an Oil Field.Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook by ABB
    48. 48. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND IMPROVED OIL RECOVERYEOR:-•It is the process that seek to improve the recoveryof hydrocarbon from a reservoir after the primaryand secondary production phase.•Enhanced Oil Recovery is a generic term fortechniques for increasing the amount of crudeoil that can be extracted from an oil field. UsingEOR, 30-60 %, or more, of the reservoirs originaloil can be extracted compared with 20-40% using primary and secondary recovery.
    49. 49. Improved Oil Recovery:-• Any of various methods chiefly reservoir drive mechanism and enhanced recovery techniques, designed to improve the flow of hydrocarbons from the reservoir to the wellbore or to recover more oil after the primary and secondary methods(water- and gas floods).Primary Oil Recovery:-• This implies the initial production stage, resulted from the displacement energy naturally existing in a reservoir. Secondary Oil Recovery:-• A recovery improvement process such as water flooding and gas flooding.
    50. 50. LIMITATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RECOVERY PROCESSES• Rapid decrease in reservoir pressure – leads to low oil production rates and oil recovery (5 – 10 % of original oil in place).• Secondary recovery (water / gas injection) often does not yield a good recovery due to: - Reservoir heterogeneity -Unfavourable mobility ratio between oil and water - Water and gas coning problems - Low sweep efficiency
    51. 51. WHEN TO START EOR? A common procedure for determining the optimum time to start EOR process after water flooding depends on:-• Anticipated oil recovery• Fluid production rates• Monetary investment• Costs of water treatment and pumping equipment• Costs of maintenance and operation of the water installation facilities.• Costs of drilling new injection wells or converting existing production wells into injectors.
    52. 52. WHY EOR?Oil and Gas market ripe for breakthrough-EOR Solution:-• World oil consumption rate at 85 million barrel per day.• 1/3 production increases over next 15 years to meet projected demand.• Oil production faster, less expensive and with less disturbance to environment from existing wells.• EOR can prolong life of oil field upto 30 years .• There is significant oil in place in discovered reservoirs that will otherwise not be recovered.• EOR can make an important contribution to world oil supply in the long term.• EOR economics can be attractive.
    54. 54. • 64 million b/d of capacity additions needed by 2030.• 5 million b/d is forecast to be supplied by EOR in 2030.• 20 million b/d is from fields yet to be found.• 33% recovery efficiency ->EOR target of 2.2 trillion barrels in discovered fields.
    55. 55. A Boom of EOR Program:-• Proven reserves• Hard to get oil• Demand outstripping supply• Cost of finding new oil reservoir• Political problems• Environmental concernExample-Occidental Chemical Co. maintains a very successful EOR program, producing approximately 350000 barrels of oil equivalent per day.
    56. 56. Business Benefits:-• Optimize oil recovery with field proven flow and density solutions• Simplify operations and reduce maintenance costs with reliable and accurate measurement• Multi-variable output and process intelligence enable remote surveillance and reduced operator intervention• Reduce chemical costs through accurate flood material allocation and dosage
    57. 57. EOR POTENTIALOpportunities:-• Target resource for EOR applications is 6 trillion barrels, of the 9 trillion initially in place.• Widespread application could far exceed the current forecasts.• Chemical / polymer flooding has large unrealized potential.• Both hydrocarbon and CO2 miscible flooding have large potential internationally.• A significant resource exists in the offshore, as well as onshore .• CO2 sequestration may provide an additional impetus and opportunity.
    58. 58. WHY EOR IS NEEDED NOW?• Design and implementation of an EOR project takes time.• After implementation (especially as a tertiary project) production response does not occur immediately. EOR Project Time Line
    59. 59. EOR TECHNIQUES1. Gas Injection• Carbon Dioxide Flooding• Miscible Solvent(LPG or Propane)• Enriched Gas Drive• High-Pressure Gas drive• Inert Gas( Nitrogen)• Flue Gas
    60. 60. Carbon Dioxide Flooding• Commonly used approach.• Aids recovery by reducing the viscosity of thecrude oil as the gas mixes with it.• Air cannot be used to repressurize thereservoir because the oil will quickly catch onfire.• Oil displacement by carbon dioxideinjection relies on the phase behaviour of themixtures of that gas and the crude, which arestrongly dependent on reservoir temperature,pressure and crude oil composition.
    61. 61. Benefits of CO2 Flooding:-• Injections of CO2 work with lighter gravities.• Its production has been growing steadily, and volumes reached 240,000 barrels a day in 2008, a tenfold increase from 28,000 barrels a day in 1986.• WAG is frequently used in carbon dioxide flooding to increase sweep efficiency and decrease the need for expensive solvents.
    62. 62. Cost of CO2 Flooding:-• Adding oil recovery methods adds to the cost of oil — in the case of CO2 typically between 0.5-8.0 US$ per tonne of CO2.• Onshore EOR has paid in the range of a net 10-16 US$ per tonne of CO2 injected for oil prices of 15-20 US$/barrel.• With oil prices at around 90 US$/barrel, the economic benefit is about 70 US$ per tonne CO2.
    63. 63. Benefits of Inert gas flooding:-• Availability and low cost.• Prevention of oil encroachment into the gas cap when gas cap is present.• Higher recoveries compared to water drive in reservoirs having low permeability.• Residual inert gas at abandonment rather than saleable natural gas.• Reliability of the supply.
    64. 64. 2. Chemical Flooding• Alkaline Surfactant Polymer or Caustic flooding• Polymer-augmented water flooding• Surfactant flooding -Low tension water flooding -Micellar/Polymer(micro emulsion) flooding
    65. 65. Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding• ASP flooding is a form of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that can allow operators to extend reservoir pool life and extract incremental reserves currently inaccessible by conventional EOR techniques such as water flooding.• Injection of diluted alkaline or caustic solutions into oil reservoir to improve oil recovery.• In the polymer flooding method, water-soluble polymers increase the viscosity of the injected water, leading to a more efficient displacement of moderately viscous oils.• Although no large-scale surfactant-polymer floods have been implemented, the process has considerable potential to recover oil.• For all chemical flooding processes, inclusion of a viscosifier (usually a water-soluble polymer) is required to provide an efficient sweep of the expensive chemicals through the reservoir.
    66. 66. Benefits of ASP Flooding:-• It is used for oils that are more viscous than those oils recovered by gas injection methods.• Presently have the highest application potential, since they are low risk methods with a well developed application technology.• Surfactant/polymer flooding is an immature method from an application point of view. It will need substantial research and development to become a technique of any importance compared to ASP.
    67. 67. • The potential and feasibility of ASP flooding continues to grow and offers much potential for increased oil recovery.• Achievement of 20% incremental oil recovery. Example-Husky Taber South Mannville B Pool began ASP flooding in 2006 and is currently ongoing.Cost Factor:- Application of these methods is usually limited by the cost of the chemicals and their adsorption and loss onto the rock of the oil containing formation.
    68. 68. Developments in Chemical Flooding• Advances in surfactants:-–Thermally stable surfactants (e.g. sulphonates) remove temperature restrictions.–Surfactants designed to be active at 0.1% concentrations.–Sacrificial agents (e.g., sodium carbonate) reduce adsorption to very low levels.• Alkaline flooding:-–Alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) are new, lower-cost EOR methods.
    69. 69. 3. Thermal Recovery• Steam flooding or Steam-drive• Cyclic Steam Injection• In-situ combustion• Thermally assisted gas-oil gravity drainage (TAGOGD)
    70. 70. Steam Flooding• It is used to heat the crude oil in the formation to reduce its viscosity and/or vaporize part of the oil.• It improves the sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency.• Steam injection has been used commercially since the 1960s in California fields.• In 2011, Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery projects were started in California and Oman, this method is similar to Thermal EOR but uses a solar array to produce the steam.
    71. 71. Benefits of Steam Flooding:-• It has the greatest certainty of success and potential application is about 70% of EOR worldwide.• Provides highest recoveries at the lowest cost.• Can be used for heavy oil with a viscosity less than 10,000 centipoises.• Power track record to produce 15-20% of the original oil in place.
    72. 72. Developments in Thermal Recovery• Controlled Combustion:-– Removes depth, pressure restrictions of steam– Applicable to light oils• Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD):-– Uses horizontal wells to contact formation, reduce well costs– Modification of steam drive
    73. 73. 4. Microbial Injection• Its’ aim is to improve the recovery of oil entrapped in porous media while increasing economic profits.• MEOR is a tertiary oil extraction technology allowing the partial recovery of the commonly residual two-thirds of oil, thus increasing the life of mature oil reservoirs.• Rarely used, both because of its higher cost and because the developments in this field are more recent than other techniques.• This approach has been used in oilfields near the Four Corners and in the Beverly Hills Oil Field in Beverly Hills, California.
    74. 74. Limitations of MEOR:-1) Increasing salinity absorbs water from the microbe and negatively affects its growth.2) Permeability, temperature, pressure, salinity and pH affect the selection of microbes.3) Study of bacteria metabolism, and relation to subsurface environment, need greateffort.4) Microbes Produce H2S and SO2 causing bio-corrosion of the equipment, andcontamination of ground water.But on the other hand microbes produce organic chemicals less harmful than syntheticchemicals used by EOR methods.Economics of MEOR:-• Microbes and nutrients are relatively cheap materials.• Cost is independent of oil prices.• Implementation needs minor modifications to field facilities.• Economically attractive for marginal producing wells.• The total cost of incremental oil production from MEOR is only 2 – 3 $/bbl.
    75. 75. EOR Oil Production (Source: OGJ EOR Survey, 2010)Worldwide EOR Oil Production US EOR Oil Production
    76. 76. • U.S. EOR production is ~12% of the U.S. total Two major contributors: Thermal recovery using steam injection and Carbon dioxide miscible recovery.• Thermal recovery in Venezuela, Indonesia, China, Canada.• Gas injection in Canada, Venezuela, and Libya.• Chemical/polymer applications in China.(Source: OGJ biennial surveys)
    77. 77. Screening criteria for EOR Methods
    78. 78. EOR Methods Based on LithologySource: SPE 130113, Manrique E., et al; April 201
    81. 81. ECONOMICS CHALLENGES• Thermal:-– High cost– Greenhouse gas emissions– Combustion - perceived high risk• Chemical – Polymer:-– Long lead times, long payout– Perceived high risk• CO2 Miscible:-– Access to CO2However, Long term demand and price increases present opportunities
    82. 82. POLITICAL ISSUES• NOC, IOC, Governmental Relationships can harm EOR opportunities:-–Mutual interests are hampered by short-term considerations.– Access may be lost by P&A regulations.– Economics hampered by loss of tax incentives.• Solution: treat EOR differently– Jointly share technical, economic risk.– Maintain access to wells and facilities that can be used for EOR (don’t require premature PA).– Revise concession terms to include life-of-project for EOR.
    83. 83. Case Study • The Handil Oil Field Handil is a giant oil field in the Mahakam Province of Indonesia, discovered in 1974 and still operated by TOTAL Exploration and Production Indonesia.http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4307
    84. 84. Reservoir Characteristics
    85. 85. ResultsIn November 1995 a lean gas injection projectwas initiated in five reservoirs. The projectboosted the production of the five largereservoirs and altered the overall decline rate ofthe field.
    86. 86. THANK YOU 