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Marginal oil fields


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petroleum engineering

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Marginal oil fields

  1. 1. M A R G I N A L O I L F I E L D S Profitable Oil At Low Reserves : How?
  2. 2. Agenda Case Histories For Unconventional Techniques Unconventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields Conventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields Conclusion Introduction Challenges in marginal oil fields
  3. 3.  In 2008, Shell’s CEO, Jeroen van de Veer, announced that the era of “easy-to-find” oil was coming to an end 1. Introduction
  4. 4. 1. Introduction: Terminology  Commercial Fields:  Noncommercial Fields:  Marginal Fields: Can be developed normally with high or normal profit Unprofitable and can’t be developed With parameters set at their best, development can be profitable at their worst economically disastrous
  5. 5.  By definition a Marginal oil field is: a field that is economically unattractive to develop and produce. It could be a new discovery or an already producing field.  Economical Factors that contribute in making a field marginal: High CAPEX and OPEX Unattractive revenue dependent on RF and production rates Technological constraints Government regulations and policies Oil price 1. Introduction- Cont’d IT’S ALL ABOUT ECONOMICS
  6. 6. Challenges in marginal oil fields
  7. 7.  The two main enemies in developing marginal fields are : the uncertainty of DATA and TIME 1. Data Acquisition Problem (Exploration Problems)  Uncertainty is not specific to Marginal ones  Exploration:  Heavy data acquisition programs is an impossible choice  One or two discovery wells , 3D seismic for a development decision  Appraisal drilling, long duration tests, are not applicable 2. Challenges in marginal oil fields
  8. 8. Number of wells required:  The economy can not bear MULTIPLYING the number of wells  They can be limited by these choices :  Intense use of horizontal wells  Multi-branched wells  Hydraulic fracturing 2. Challenges in marginal oil fields
  9. 9. 2. Time :  We have two opposite requirements: Go fast to have a short production period Low production for the reservoir not to be destroyed  So, production should be optimized where: we must reduce the velocity to insure a good recovery and have as high a rate as possible to insure profitability 2. Challenges in marginal oil fields- Cont’d
  10. 10. 3. Production operations life:  The uncertainty necessitates transferring costs from CAPEX TO OPEX by: a. Using existing facilities on a contractual basis b. Leasing as much as possible the required facilities and equipment 2. Challenges in marginal oil fields- Cont’d
  11. 11. Conventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields
  12. 12. Cost optimization methods in marginal fields to ensure profitability : 1. Geology and exploration  Re-correlation of the geologic column as more wells are drilled  Using 3D simulation programs and available data from the nearest fields to make a good understanding of the geology of a marginal field 3. Conventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields
  13. 13. 2. Drilling  Use of PDC bits to ensure longer bit life and fewer bit runs 3. Completion and production  Ensure wellbore production optimization  Sub sea completion for offshore fields 3. Conventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields
  14. 14. 4. Stimulation  Hydraulic fracturing for low permeable formations  Acidizing 3. Conventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields
  15. 15. 5. Processing:  Connection to the existing pipeline  Use of excess processing capacity  Use of idle equipment and material  Using the in-plant test separator as a production separator  Surface facilities debottlenecking  Use of Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) tanker  Direct electrical heat in offshore 3. Conventional Techniques For Developing Marginal Fields
  16. 16. Smart Solutions
  17. 17. 4.1 Smart Solutions : Cable Deployed ESP  Use draw works unit instead of workover rigs to handle the tubular required of conventional ESP  Reduce workover (Operating) costs, by retrieving an ESP without handling tubulars
  18. 18. 4.2 Smart Solutions : Dual ESP system Used for marginal wells to improve the production and to provide the power and reliability demanded in high- risk, high-cost producing wells. Provide an in-well, cost-effective backup system that minimizes the downtime caused by ESP failures. Features: Access below the ESP Flow bypass Automatic switching between ESPs Parallel OR Series ESP system option
  19. 19. 4.3 Smart Solutions : Extreme overbalance perforating  A new concept for wellbore cleaning operations  In EOP completions, tubing pressure is increased before the guns are fired and then released into the wellbore with gun explosion  Because wellbore pressure exceeds rock yield strength, perforating initiates one or more small fractures beyond the zone damaged by invasion  This stimulation obviates the need for cleaning the perforation tunnel
  20. 20. 4.4 Smart Solutions : Horizontal Drilling Why this technology?  Increase sand face  Used for thin tight formations  Used to prevent severe coning  Can produce with optimum velocity required for production in marginal oil fields
  21. 21. 4.5 Smart Solutions : Multilateral technology: Why this technology?  Many targets at different depth scan be reached from a single well  Less casing , less drilling time  Increases production from a single well
  22. 22.  Commonly a wellbore less than 6 in. Diameter  Simply reducing the hole and casing sizes for each hole interval; Consequently well cost ( mainly drilling and completion costs) fall.  Good candidate for developing marginal fields 4.6 Smart Solutions : Slimhole technology
  23. 23. 4.7 Gas lift Using Coiled Tubing • CT can be used to feed the field with artificial lift gas and injector water. • The main advantages of using coiled tubing are: 1. The cost of the pipeline is much less than the normal pipelines. 2. The required time to install the line was only a small fraction of the time required to install a butt-welded pipeline.
  24. 24. 4.8 Smart solutions: vapor extraction(VAPEX) Thermal method used for enhancing the heavy oil or bitumen recovery Twice as efficient as the older cyclic steam stimulation
  25. 25. 4.9 Tiebacks Tieback (subsea)  is a connection between a new oil and gas discovery and an existing production facility, improving the economics of marginal fields into profitable assets.  It decrease the overall capital expenditure
  26. 26. 4.10 Smart solution: Radial drilling Steps: 1) Milling : milling head , fluid 2) Jetting : Fresh water or acid ,clay inhibitors
  27. 27. 4.10 Radial drilling cont’d
  28. 28. 4.10 Radial drilling cont’d Radial Drilling Hydraulic fracture Pressure maintenance techniques Steam injection Dual completion
  29. 29. 4.10 Radial drilling &Hydraulic fracturing Economical challenge Are you SURE where your FRAC is going? Advantages: • Directing fracture by orienting laterals • Provide a long conduit before your fracture meets resistance • Unwanted zones
  30. 30. 4.10 Radial drilling & secondary recovery Pressure maintenance: Laterals are designed to enhance conventional methods of reservoir pressure maintenance: 1) Directed Water Flood 2) Directed CO2 Flood 3) Injection Wells
  31. 31. 4.10 HOSS (heavy oil steam system) Integration between three technologies: radial drilling, steam injection dual completion
  32. 32. 4.11 Other techniques: SSR (self standing riser) technology: Used in development of Deep Water marginal oil fields • It enables early production • Lower drilling time and cost • Achieving fast first oil
  33. 33. 4.11 Other drilling techniques: 1) Offshore side tracking: wells on a platform reached economic limit Using these wells to sidetrack marginal fields Applied in: Dessert project 2) Underbalanced drilling: wellbore pressure < formation pressure • Providing production testing during drilling • Reduce formation damage • Applied in: Indonesia In high pour point marginal oil reservoirs
  34. 34. 4.11 Other techniques: •Extended reach drilling: • Enhancing production by accessing different parts of reservoir • Common practice in many areas • Having many challenges
  35. 35. • Hydraulic fracturing mostly used in marginal fields have several bad impacts on shallow water sources • High water cut off in heavy oil marginal fields requires high number of pours which contaminate subsurface water aquifers • Disuse of mud in radial drilling reduces formation damage Environmental impact
  36. 36. Case histories
  37. 37. Conventional Case Studies LOCATION DESCRIPTION SOLUTION RESULT West Qaron Field High cost for a separate pipeline A small connection From adjacent field IRR changed from -2.8% to 12% Gazwarina Field High cost for a production facility Use of excess processing capacity of SUCO base Field put on production Zafarana Field Effective way of handling crude oil Utilizing "The Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) tanker" 50% cost savings production facilities South Bdran Field Esp went down twice Using 3.5 inches coil tubing gas lift line to transmit the gas from the nearest platform Operating cost reduced considerably
  38. 38. Conventional Case Studies Cont. LOCATION DESCRIPTION SOLUTION RESULT Mengkapan Field, Indonesia. high water cut. squeeze cementing Oil rate increased from 36 BOPD to 104 BOPD. Umusadege, Nigeria Field Economically Unattractive Improved fiscal terms, Reduced royalty based on a sliding scale and lower profit tax Investment was carried out in this fields Semberah Field, Indonesia Difficulty in conducting detailed reservoir study Using the in-plant test separator as a production separator( Portable) The integrity of the development plan resulted in raising oil production from 5,000 to 12,000 BOPD
  39. 39. Unconventional Case Studies Cont. LOCATION DESCRIPTION SOLUTION RESULT Gemsa Field High operating costs for a marginal reserve Cable deployed ESP Reducing workover costs July Field Located in a complex structure area (Up-dip attic oil reserve) Horizontal drilling Development of an estimated attic oil reserves of about 5 MMBO October Field High operating costs for a marginal reserve Slim-hole Technology Reduced the drilling cost and saved 80% of the cost of a conventional completion Geisum Field High operating costs for a marginal reserve Convert jack-up rig to offshore platform Operating cost is reduced to 1.35 USD/Bbl
  40. 40. Unconventional Case Studies- Cont’d LOCATION DESCRIPTION SOLUTION RESULT Semberah Field, Indonesia Difficulty in conducting detailed reservoir study Extreme overbalance perforating Oil production increased from 5,000 to 12,000 BOPD Alberta Field, Canada technical challenges Horizontal wells, water injection, dual ESP system, subsea tieback technology and subsea multiphase metering. Horizontal wells produced 15:20 000 The Younis Field high operating cost for marginal field use of coiled tubing Reduce the cost of pipe and time needed for pipe installation
  41. 41. Case study from Al Alamien Field  Acid Frac : L Bah AR/G M Bah SR Pump
  42. 42. • For marginal oil fields , the principal criteria for selecting the field development option was : technical feasibility , economic profile , environmental considerations • The real challenge is not in selecting the most suitable technologies but in the way these technologies will be managed. • It is less the power of the weapons which will lead to victory than the art of using them. • The reservoir engineering responsibility of a marginal field must be given to an engineer who ‘FEELS’ the reservoir more than to one who ‘COMPUTES’ it Conclusion
  43. 43. References  Technology for Developing Marginal Offshore Oilfields.  Subsea engineering hand book.  Leye A. Adetoba, SPE, Chevron Nigeria Ltd. The Nigerian Marginal Field Initiative: Recent Developments. Paper SPE 163040. Presented at the Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition held in Abuja, Nigeria, 6–8 August 2012.  Samuel HUSY - Total S.A.. Marginal Fields: Technology Enables Profitability / Marginal Fields and their Challenges. Paper OTC 21382. Presented for presentation at the Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 2–5 May 2011.  M.El Awady. MARGINAL FIELDS DEVELOPMENT IN WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT. Paper OMC 2001-27. Presented at the offshore Mediterranean and Exhibition in Ravenna, Italy , March 28-3-2001.
  44. 44.  A. Hassan, SPE, Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, H. Elshahawi and K. Gad, SPE, Schlumberger Oilfield Services. An Integrated Approach to Marginal Field Development: Case History from the Gulf of Suez. Paper SPE 64661. Presented at the SPE International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition in China held in Beijing, China, 7–10 November 2000.  Franco Bottazzi - ENI E&P Division. Marginal Field Development Using CT Completion. Paper SPE 81706. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Conference held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 8–9 April 2003.  Oluropo Rufus Ayodele, SPE, and Samuel Frimpong, School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada. Economics of Nigerian Marginal Oil Fields. Paper SPE 81998. Presented at the SPE Hydrocarbon Economics and Evaluation Symposium held in Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., 5–8 April 2003.  Akinpelu, L.O, SPE, Omole O.A., SPE – University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Economics of Nigerian Marginal Oil Fields – Identifying High Impact Variables. Paper SPE 128343. Presented at the 33rd Annual SPE International  Technical Conference and Exhibition in Abuja, Nigeria, August 3-5, 2009.  John Conway, Doug Rogers, VECO, Canda. MARGINAL OIL FIELDS. Paper WPC 30180. References Cont’d
  45. 45. Quotes If Opportunity doesn’t Knock, build a door. Despite hard work, when you are done it’s awesome.
  46. 46. Quotes Cont’d Great days with great team. Individually we are one drop. Together, we are an ocean. I had an amazing adventure and great experience the last month, ( it was a win-win deal ). Union with discipline is the hidden power which creates success
  47. 47. Quotes Cont’d
  48. 48. Thank You