language of technological advances, or what is considered the new, critical literacies of the 21st century
LIB 640 Information Sources and Services Summer 2010 Let the trumpet sound . . . ! Applying 21st Century Literacy Skills
21st Century Literacy Skills? AKA “New Literacies” The new literacies is [are?] about online reading comprehension and learning skills required by the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICTs), including content found on wikis, blogs, video and audio sites and in e-mail. New Literacies: Entering the FutureBy Angela Pascopella June 2008
Why is this so significant? A Changing World for Literacy Teachers Global economies, new technologies, and exponential growth in information are transforming our society. . . . English/language arts teachers need to prepare students for this world with problem solving, collaboration, and analysis — as well as skills with word processing, hypertext, LCDs, Web cams, digital streaming podcasts, smartboards, and social networking software — central to individual and community success. 21st Century Literacies by National Council of Teachers of English (2007)
Multimodal Literacies There are increased cognitive demands on the audience to interpret the intertextuality of communication events that include combinations of print, speech, images, sounds, movement, music, and animation. Products may blur traditional lines of genre, author/audience, and linear sequence. A summary statement developed by the Multimodal Literacies Issue Management Team of the NCTE Executive Committee. Approved by the NCTE Executive Committee, November 2005
What You See Might Not Be What You Think You Get!! You need to evaluate what you find on the web
First: What is the Internet? For one thing, it’s not really “the net”, it’s the “nets”: The internet is “a cooperatively-run collection of computer networks that span the globe.”
Is it the same as the Web? Internet ≠ World Wide Web The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant messaging and FTP. The Difference Between the Internet and the World Wide Web
Fishing the Internet Ocean The Internet is No Pond! ISC: ISC Internet Domain Survey(April, 2010): 758,081,484hosts in the Domain Name System Internet 2009 in numbers 234 million – The number of websites as of December 2009.47 million – Added websites in 2009. Compare:The Library of Congress has “Total of 144,562,233 items in the collections.” (Year 2009 at a Glance )
Can You Use All the Fish You Catch in the Internet Ocean? Anyone can (and probably will) put anything up on the Internet It is often difficult to tell Many things are not filtered or reviewed Why we need to evaluate what we find on the Internet http://www.lib.purdue.edu/research/techman/eval.htmlOriginally published 1996. Cosmetic update 2001. Minor nudge, 05/2004.
10 When You’ve Found Your Fish Ask Yourself: Is it fresh? Look for a date, if currency is important Does it have all the parts it should have? Check for the accuracy of the statements Check the coverage: does it include everything you’re looking for? Does it come from a good, reputable source? What is the authority? Who is the author? Who is the publisher? Can you trust them? Do they show objectivity—or are they trying to present a particular point of view? Expansion of Evaluating Information on the World Wide Web http://library.ups.edu/research/handouts/eval.htm
11 Compare these websites! Martin Luther King: A True Historical Examination http://www.martinlutherking.org/
The Martin Luther King Research and Education Institute
Look for differences in the way the material is presented! Do you get the same message from the two sites—or a different one?
12 The Beast as Saint:The Truth About “Martin Luther King, Jr.”by Kevin Alfred Strom Martin Luther King: A True Historical Examination
Hosted by Stormfront
13 Keeping King’s Dream Alive for Future Generations Building upon the achievements of Stanford University’s Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers Project, the King Research and Education Institute provides an institutional home for a broad range of activities illuminating the Nobel Peace laureate’s life and the movements he inspired. Dissertation of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1955)
Some websites to examine The City of MankatoMankato is a major regional center that has been designated as the 14th Most Livable Micropolitan City in the Nation. http://www.mankato.mn.us/ Mankato, Minnesota Home Page Its natural wonders, history, and culture. Let’s “Make It In Mankato” ! ! http://city-mankato.us
Articles you can read! Whales in the Minnesota River? On the web, it's sometimes difficult to distinguish truth from fiction. This New York Times article shows why skepticism is a good thing when dealing with information found on the web. Includes links to sites that help visitors know how to evaluate Internet resources. http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/circuits/articles/04trut.html (You may need to register first to read it—it’s free, though) But — I found it on the Internet! An article from the Christian Science Monitor examining why it is crucial that students learn media literacy skills. http://kathyschrock.net/planting2/pdf/group1.pdf
Some Critical Thinking Guidelines 1) Make sure you are in the right place. 2) When in doubt, doubt. 3) Consider the source. 4) Know what's happening. 5) Look at details. 6) Distinguish Web pages from pages found on the Web. ICYouSee: T is for Thinkinghttp://www.ithaca.edu/library/training/think.html
A Web Site About Evaluating The Internet Detective Agency The Internet Detective Agency, a WebQuest for grades 9-12 created in August 2004[, was] Created by Debbie Clingingsmith (email: firstname.lastname@example.org), a sometime teacher and current information technology director for a high school in San Francisco. The Internet Detective Agency WebQuest is designed for high school students. http://imet.csus.edu/imet6/clingingsmith/html%20-%202nd%20tier/iMET6/WQ/IDA/IDA-Introduction.htm
Not all technology, though 21st Century Literacies refer to the skills needed to flourish in today's society and in the future.Todaydiscrete disciplines have emerged around information, media, multicultural, and visual literacies. It is the combination of literacies that can better help K-12 students and adult learners address and solve the issues that confront them.21st Century Literacies Homepage
Information literacy Information Literacy Accessing information efficiently and effectively, evaluating information critically and competently and using information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand Possessing a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information
Information Literacy information literacy (IL) Skill in finding the information one needs, including an understanding of how libraries are organized, familiarity with the resources they provide (including information formats and automatedsearch tools), and knowledge of commonly used research techniques. Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science
What is information literacy? Information Literacy is the ability to access, evaluate, and apply information from a variety of sources and in a variety of contexts. John Spellman Library and Media Center
Guided Inquiry What is Guided Inquiry? Guided Inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning.
Six principles of Guided Inquiry Students learn by being actively engaged and reflecting on that experience Students learn by building on what they already know Students develop higher order thinking through guidance at critical points in the learning process
Six characteristics Students have different ways of learning Students have different ways and modes of learning Students learn through social interaction with others Students’ development occurs in a sequence of stages Children learn through instruction and experience in accord with their cognitive development
Implementing Guided Inquiry Effective inquiry through the school library is guided and structured Guided Inquiry revolves around mediation and intervention. The Information Search Process provides a useful framework for understanding students’ journey of information seeking and use, and a basis for guiding and intervening to ensure learning is meaningful
Kuhlthau’s research-based research method Information Search Process See also Kuhlthau: Information Search Processhttp://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/information_search_process.htm
Guided Inquiry Implementation(cont.) Effective inquiry through the school library is shared. Specific interventions are determined by the stage of the search process, the affective, cognitive and behavioral needs of the learners, and the curriculum standards and goals to be achieved Guided Inquiry is an opportunity for the school to provide some comprehensive evidence of how the teaching and learning focus of the school library improves student learning outcomes
Learning Centered Model Third Space in Guided Inquiry Third Space first space ←←←←← ->->->->-> second space personal Merger curriculum student centered ←← learning centered ->-> teacher centered From: Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century. Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited, p. 32.
Creating Third Space Interthinking Neil Mercer (2000) refers to ‘interthinking’ occurring when people talk and develop ideas together. He proposes an Intermental Development Zone which we can imagine as the area between us when we talk together and combine our ideas. New knowledge is created. “Dialogue and Reflection,” ProDAIT Mercer, N. (2000). Words and Minds: how we use language to think together. London: Routledge.
Teaming philosophy Community of learners Students who are comfortable conversing and listening freely in small groups Community of guides Teachers who model personal connections and are comfortable with flexible team approaches to planning instructional experiences
Community of learners Inquiry Circles (AKA Information Circles) select relevant non-fiction resources on a specific topic for the students or guide students to select their own resources introduce roles by distributing the role description and modelling their job in action organize students into goups of 4 or 5 for a designated block of time; switch roles at the end of the time block or as needed provide students with folders to help keep information organized Taken from Info Tasks for Successful Learningby Carol Koechlin and Sandi Zwaan.
Our artifact as an example Our goal Record what we know of the trumpet in American history and develop an inquiry project based on our knowledge
Follow the Big 6 Task definition What do we know? Trumpet as an instrument of war Trumpet as an instrument of peace Classical Popular Jazz Valaida Snow, Queen of Trumpet, “Little Louis”
2 aspects of Task Definition Inquiry circle job: Questioner (“Quiz kid”) 1.1 Define the information problem What do we want to know? Story of Valaida Snow’s life and her music 1.2 Identify information needs Biographical information Music samples
Big 6 Task 2 Information Seeking Strategies Job: Evaluator 2.1 Determine all possible sources Books? Articles? Web sites? 2.2 Select the best sources
Big 6 Task 3 Location and Access Job: Data Digger 3.1 Locate the sources (both intellectually and physically) In school’s media center, public or other libraryWorldCathttp://www.worldcat.org Search KYVL and Google 3.2 Find information within the sources
Some sources on Valaida Books: Allen, Candace. Valaida: A Novel. London: Virago, 2004. Miller, Mark. High Hat, Trumpet and Rhythm: The Life and Music of Valaida Snow. Toronto: Mercury, 2007. Articles: Charles, Mario A. “The Age of a Jazzwoman: Valada Snow, 1900-1956. The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 80, No. 4 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 183-191. Reitz, Rosetta. “Hot Snow: Valaida Snow (Queen of the Trumpet and Swings).” Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 16, No. 4, Black Theatre Issue (Winter, 1982), pp. 158-160