LIB 640 Information Sources and Services
Let the trumpet sound . . . !
Applying 21st Century Literacy Skills
21st Century Literacy Skills?
AKA “New Literacies”
The new literacies is [are?]
about online reading
comprehension and learning
skills required by the Internet and other
information and communication
technologies (ICTs), including content
found on wikis, blogs, video and audio
sites and in e-mail.
New Literacies: Entering the Future
By Angela Pascopella
Why is this so significant?
A Changing World for Literacy Teachers
Global economies, new technologies, and exponential
growth in information are transforming our society. . .
. English/language arts teachers need to prepare
students for this world with problem solving,
collaboration, and analysis — as well as skills with
word processing, hypertext, LCDs, Web cams, digital
streaming podcasts, smartboards, and social
networking software — central to individual and
21st Century Literacies
by National Council of Teachers of English
There are increased cognitive demands on the
audience to interpret the intertextuality of
communication events that include combinations of
print, speech, images, sounds, movement, music, and
animation. Products may blur traditional lines of
genre, author/audience, and linear sequence.
A summary statement developed by the Multimodal Literacies Issue
Management Team of the NCTE Executive Committee. Approved by
the NCTE Executive Committee, November 2005
What You See Might Not Be
What You Think You Get!!
You need to
evaluate what You
find on the web
First: What is the Internet?
For one thing, it’s not really “the net”, it’s
The internet is “a cooperatively-run collection
of computer networks that span the globe.”
Is it the same as the Web?
Internet ≠ World Wide Web
The Internet is a massive network of networks, a
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing
information over the medium of the Internet. It is an
information-sharing model that is built on top of the
The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which
relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant messaging
The Difference Between the Internet and the World Wide Web
Fishing the Internet Ocean
The Internet is No Pond!
ISC Internet Domain Survey (January 2009):
625,226,456 hosts in the Domain Name System
Internet 2008 in numbers
186,727,854 – The number of websites
on the Internet in December 2008.
31.5 million – The number of websites added during 2008
Compare: The Library of Congress has
“138,313,427 items in the collections.” (Year 2007 at a Glance )
Can You Use All the Fish You 9
Catch in the Internet Ocean?
Anyone can (and
probably will) put
anything up on the
It is often
difficult to tell
Many things are not filtered or
Why we need to evaluate what we find on the Internet
Originally published 1996. Cosmetic update 2001. Minor nudge, 05/2004.
When You’ve Found Your Fish
Is it fresh?
Look for a date, if currency is important
Does it have all the parts it should have?
Check for the accuracy of the statements
Check the coverage: does it include everything you’re
Does it come from a good, reputable source?
What is the authority? Who is the author? Who is the
publisher? Can you trust them? Do they show objectivity—
or are they trying to present a particular point of view?
See Evaluating Information on the World Wide Web
Compare these websites!
Martin Luther King: A True Historical Examinat
• The Martin Luther King Research and Education Institu
Look for differences in the way the material is
presented! Do you get the same message from the two
sites—or a different one?
The Beast as Saint:
The Truth About “Martin
Luther King, Jr.”
by Kevin Alfred Strom
Martin Luther King: A True Historical Examination
Hosted by Stormfront
Keeping King’s Dream Alive for
Building upon the achievements of Stanford
University’s Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers
Project, the King Research and Education
Institute provides an institutional home for a
broad range of activities illuminating the
Nobel Peace laureate’s life and the
movements he inspired.
Dissertation of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1955)
Some websites to examine
The City of Mankato
Mankato, Minnesota Home Page Mankato is a major regional
Its natural wonders, history, center that has been designated
and culture. as the 14th Most Livable
Let’s “Make It In Mankato” ! ! Micropolitan City in the Nation.
Articles you can read!
Whales in the Minnesota River?
On the web, it's sometimes difficult to distinguish truth from
fiction. This New York Times article shows why skepticism is a
good thing when dealing with information found on the web.
Includes links to sites that help visitors know how to evaluate
may need to register first to read it—it’s free, though)
But — I found it on the Internet!
An article from the Christian Science Monitor examining why
it is crucial that students learn media literacy skills.
Some Critical Thinking Guidelines
1) Make sure you are in the right place.
2) When in doubt, doubt.
3) Consider the source.
4) Know what's happening.
5) Look at details.
6) Distinguish Web pages from
pages found on the Web.
ICYouSee: T is for Thinking
A Web Site About Evaluating
The Internet Detective Agency
The Internet Detective Agency, a WebQuest for grades 9-12
created in August 2004[, was] Created by Debbie
Clingingsmith (email: email@example.com), a sometime
teacher and current information technology director for a high
school in San Francisco.
The Internet Detective Agency WebQuest is designed for high
Not all technology, though
21st Century Literacies refer to the skills needed to flourish in today's society and
in the future.Today discrete disciplines have emerged around information, media,
multicultural, and visual literacies. It is the combination of literacies that can
better help K-12 students and adult learners address and solve the issues that
confront them. 21st Century Literacies Homepage
Accessing information efficiently and
effectively, evaluating information critically
and competently and using information
accurately and creatively for the issue or
problem at hand
Possessing a fundamental understanding of
the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access
and use of information
information literacy (IL)
Skill in finding the information one needs,
including an understanding of how libraries
are organized, familiarity with the resources
they provide (including information formats
and automated search tools), and knowledge
of commonly used research techniques.
Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science
What is information literacy?
If you are information literate,
you are able to
know when you have a need for information
find the information you need
evaluate the information you find and use it
effectively to meet your needs
INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION
LITERACY: THE PROCESS
What is Guided Inquiry?
Guided Inquiry is carefully
planned, closely supervised
targeted intervention of an
instructional team of school librarians
and teachers to guide students through
curriculum based inquiry units that
build deep knowledge and deep
understanding of a curriculum
topic, and gradually lead towards
Six principles of Guided Inquiry
I. Students learn by being actively engaged and reflecting o
II. Students learn by building on what they already know
III. Students develop higher order thinking through guidanc
I. Students have different ways of learning
Students have different ways and modes of
II. Students learn through social interaction with o
III. Students’ development occurs in a sequence of s
Children learn through instruction and experience
in accord with their cognitive
Implementing Guided Inquiry
¯ Effective inquiry through the school library is
guided and structured
¯ Guided Inquiry revolves around mediation
¯ The Information Search Process provides a
useful framework for understanding students’
journey of information seeking and use, and a
basis for guiding and intervening to ensure
learning is meaningful
Information Search Process
See also Kuhlthau: Information Search Process
Guided Inquiry Implementation
1. Effective inquiry through the school library is
2. Specific interventions are determined by the stage
of the search process, the affective, cognitive and
behavioral needs of the learners, and the
curriculum standards and goals to be achieved
3. Guided Inquiry is an opportunity for the school to
provide some comprehensive evidence of how the
teaching and learning focus of the school library
improves student learning outcomes
Learning Centered Model
Third Space in Guided Inquiry
first space ←←←←← →→→→→ second space
personal Merger curriculum
student centered ←← learning centered →→ teacher centered
From: Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century. Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited, p. 32.
Creating Third Space
Neil Mercer (2000) refers to
‘interthinking’ occurring when
people talk and develop ideas together.
He proposes an Intermental Development Zone
which we can imagine as the area between us
when we talk together and combine our ideas.
New knowledge is created.
“Dialogue and Reflection,” ProDAIT
Mercer, N. (2000). Words and Minds: how we use language
to think together. London: Routledge.
Community of learners
Students who are comfortable
conversing and listening freely
in small groups
Community of guides
Teachers who model personal connections
and are comfortable with flexible team
approaches to planning instructional
Community of learners
Inquiry Circles (AKA Information Circles)
select relevant non-fiction resources on a specific topic for
the students or guide students to select their own
introduce roles by distributing the role description and
modelling their job in action
organize students into goups of 4 or 5 for a designated
block of time; switch roles at the end of the time block or
provide students with folders to help keep information
Taken from Info Tasks for Successful Learning by Carol Koechlin and Sandi
2 aspects of
Inquiry circle job: Questioner (“Quiz kid”)
1.1 Define the information problem
What do we want to know?
Story of Valaida Snow’s life and
1.2 Identify information needs
Big 6 Task 2
Information Seeking Strategies
2.1 Determine all possible sources
2.2 Select the best sources
Big 6 Task 3
Location and Access
Job: Data Digger
3.1 Locate the sources
(both intellectually and physically)
In school’s media center, public or other library
Search KYVL and Google
3.2 Find information within the sources
Some sources on Valaida
Allen, Candace. Valaida: A Novel.
London: Virago, 2004.
Miller, Mark. High Hat, Trumpet and Rhythm:
The Life and Music of Valaida Snow. Toronto:
Charles, Mario A. “The Age of a Jazzwoman: Valada Snow,
1900-1956. The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 80, No. 4
(Autumn, 1995), pp. 183-191.
Reitz, Rosetta. “Hot Snow: Valaida Snow (Queen of the
Trumpet and Swings).” Black American Literature Forum, Vol.
16, No. 4, Black Theatre Issue (Winter, 1982), pp. 158-160