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  1. 1. Characteristics of Fungi Eukaryotic Cell walls contain carbohydrate-chitin Multicellular (except yeast) Reproduce- asexually/sexually (spores) Heterotrophic – absorption ” digest then ingest” (hyphae) Mostly immobile (sessile)
  2. 2. Basic Structure of a Fungus The body of fungus made thin strands called hyphae. As hyphae grow, form tangled mass called mycelium. Hyphae grow on/in “ food source” releasing enzymes that digest food outside their body. Hyphae 1 cell thick- facilitates diffusion/absorption.
  3. 3. Hyphae Mycelium  Mushroom
  4. 4. Reproduction Fungi produce spores Spores = reproductive cells Spores withstand harsh conditions by becoming dormant Favorable conditions cause spores form new fungus Spores made both asexually and sexually Fungi reproduce asexually when environmental conditions are favorable. Fungi reproduce sexually when environmental conditions are unfavorable. Fungi do not have male/female- instead “ +” and “ -” mating types.
  5. 5. Groups of Fungi Fungi classified 4 major groups based on their sexual reproductive structure:1) Zygomycota2) Ascomycota3) Basidiomycota4) Deuteromycota
  6. 6. Phylum Zygomycota Smallest group “ Molds” - ex) bread mold Specialized hyphae: -rhizoids: “ roots” penetrate/anchor fungus to bread, release enzymes digest food source, and absorb nutrients Asexual reproduction: sporangiophores: hyphae that grow up into the air produce sporangium store spores. Spores usually carried by air Sexual reproduction: zygospore formed when +/- hyphae fuse
  7. 7. Phylum Ascomycota (sac Largest Group fungi) ex) yeast, mildew, morels, truffles, cup fungi Asexual Reproduction: hyphae called conidiophores produce conidia (spores) Sexual Reproduction: form spores called ascospores in “ saclike” structures called an ascus Each ascus bursts open shooting spores into the air
  8. 8. Phylum Basidiomycota (club fungi) ex) mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi The part of the mushroom that lives above ground is called the “ fruiting body.” Rarely reproduce asexually Sexual Reproduction: spores called basidiospores form under caps of mushrooms on structures called basidia
  9. 9. Phylum Deuteromycota ex) Penicillin, many disease causing fungi. No sexual phase in life cycle Spores are produced asexually.
  10. 10. Harmful Fungi Parasites (+/-) cause disease in plants and humans Plants: corn smut, mildew, wheat rust Humans: athlete’s foot, ringworm, histoplasmosis
  11. 11. Helpful Fungi1) Decomposers2) Food and food production (yeast)3) Antibiotics: Penicillin/Erythromycin
  12. 12. Helpful Fungi (cont.)4) Mutalistic relationship (+/+) with plants Mycorrhizae – plant root and mycelium fungi Plant provides food from doing photosynthesis Fungus absorb water/minerals and breaks down nutrients in soil
  13. 13. Helpful Fungi (cont.)5) Lichens - mutualistic relationship, fungus and cyanobacteria/algae Cyanobacteria/algae provides food from doing photosynthesis Fungus absorb water/minerals
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