Basic Structure of a Fungus The body of fungus made thin strands called hyphae. As hyphae grow, form tangled mass called mycelium. Hyphae grow on/in “ food source” releasing enzymes that digest food outside their body. Hyphae 1 cell thick- facilitates diffusion/absorption.
Hyphae Mycelium Mushroom
Reproduction Fungi produce spores Spores = reproductive cells Spores withstand harsh conditions by becoming dormant Favorable conditions cause spores form new fungus Spores made both asexually and sexually Fungi reproduce asexually when environmental conditions are favorable. Fungi reproduce sexually when environmental conditions are unfavorable. Fungi do not have male/female- instead “ +” and “ -” mating types.
Groups of Fungi Fungi classified 4 major groups based on their sexual reproductive structure:1) Zygomycota2) Ascomycota3) Basidiomycota4) Deuteromycota
Phylum Zygomycota Smallest group “ Molds” - ex) bread mold Specialized hyphae: -rhizoids: “ roots” penetrate/anchor fungus to bread, release enzymes digest food source, and absorb nutrients Asexual reproduction: sporangiophores: hyphae that grow up into the air produce sporangium store spores. Spores usually carried by air Sexual reproduction: zygospore formed when +/- hyphae fuse
Phylum Ascomycota (sac Largest Group fungi) ex) yeast, mildew, morels, truffles, cup fungi Asexual Reproduction: hyphae called conidiophores produce conidia (spores) Sexual Reproduction: form spores called ascospores in “ saclike” structures called an ascus Each ascus bursts open shooting spores into the air
Phylum Basidiomycota (club fungi) ex) mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi The part of the mushroom that lives above ground is called the “ fruiting body.” Rarely reproduce asexually Sexual Reproduction: spores called basidiospores form under caps of mushrooms on structures called basidia
Phylum Deuteromycota ex) Penicillin, many disease causing fungi. No sexual phase in life cycle Spores are produced asexually.
Harmful Fungi Parasites (+/-) cause disease in plants and humans Plants: corn smut, mildew, wheat rust Humans: athlete’s foot, ringworm, histoplasmosis
Helpful Fungi1) Decomposers2) Food and food production (yeast)3) Antibiotics: Penicillin/Erythromycin
Helpful Fungi (cont.)4) Mutalistic relationship (+/+) with plants Mycorrhizae – plant root and mycelium fungi Plant provides food from doing photosynthesis Fungus absorb water/minerals and breaks down nutrients in soil
Helpful Fungi (cont.)5) Lichens - mutualistic relationship, fungus and cyanobacteria/algae Cyanobacteria/algae provides food from doing photosynthesis Fungus absorb water/minerals