Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
OtherTopics –RelatedtoImmuneSystem
Other Topics – Related   to Immune System• Antigens- “marker proteins”• Blood Transfusions and Organ  Transplants• It is t...
Blood Transfusions and the Immune             System• Blood cells have marker proteins or  “antigens” If the key fits the ...
Organ Transplants and the     Immune System• Foreign organs also have marker  proteins.• If recognized as “foreign” = REJE...
What if the immune      system fails?• Sometimes the immune system loses the  ability to distinguish itself from non-self....
LUPUS• Person’s immune system attacks various  organs or cells of the body (skin, joints,  kidneys, heart, and lungs) caus...
LUPUSSymptoms:• Fatigue• Low-grade fever, rarely exceeding 102°F• Muscle pain and joint pain or swelling• Skin rash (face,...
MultipleSclerosis• Immune system  attacks mylein  around nerve cells• Symptoms: loss ability to walk and move,  loss bladd...
What if the immune      system fails?• Sometimes the immune system collapses• Ex) HIV• Virus invades macrophages and helpe...
AIDS (Acquired Immune  Deficiency Syndrome)• Retrovirus (has RNA instead of DNA).• Lysogenic (stays dormant for a long  pe...
Transmission of HIV•    Four main ways1.   Sexual intercourse.2.   Intravenous drug use (sharing needles)3.   Blood to blo...
What if the immune       system fails?• Sometimes the immune  system overreacts  thinking something is a  pathogen when it...
Steps – Allergic           Reaction• 1) Pollen inhaled• 2) cells of nasal  passage called mast  cells release chemical-  h...
Asthma• Leading cause of serious illness among  children.• Causes narrowing of air passages (people  can’t breathe).• Can ...
Immune System and        Cancer• Major function of immune system is to  patrol for cancer cells• Called Immunological Surv...
Other topics immune system 3
Other topics immune system 3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Other topics immune system 3

274 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Other topics immune system 3

  1. 1. OtherTopics –RelatedtoImmuneSystem
  2. 2. Other Topics – Related to Immune System• Antigens- “marker proteins”• Blood Transfusions and Organ Transplants• It is the job of the immune system to distinguish between the body’s own molecules and foreign molecules
  3. 3. Blood Transfusions and the Immune System• Blood cells have marker proteins or “antigens” If the key fits the lock = bad!!!
  4. 4. Organ Transplants and the Immune System• Foreign organs also have marker proteins.• If recognized as “foreign” = REJECTION.• Doctors must “match” a new organs marker proteins to the patients.• Drugs can help suppress the immune response (immunosuppresants).
  5. 5. What if the immune system fails?• Sometimes the immune system loses the ability to distinguish itself from non-self.• Results in autoimmune disease• Body attacks own tissues• Ex) lupus, multiple sclerosis, arthritis
  6. 6. LUPUS• Person’s immune system attacks various organs or cells of the body (skin, joints, kidneys, heart, and lungs) causing damage• Lupus is a multi-system disease because it can affect many different tissues and organs in the body.
  7. 7. LUPUSSymptoms:• Fatigue• Low-grade fever, rarely exceeding 102°F• Muscle pain and joint pain or swelling• Skin rash (face, back, arms) and hair loss• Kidney problems and weight loss
  8. 8. MultipleSclerosis• Immune system attacks mylein around nerve cells• Symptoms: loss ability to walk and move, loss bladder control, paralysis and death
  9. 9. What if the immune system fails?• Sometimes the immune system collapses• Ex) HIV• Virus invades macrophages and helper T cells• Without these WBC immune response will not work• Body becomes overwhelmed with pathogens (HIV  AIDS)
  10. 10. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)• Retrovirus (has RNA instead of DNA).• Lysogenic (stays dormant for a long period of time).• Easily evades immune system. 1. Mutates quickly. 2. Covers itself with marker proteins from host cell (difficult to detect).
  11. 11. Transmission of HIV• Four main ways1. Sexual intercourse.2. Intravenous drug use (sharing needles)3. Blood to blood contact4. Mother to child during pregnancy or breast feeding.
  12. 12. What if the immune system fails?• Sometimes the immune system overreacts thinking something is a pathogen when it is NOT• Allergy- immune system response to a non- pathogenic antigen• Ex) pollen, food, insect bite, dust, etc.
  13. 13. Steps – Allergic Reaction• 1) Pollen inhaled• 2) cells of nasal passage called mast cells release chemical- histamine• 3) nearby capillaries swell- increases fluid*Allergies are treated with medication that contains antihistamines (chemical that blocks histamine)
  14. 14. Asthma• Leading cause of serious illness among children.• Causes narrowing of air passages (people can’t breathe).• Can be triggered by stress, environmental factors, allergies, or genetic factors.• Medication (usually a steroid) needs to be taken to make breathing easier.
  15. 15. Immune System and Cancer• Major function of immune system is to patrol for cancer cells• Called Immunological Surveillance• Killer-T cells can identify, attack, and destroy cancer cells

×