MODERN LATIN AMERICA Jessica Gunn History 141 Course #50587
Latin America's Wars RACE WAR - The Haitian War for Independence - a struggle between the white planters and black slaves and those of mixed blood. SEPARATION VERSUS UNION - When Spain was forced to abandon Latin America, the question become whether the territories would become a single nation or whether they would break up. BOUNDARY DISPUTES - The poorly defined boundaries of the newly independent nations caused wars. Spain transferred vast areas from one administrative entity to another in attempts to improve political, social, and economic control causing conflicts between the nations. WARS OF TERRITORIAL CONQUEST - the newly formed nations conducted campaigns against the native Indians.
Latin America's WarsCAUDILLOISM Caudillo is a Spanish word for "leader" and usually describes a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian poweror warlord, dictator or strongman. The related caudillismo is a cultural phenomenon that first appeared during the early 19th century in revolutionary South America, as a type of militia leader with a charismatic personality and enough of a populist program of generic future reforms to gain broad sympathy among the common people. The power of a caudillo was his ability to deliver his followers to the cause of his choice.
Argentina Civil WarBattle of Cepeda of 1820 Date: February 1, 1820 Location: Cepeda, Santa Fe Province near the frontier with the Province of Buenos Aires. Battle between Unitarians and Federals. Both sides employed brutality and often would not take prisoners. EstanislaoLópez and Francisco Ramírez led the Federalists to victory. The Provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires signed the Treaty of Pilar on February 23
Argentina Civil WarBattle of Cepeda of 1820 Unitarian League A league of provinces of Argentina, aiming to unite the country under unitarian principles Established in 1830. Led by José MaríaPaz. Composedbytheprovinces of San Luis, La Rioja, Catamarca, Mendoza, San Juan, Tucumán, Córdoba, Salta and Santiago del Estero. Federales A group opposing the Unitarios that claimed a centralized government of Buenos Aires Province. Supported the autonomy of the provincial governments and the distribution of external commerce taxes among the provinces.
THE SECOND WORLDmexico: the umbilical cord January 1, 1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement went into effect and the Zapatista National Liberation Army started a renewed insurgency. Manufactured goods account for 80% of Mexico’s exports. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador was mayor of Mexico City from 2000 to 2005. Created social and food support programs for the elderly. Roughly half the population of the country is living in poverty with ever increasing numbers of illegal immigrants into America. While drugs are not primarily produced in Mexico, other countries use Mexico to smuggle drugs into the United States.
THE SECOND WORLDvenezuela: bolivar’s revenge Hugo Chavez is the 56th and current President of Venezuela, having held that position since 1999. Follows his own political ideology of Bolivarianism. Chavez disagrees with U.S. foreign policy and allies himself strongly with the of governments of Cuba, Argentina, Jamaica, Bolivia, Ecuador, and even China. Venezuela is a major producer of oil products. The Venezuelan government uses oil as its main economic staple while neglecting other industries.
THE SECOND WORLDcolombia: the andeanbalkans? The only South American country with both Pacific and Caribbean coasts. Colombia is split by three Andean mountain ranges that create distinct cultures on each side. Colombia is the leading source of almost all the cocaine and half the heroine sold in the U.S. Home to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), a terrorist guerilla organization.
THE SECOND WORLDbrazil: the southern pole Brazil is the largest country in South America and it is the world's fifth largest country. Its economy is the world's seventh largest economy and the eighth largest by purchasing power parity. Almost half of Brazil’s exports go to developing countries. In 2003, Brazil had the highest rate of gun deaths in the world. Has become the largest producer and exporter of clean-burning ethanol in the world.
Sofia vergara Born: July 10, 1972 Was raised in Barranquilla, Colombia. She was ‘discovered’ by a photographer while walking on a Colombian beach. Vergara made her first appearance as a performer at the age of 17 in a Pepsi commercial that was widely broadcast in Latin America. She moved to Bogotá when she was 20, where she worked as a runway model and on television. Was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, two Primetime Emmy Awards, and three Screen Actors Guild Awards for her role as Gloria Delgado-Pritchetton the ABC series Modern Family. In 2011 Vergara was named the new face of CoverGirl.
Pablo escobar Born: December 1, 1949 Died: December 2, 1993 Escobar was a Colombian drug lord who specialized in cocaine trafficking. Became the head of the Medellíncartel. In 1989, Forbes magazine declared Escobar as the seventh richest man in the world, with an estimated personal fortune of US $25 billion. While he was a criminal to the U.S. and Colombian governments, he was a “Robin Hood” to the poor citizens of Medellin. He built footballfields and multi-sports courts, sponsoring children's football teams, constructed hospitals, schools and churches. Escobar was shot and killed by the Colombian National Police.