POPES AND THEIR ROLES IN HISTROY<br />PEOPLES AND EMPIRES<br />
POPE LEO iii<br />PAPACY: DECEMBER 27, 795 – JUNE 12, 816<br /><ul><li>The 97th Roman Catholic Pope.
Rose from the lower classes, because of this, the aristocrats who formed the bulk of the Vatican hierarchy resented him.
Was attacked in St.Peter’s Cathedral in 799 A.D. by member’s of his predecessor’s family. They attempted to cut out his tongue and gouge out his eyes. He escaped and fled to Charlemange.
Crowned Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in December of 800 A.D.
Forbade the addition of filioque, latin for “and from the son”, to the Nicene Creed.
Was canonized as saint in 1673 by Pope Clement X.</li></li></ul><li>POPE NICHOLAS V<br />PAPACY: MARCH 6, 1447 – MARCH 24, 1455 <br /><ul><li>Crowned Frederick III as Emperor in St.Peter’s. Was the last occasion of the coronation of an Emperor in Rome.
Had Rome’s streets and aqueducts restored. The Vatican, the Borgo district and St.Peter’s Basilica rebuilt. Reinforced the city’s fortifictions.
In 1455 he licensed King Afonso V of Portugal to “reduce to perpetual slavery” all the inhabitants of Africa, “and all southern coasts until their end”, as the “enemies of Christ”.</li></li></ul><li>POPE PIUS iii<br />PAPACY: SEPTEMBER 22, 1503 – OCTOBER 18, 1503 (26 DAYS)<br /><ul><li>Was made cardinal at the age of 21 by Pope Pius II, his uncle.
While Cardinal, he commissioned a library to house the humanist texts assembled by his uncle.
Though the books never made it to the library, the library is held as a monument to the High Renaissance in Siena.
After only a brief pontificate of twenty-six days he died of and ulcer in the leg, though some alleged that he was poisoned by PandolfoPetrucci, the governor of Siena.</li>