PEOPLES and empires<br />THE EIGHTY YEARS WAR & MUHAMMAD OF THE WEST<br />
THE EIGHTY YEARS’ WAR 1568-1648DUTCH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE<br />CAUSES<br /><ul><li>Heavy taxation by Spain.
Support and guidance from the government was hampered by the size of the Empire. It took at least four weeks to get a response from the throne. Because of this the Seventeen Provinces often acted without permission from the throne.
The Beeldenstorm (Iconoclastic Fury) of 1566 stripped all non-Roman Catholic Churches of statuary and other religious decorations.</li></li></ul><li>THE EIGHTY YEARS’ WAR 1568-1648DUTCH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE<br />TIMELINE<br />1568-1572 The Council of Troubles starts a campaign of repression against heretics and insurrectionists. 9,000 accused, 1,000 executed, many more fled. Taxes increased to fund the war.<br />1572-1576 Sea Beggars expelled from England captured Brill. Rebels won the battles of Borsele and Reimerswaal. Spanish troops mutinied at Zierikee because they had not been paid in two years.<br />1576-1579 The Pacification of Ghent was signed withdrawing Spanish troops and suspension of the placards against heresy. Holland formalized the defensive Union of Utrecht.<br />1579-1588 Orange conceded defeat and signed the Union of Utrecht. The secession of the States-General was formalized by the Act of Abjuration. In 1584 Orange was assassinated. Queen Elizabeth of England extended a protectorate over the Netherlands.<br />1588-1609 The Dutch Republic resurges. The Dutch States Army triples in size to 50,000, made up of mostly Scottish, English, German and Swiss mercenaries. <br />1609-1621 The Twelve Years’ Truce. Statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt convicted and beheaded.<br />1621-1629 Dutch ships ordered out of Spanish ports and trade embargoes renewed. Holland and Spain engaged in economic-warfare. <br />1629-1635 Wesel and ‘s-Hertogenbosch surrendered to Frederick Henry of the Republic. Peace talks failed.<br />1635-1640 The Treaty of Alliance was signed between the French and the Dutch. No Spanish-Netherland invasion ever materialized. The Dutch navy won the Battle of the Downs.<br />1640-1648 The Peace of Münster was signed on January 30,<br />1948, ending the Eighty Years War.<br />
1798-1801<br />NAPOLEAN’S EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGNE<br />Muhammad of the west<br />Napoleon Bonaparte led a campaign into Egypt to damage British trade in the eastern Mediterranean and threaten British India. Napoleon viewed himself as a liberator of the Egyptians from the Ottoman Empire rather than as a conqueror.<br />
<ul><li>June 9, 1798 – French fleet arrives at Malta. After taking the island by force, Napoleon frees the Barbary and Italian prisoners for humanitarian and political reasons.