Modern latin america


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Modern latin america

  1. 1. Modern Latin America<br />Jeffrey Phongsamran<br />
  2. 2. British Interest in Latin America<br />As the Latin American wars of independence was close to ended with the defeat of Spanish forces in Peru, Britain was looking to expand its economic interest.<br />Britain had been trying to gain influence in Latin America but merchants, privateers and ministers were unable to break into the monopoly of the Spanish and Portuguese empires.<br />British mania over Latin America rose dramatically in 1825 as eager speculators invested their savings in loans to the young governments and in mining enterprises.<br />However, the speculation in loans and mining stocks turned suddenly into a commercial and financial crisis.<br />
  3. 3. British Lose Ground<br />Despite the commercial and financial crises in the 1870’s to the 1890’s, Britain's economic interest in Latin America Peaked. Yet by the twentieth century Britain's influence had disappeared.<br />The First World War turned Britain from an international creditor into a debtor, making it impossible for London to gain its prewar eminence on overseas finance. It also permitted the United States to gain ground in Latin America. The depression added further blows.<br />The Second World War reduced trade even further and stuck Britain in a deeper debt. Investments in Latin America were sold to pay off the dept to Latin America. Latin America no longer possessed any significance.<br />
  4. 4. Evolution of Latin America<br />Latin America started as a frontier of European colonization, aside from Mexico and Andes, Spanish and Portuguese settlements were largely established on the coast.<br />Enormous disparities in wealth, income, and social status were evident all over Latin America.<br />Independence stimulated a reorientation of Latin America’s external economic structure. This caused a serious disruption of the domestic economies as the Spaniards and Portuguese fled and took with them large amounts of capital.<br />Despite a successful gaining of freedom, Spanish America’s political future remained undefined. Governments come and go at the whim of military veterans of the independence wars.<br /> The reason for the political instability is that most governments remained short of money.<br />
  5. 5. Evolution cont.<br />Outcomes of the political struggles varied, Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia provide extreme examples of instability.<br />Between 1833 and 1855 the Mexican presidency changed hands 36 times.<br />Brazil gradually developed a political structure dependent on the ability of politicians to mediate between the landowners and imperial government. <br />Chile established an authoritarian constitution and with the exception of two short civil wars they remained internally peaceful until 1891.<br />
  6. 6. The Second World: End of the Monroe Doctrine<br />Latin America has long seemed geopolitically illogical, oceans away from the world’s principal strategic theaters. But now they are casting their eyes West and East to avoid the North.<br />If America could establish a solid relationship with Latin America the western hemisphere may become self sufficient and avoid the turbulence of Eurasia.<br />Latin America has always been caught in the imperialism of others and unable to form their own.<br />America’s Manifest Destiny was not just a westward expansion but to also control the southern hemisphere.<br />
  7. 7. The Second World: Mexico<br />The North American Free Trade Agreement was supposed to send Mexico into a first world country, but instead “revealed it as a third world country instead of a first” remarked a journalist.<br />Oil used to be Mexico’s main export, it then moved to manufactured goods that accounted for 80% of exports. However assembly plants began to shut down and move to China causing many workers to lose their jobs. <br />With little jobs and massive spikes of illegal immigration into the U.S., Mexico’s problems may become America’s even faster than they already are.<br />
  8. 8. The Second World: Venezuela<br />Venezuela more powerfully embodied the death of the Monroe Doctrine.<br />Because of its oil Venezuela could become a major energy provider, but odds are against it, otherwise they would just be another third world country with occasional coupe’s.<br />The region suffers from bad latitude but also “bad attitude” as Hugo Chavez swept to presidential power.<br />Chavez uses oil the same way every other Latin country has, to serve political ends more than to actually mitigate inequality.<br />
  9. 9. The Second World: Brazil<br />Brazil is the United States of South America, its size alone makes it the continent’s natural leader.<br />Brazil’s global role is based purely on its environmental resources and massive economy.<br />It has taken three revolutions for Brazil to achieve becoming Latin America’s great power.<br />Guided by its national mythology of coequal status with the United States, Brazil has looked at other counties to become the anchor of Latin diplomacy.<br />
  10. 10. Hugo Chavez<br />He is the 56th and current president of Venezuela since 1999.<br />He chose a career as a military officer, after becoming dissatisfied with the political system, which he saw as corrupt, he began the revolutionary Bolivarian Movement. <br />In 1992 he was arrested after leading a failed military coup.<br />He is a prominent opponent of the United States foreign policy, which he describes as imperialistic. He allies strongly with the socialist governments of Fidel Castro in Cuba.<br />His Influence in Latin America has led time magazine to include him among the worlds 100 most influential people in 2005 and 2006.<br />
  11. 11. Brazilian General Election: 2010<br />The first round of the election was held on Sunday, October 3, 2010.<br />Citizens were voting for a successor of President LuizInacio Lula da Silva of the Workers’ Party, who was constitutionally prohibited from running a third consecutive term. 2010 would be the first time he did not run for president.<br />The first round was unresolved so a second round was held on October 31.<br />DilmaRousseff of the Workers’ Party won and became Brazil’s first female president.<br />