Fhsppt final 22
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Fhsppt final 22






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Fhsppt final 22 Presentation Transcript

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  All human beings are a product of HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT.  Heredity and environmental factors together play a vital role in shaping human beings.  Psychologists commonly refer to heredity as “NATURE” and environment as “NURTURE”.
  • 3. ROLE OF HEREDITY  Heredity refers to our biologically inherited characteristics.  In common words heredity refers to characteristics that we get from our parents.  Our physical characteristics such as the color of the skin, shape of the nose, color of eyes are inherited from parents.  Besides influencing our physical characteristics, heredity also influences our “BEHAVIOUR”.
  • 4. THE MECHANISM OF HEREDITY  The true beginning of human being is a “SINGLE SECOND EVENT.”  A human being is conceived when a single sperm (male reproductive cell) from the father‟s body fertilizes the ovum (female reproductive cell or egg) from the mothers body to form a “Zygote.”  This process is called “Fertilization” in which a sperm and ovum combine to create a single cell called “Zygote.”
  • 5.  Which sperm meets which ovum is of critical importance as it will determine the sex, appearance and several other characteristics of the new life.  The sperm is one of the several million sperm cells produced in the father‟s body and the ovum is one of the several thousands ova produced in the mother‟s body.
  • 6. CHROMOSOMES  The zygote consists of 46 chromosomes, half from each parent.  That is the zygote receives 23 chromosomes from the father (sperm) and 23 from the mother (ovum).  Each chromosome contains “Thousands of Genes.”  This discovery is credited to “GREGOR MENDEL.”
  • 7. GENES  GENES are made of a complex chemical substance called the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid.)  Each gene has a different role to play.  They go on to become different structures of the human body from the skin, muscle and other tissues of the body such as heart, lungs, eyes etc..
  • 8. The genes that we get from our parents are purely a matter of “Chance.” This is the reason why two children of the same parents are so different (except in the case of identical twins.) Studies have found that there is almost a 50% difference in the genes of Brothers and Sisters.
  • 9. They are basic units of heredity. Genes are structures present on the chromosomes. Genes are only responsible for passing of heredity traits from one generation to another. Hence, Genes are commonly known as “Carriers of Heredity.”
  • 10. CLASSIFICATION OF GENES GENES Dominant Genes Recessive Genes
  • 11. A) DOMINANT GENES  A gene whose effect shows up in a child, whether or not, it is paired with a similar type of gene is called a “Dominant Gene.”  For example, If a child receives a gene for blue eyes from the father and brown eyes from the mother, then the child will have „brown eyes.‟ This is because, the gene for the „brown eyes‟ is a dominant gene.
  • 12. B) RECESSIVE GENES  A Recessive Gene is one whose effect shows up only and only when it is paired with one just like itself.  It will not reveal its characteristics when it is paired with a dominant gene.  For example, the gene for blue eyes is a recessive gene. It will express its characteristics only when it is paired with another gene for blue eyes.
  • 13. DETERMINANTS OF THE SEX OF THE CHILD  The zygote consists of 46 chromosomes.  These 46 chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs.  Out of these 23 pairs, the first 22 pairs are called “Autosomes” or “Non-sex chromosomes.”  The 23rd pair is called the “Sex chromosome.”  This pair determines whether the new human being will be a male or a female.
  • 14.  Sex chromosomes are either “X” or “Y” chromosomes.  The ovum always contributes an X chromosome.  The sperm may contribute an X or a Y chromosome.  When the zygote formed is „XX‟, a Female child will be born.  When the zygote formed is „XY‟, a male child will be born.
  • 15. Thus, the sex of the child depends entirely on the sperm whether it contributes an X or a Y chromosome. And hence,“it is the father who is solely responsible for the sex of the child.” But due to ignorance in our Indian Society, there is tremendous pressure on the woman to give birth to a male child. This is indeed sad because it is the father‟s sperm that determines a child‟s sex.
  • 16. TWINS
  • 17. A) MONOZYGOTIC TWINS  Monozygotic Twins develop from a “Single Fertilized Egg.”  In the case of these twins, the zygote splits into “Two Halves.”  They are commonly known as “Identical Twins.”  They are of the same sex and look alike.
  • 18. B) DIZYGOTIC TWINS  Dizygotic Twins develop from two separate zygotes.  They are commonly known as “Fraternal Twins.”  They are developed from different sperms and are „siblings‟ born at different times.  They may or may not be of the same sex and they do not look alike.
  • 19. ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT  The term “Environment” refers to all external events or conditions to which an individual is exposed.  It is the world or society in which we are born and brought up.  Environment includes both Prenatal and Postnatal conditions.  Prenatal conditions are before birth and Postnatal are after birth conditions.
  • 20.  Before birth, the individual develops in the environment of his mother‟s womb.  So everything that happens to a woman during pregnancy can affect the child.  After birth, he is affected by the environment which consists of the outside world, family, school, peers and culture.
  • 21. A) PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT  The “Prenatal Environment” refers to the environment before birth.  Some of the factors that affect the Prenatal Environment are: i. Prenatal Nourishment ii. a) Drug Intake b) Smoking iii. Mother‟s Health iv. Medical X-rays v. Mother‟s Age vi. Environmental Hazards
  • 22. i. PRENATAL NOURISHMENT  Babies develop best when the mothers eat well.  A woman‟s diet before as well as during pregnancy is crucial to her child‟s future.  A pregnant woman should have a well balanced diet.  It must include proteins, dairy products, bread, cereals, and fruits and vegetables rich in Vitamin C.
  • 23. ii. a) Drug Intake  Everything that a mother takes finds its way to a new life.  A pregnant woman must not take any medication without consulting a doctor.  Drinking alcohol can also harm the “Fetus.”  It can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).  FAS causes slow prenatal and postnatal
  • 24. b) Smoking  Smoking during pregnancy is the cause of poor fetal growth.  Pregnant smokers give birth to small babies.  Smoking during pregnancy can cause bleeding during pregnancy and death of the fetus or newborn.
  • 25. iii. Mother’s Health  Illnesses suffered by a pregnant woman can have serious effect on the developing fetus.  How serious the effects are, depends on the level of sickness of the pregnant woman.  Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and diseases such as measles can have terrible effects on the health of the baby.
  • 26. iv. Medical X-rays  Exposure to X-ray radiations can cause gene mutations.  Gene mutations are minor changes that alter a gene to produce a new harmful characteristic.  Exposure to radiations should be avoided especially during the first three months.
  • 27. v. Mother’s Age  A woman‟s age at the time of pregnancy is also an important factor.  Older pregnant women are more likely to suffer complications.  There is a greater risk of miscarriage, premature delivery, retarded fetal growth to older women.  Women over the age of 35 are at the greatest risk.
  • 28. vi. Environmental Hazards  Exposure to chemicals, radiations, extremes of heat and humidity can affect prenatal development.  Exposure to nuclear radiations are extremely dangerous.  It increases the risk of mental retardation and is the cause of smaller head size and chromosomal abnormalities.
  • 29. Postnatal Environment  The postnatal environment refers to the environment after birth.  It is also known as “External Environment”.  The postnatal environment can be broadly classified into 3 areas: i. Physical environment ii. Social environment iii. Cultural environment
  • 30. i. Physical Environment  The physical environment into which an individual is born, has a significant impact on the individual‟s growth and development.  The geographical conditions of the region also have an impact on an individual‟s development.
  • 31.  The physical environment includes the availability of food, clothing and shelter. Poor nourishment and diet have negative effects on an individual‟s height, weight, eyesight and even mental development.
  • 32. ii. Social Environment  The social environment is the society in which an individual is born and brought up.  It includes the family, school, peers, neighborhood, to which an individual is strongly exposed.  The individual is strongly affected by the kind of experience he has in his social environment.
  • 33. iii. Cultural Environment  Culture refers to customs and ways of behavior that are common to a society.  It is a society‟s or a group‟s total way of life.  It includes customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, passed on from parents to children.
  • 34. NATURE VERSUS NURTURE  Psychologists differ with regards to the importance they give to nature and nurture.  However in reality, both heredity and environment interact with each other to influence the development of the individual.
  • 35. Heredity sets limits and environment helps the individual reach the limits. Heredity factors produce their effects under the conditions provided by the environment.