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Developing Open Content Like Open Software

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A presentation from the 2007 MoodleMoot Albuquerque

A presentation from the 2007 MoodleMoot Albuquerque

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Hi Jason
    I really liked the Open Learning Production slide (besides this 'e').
    However, I don't see students as being the bug tracking army only, and I also don't see this clear divides on groups.
    If you follow up on the open source line than students could be also writer, developer, editors, or designer. This will depend on individual abilities.
    Nevertheless very interesting presentation.
    I assume there are more people at the OU working on the same area than me that I don't know, than the ones that I do know.
    Cheers
    Andreas
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Developing Open Content Like Open Software Developing Open Content Like Open Software Presentation Transcript

  • Open Source + Open Content = Jason Cole Cognition and Instruction Associates [email_address] Open Education
  • Driving Questions
    • Why are textbooks so expensive?
    • With the growing collections of open materials, what is the future of educational materials?
    • Why are wikibooks so bad?
    • How can we leverage the Moodle install base to further true open education with open content?
  • Textbook Costs Impacting Students
    • Textbook costs =
      • $900 / year
      • 17.5% of tuition at 4 year colleges
      • 43% of tuition at 2 year colleges
    • 43% of students didn't purchase a required textbook
    • Source: Ripoff 101 State PIRGS Higher Education Project
  • Textbook Prices
    • Since 1994:
      • PPI + 14%
      • General Publishers + 19%
      • Textbook wholesale + 62%
    • Bundled supplementary materials add 15% - 45%
    • Source: Ripoff 101 State PIRGS Higher Education Project
  • Supplementary Materials
    • 30% of faculty use publishers' online homework
    • 19% use online quizzes
    • 74% required or recommended supplementary materials
    • 90% believe under-prepared students would do better spending more time with textbook
    • 79% believe under-prepared students would do better if they used supplementary materials
  • Use Of Materials
      • - Jim Farmer, Faculty Selection and Use of Publisher-Provided Textbooks and
      • Supplementary Materials in the United States
  • Supplementary Materials Work
  • Supplementary Materials
    • Current research may suggest that increasing the use of learning materials – and the cost – could yield significant improvements in completions and lower the unit costs.
      • - Jim Farmer, Faculty Selection and Use of Publisher-Provided Textbooks and
      • Supplementary Materials in the United States
  • Transfer of Costs
    • Publishers are investing in these supplementary materials to meet the needs of faculty. This investment may be supported by higher “textbook” prices; if so, then students are now paying for materials and service rather than the college or university paying as part of instructional technology. This analysis does not address the issue of “Who pays”.
    • - Jim Farmer, Faculty Selection and Use of Publisher-Provided Textbooks and Supplementary Materials in the United States
  • Whither Open Content?
    • Two areas for investigation
      • Production of materials
      • Use and integration
  • Content Development Models Wikipedia is not the answer!
  • OCW's
    • Advantages
    • Most comprehensive
    • Structured collections
    • High reputation
    • Common Licensing
    • Disadvantages
    • Incomplete (textbook, reading lists)
    • Static
    • No feedback
    • No atomic improvement
  • Open Repositories (Merlot, NLN)
    • Advantages
    • Small pieces
    • Tend to have more interactive material
    • Tend to have good searchability / findability
    • Disadvantages
    • Small pieces not joined
    • Variable quality
    • No integration
    • Not comprehensive
    • No common licensing
  • Open Wikis (Wikipedia, etc)
    • Advantages
    • Many hands
    • Comprehensive scope
    • Task decomposition
    • Common licensing
    • Disadvantages
    • Regression to the mean(est)
    • Not stable / vetted
    • Variable quality
    • No integration
    • Not comprehensive
  • Open Source Software Production Patch Commit Bug Reports Feature Requests Patch Submit Prioritize Bug / Feature Priorities Quality Review Adoption Release Bug Tracker Code Repository Software Version Users / Testers Coders Committers Architects
  • Open Source Success
    • Charismatic Leader(s)
    • Earn your stripes
    • Decomposable tasks
    • Version Control
    • Large community of users
    • Regression control
  • Open eLearning Production Patch Commit Bug Reports Feature Requests Patch Submit Prioritize Bug / Feature Priorities Release Eval Adoption Release Bug Tracker Content Repository Collection Version Faculty / Students Writers / Developers Editors / SMEs Inst Designers
  • Open Source Success
    • Charismatic Leader + Earn your stripes = Strong social norms
    • Decomposable tasks + Version Control = Distributed workload
    • Large community + Bug Tracking = Distributed testing and evaluation
    • Feedback systems + Regression control = Learning system
  • Time To Produce a Textbook Source: American Association of Publishers
  • Open Content Usability
    • S earchability
    • F indability
    • O btainability
  • Open Content Searchability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg I know there's cool stuff out there. Where can I find it?
  • Open Content Searchability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg
    • Lack of standard search API
    • No common metadata
    • Little SEO
  • Open Content Searchability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg
    • Federated Search API
    • Standards, Objectives and
    • Competencies for Metadata
    • Federated search engines
    • embedded in VLEs
  • Open Content Findability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg All this great stuff! What's the best for me?
  • Open Content Findability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg
    • No aggregation across collections
    • No common quality / suitability data
    • No feedback on suitability
  • Open Content Findability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg
    • Vetted Collections
    • Collecting Implicit Metadata
    • Tagging and rating
  • Open Content Obtainability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg LMS I found some content. How do I use it?
  • Open Content Obtainability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg LMS
    • Lack of standard repository
    • API
    • No common metadata
    • No common content
    • standards
    • Incomplete collections
    • Licensing confusion
  • Open Content Obtainability OCW Connexions Merlot Wikipedia Internet Archive Project Gutenberg LMS
    • JSR-170 Web Services
    • Common Cartridge
    • Common Object API
    • Generic authoring tools
    • Common licensing
  • Where to go from here
    • Create learning communities for development of content
    • Mirrors for open repositories with common API
    • Implement JSR-170, Common Cartridge in Moodle
    • New kinds of eLearning materials organizations
  • Market Failure
    • Large conglomerates are selling educational imprints
      • Elsvier
    • Earnings down at major publishers
    • 20 – 30% of textbooks every reprinted
    • 8,000 publishers – 262,000 titles
  • Textbook Costs
  • Rival vs Non-rival Goods
    • Rival goods – my use prevents you from using it (most arrangements of atoms)
    • Non-rival goods – my use does non prevent you from using it (most arrangements of bits)
    • Problem – The production of non-rival goods requires rival inputs (time, money)
    • Central problem of the information society
  • Current Approach
    • Treat non-rival goods like rival goods
    • Deny the fundamental nature of non-rival goods (information wants to be free)
    • Copyright, Patents, DRM, Lawsuits
  • Aikido
    • Move with your opponent, not against them
    • Get out of the way
    • Maintain your balance
  • Aikido Economics
    • Share non-rival goods – let the information free
    • Sell rival good versions of non-rival goods – you want the print version?
    • Sell rival good supplements (services, experiences, certifications)
  • Open Textbook Costs
  • Conclusions
    • Open Learning Content = Linux for Civilization
    • Market forces create artificial scarcity – impeding education
    • New technologies create opportunities for new types of organizations
    • Comprehensive collections will create a critical link for meeting the challenges of the next millennium