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Discourse theory
 

Discourse theory

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    Discourse theory Discourse theory Presentation Transcript

    • DISCOURSE THEORY
    • 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 2
    • Definitions of Discourse • a conversation or text • collection of texts or conversations • a shared way of talking or creating texts (code) • codes, languages, ways of speaking of a topic - Dictionary definitions 9/19/2013 3LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Definitions of Discourse  any connected piece of speaking or writing - Cambridge Delta 9/19/2013 4LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • What is Discourse? • “While it used to be generally held that mere exposure to language is sufficient to set the child’s language generating machinery in motion, it is now clear that , in order for successful first language acquisition to take place, interaction, rather than exposure is required; children do not learn language from overhearing the conversations of others or from listening to the radio, and must, acquire it in the context of being spoken to.” - J. Berko-Gleason 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 5
    • 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 6
    • 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 7
    • 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 8
    • Discourse Analysis • Analysis of the function of language • Language is more than just a sentence-level phenomenon 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 9
    • Discourse Analysis  the study of how the separate ‘bits’ of language which make up the discourse are connected in such a way that the discourse makes sense. And if it doesn’t make sense, discourse analysis enables us to find out why. - Cambridge Delta 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 10
    • What is Discourse Analysis? „I only said “if”!‟ poor Alice pleaded in a piteous tone. The two Queens looked at each other, and the Red Queen remarked, with a little shudder, „She says she only said “if” –‟ „But she said a great deal more than that!‟ the White Queen moaned, wringing her hands. „Oh, ever so much more than that!‟ - Lewis Carroll: Through the Looking Glass9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 11
    • Discourse Theory • proposes that in our daily activities, the way we speak and write is shaped by the structures of power in our society, and that because our society is defined by struggle and conflict our discourses reflect and create conflicts. - Foucault, Althusser, PUcheux and Hindess and Hirst 9/19/2013 12LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Discourse Theory • The idea that language learning evolves out of learning how to carry on conversations 9/19/2013 13LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Discourse Theory • It follows from a theory of language use, in which communication is treated as the matrix of linguistic knowledge: that language development should be considered in terms of how the learner discovers the potential meaning of language as he participates in communication 9/19/2013 14LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • CLARE: It’s not dewberry. SAM: Urgh, it’s horrible. CLARE: It’s not dewberry. It’s white musk. SAM: So it doesn’t mean to say it can’t be horrible does it? Huh. Don’t spray it on my face. CLARE: I’m not. I’m spraying it on my hand so you can smell it . . . SAM: It smells of . . . CLARE: It’s quite nice. SAM: Hang on, let’s smell. Mm. I can smell something funny now now. CLARE: I think I’ve broken Mum’s hair–drier. SAM: How? CLARE: Don’t know. It doesn’t work any more. SAM: What’s this? Is – is this the travel soc thing? CLARE: Ahh. It’s awful. Don’t have a look? SAM: Is it the travel soc thing? CLARE: No, it’s not the travel soc.9/19/2013 15LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Discourse Theory • FLA is related to this theory. • Halliday (1975) studied his own child and concluded that the development of formal linguistic devices grows out of the interpersonal uses to which language is put. 9/19/2013 16LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Discourse Theory • As Cherry (1979) puts it: Through communicating with other people, children accomplish actions in the world and develop the rules of language structure and use. 9/19/2013 17LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route in syntactical development 9/19/2013 18LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route . . . (cont’n)  SLA followed a universal route in syntactical development largely uninfluenced by: - learner’s age - context of learning - learner’s L1 background 9/19/2013 19LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route . . . (cont’n)  SLA controlling factor: faculty for language that all human beings possess and which is also responsible for L1 acquisition 9/19/2013 20LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route . . . (cont’n)  To establish the existence of the natural route in SLA, the following research studies were made: a) cross-sectional research b) longitudinal studies 9/19/2013 21LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route . . . (cont’n) a) cross-sectional research - morpheme studies were carried out to investigate the order of a range of grammatical functions in the speech of L2 learners  Standard order reported was different from the order of morpheme acquisition for L1 acquisition. 9/19/2013 22LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route . . . (cont’n) b) longitudinal studies - tried to account for the gradual growth of competence in terms of the strategies learned by a L2L at different development points 9/19/2013 23LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles I. SLA follows a natural route . . . (cont’n) b) longitudinal studies (cont’n) - All L2 learners pass through: 1. basic syntax (arrangement of words) 2. variant word order (rearrange words) 3. morphological development (word formation) 4. complex sentence structure (complex sentences) 9/19/2013 24LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning with non-native speakers 9/19/2013 25LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 26LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory  emphasizes interaction and discourse Characterized by modifications in both: a) Input b) Discourse
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 27LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory a) Input - exaggerated enunciation, greater overall loudness, the use of full forms rather than contractions
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 28LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory b) Discourse – expansions, repetitions, classifications, paraphrasing and topic simplification  NS role: to enable the NNS to communicate  NNS role: to use various strategies in the negotiation of meaning
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 29LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory Together, the NS and NNS strive to overcome the communicative difficulties which are always likely to arise as a result of the learner’s limited L2 resources.
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 30LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory The negotiation of meaning between the NS and NNS makes the INPUT more comprehensible.
    • Main Principles II. Native speakers adjust their speech in order to negotiate meaning . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 31LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles III. Conversational strategies used to negotiate meaning, and the resulting adjusted input influence SLA in a number of ways 9/19/2013 32LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles III. Conversational strategies used to negotiate meaning, and the resulting adjusted input influence SLA in a number of ways: (cont’n) 9/19/2013 33LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles III. Conversational strategies used to negotiate meaning, and the resulting adjusted input . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 34LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 1) The learner learns the grammar of the L2 in the same order as the frequency order of the various features in the input Simply put, the first structures that the L2 learner acquires are those that s/he is exposed to most frequently.
    • Main Principles III. Conversational strategies used to negotiate meaning, and the resulting adjusted input . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 35LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 2) The learner acquires commonly occurring formulas and then later analyzes these into their component parts.
    • Main Principles III. Conversational strategies used to negotiate meaning, and the resulting adjusted input . . . (cont’n) 9/19/2013 36LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 3) The learner is helped to construct sentences vertically. Learner utterances are constructed by borrowing chunks of speech from the preceding discourse.
    • Main Principles IV. The natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations 9/19/2013 37LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory  This is the strongest claim for the role of interaction in SLA.
    • Main Principles IV. The natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations (cont’n) 9/19/2013 38LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory  It emphasizes the role of the linguistic environment, which is shaped jointly by the L2 learner and the native speaker in discourse, and plays down the role of internal processing factors.
    • Main Principles IV. The natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations (cont’n) 9/19/2013 39LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory  Hatch (1978)suggest that interaction determines the route of SLA.  He adds: “One learns how to do conversations, one learns how to interact verbally, and out of this interaction, syntactic structures are developed.”
    • Main Principles IV. The natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations (cont’n) 9/19/2013 40LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Main Principles IV. The natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations (cont’n) 9/19/2013 41LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory  The learner is convinced to communicate and it is by learning to do this that s/he systematically acquires L2 grammar.
    • Main Principles IV. The natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations (cont’n) 9/19/2013 42LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • CONVERSATION: A Mode of Discourse Conversations are cooperative ventures. - Hatch and Long 9/19/2013 43LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 9/19/2013 44LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 9/19/2013 45LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 9/19/2013 46LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 47
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting 2) Topic nomination 3) Topic development 4) Topic shifting and avoidance 5) Topic termination 9/19/2013 48LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting 9/19/2013 49LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting 9/19/2013 50LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory Have the attention of the hearer or the audience
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting (cont’n) 9/19/2013 51LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory Attention-getting conventions within each language (verbal and nonverbal) , need to be carefully assimilated by learners.
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting (cont’n) 9/19/2013 52LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting (cont’n) 9/19/2013 53LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting (cont’n) 9/19/2013 54LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting (cont’n) 9/19/2013 55LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 1) Attention getting 9/19/2013 56LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 57 H.P. Grice noted that certain conversational maxims enable the speaker to nominate and maintain a topic of conversation .
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 58
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 59 Say only what is TRUE
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 60 Say only what is TRUE Say only what is RELEVANT
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 61 Say only what is TRUE Say only what is RELEVANT Say only as MUCH as necessary
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 62 Say only what is TRUE Say only what is RELEVANT Say only as MUCH as necessary Be CLEAR
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 63
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 64
    • Rules of Conversation 2) Topic nomination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 65
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 66
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 67 Use conventions of turn-taking to accomplish various functions of language.
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 68 It involves clarification, shifting, avoidance, and interruption.
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 69 It involves clarification, shifting, avoidance, and interruption.
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 70 It involves clarification, shifting, avoidance, and interruption.
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 71 It involves clarification, shifting, avoidance, and interruption.
    • Rules of Conversation 3) Topic development (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 72 It involves clarification, shifting, avoidance, and interruption.
    • Rules of Conversation 4) Topic termination 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 73 An art that even native speakers of a language have difficulty in mastering at times
    • Rules of Conversation 4) Topic termination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 74
    • Rules of Conversation 4) Topic termination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 75 Each language has verbal and non-verbal signals for termination
    • Rules of Conversation 4) Topic termination (cont’n) 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 76
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Encourage interaction among learners. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 77
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching “As one learns how to do conversation, one learns how to interact verbally, and out of this interaction, syntactic structures are developed.” 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 78
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Be aware of the Rules of Conversation. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 79
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 80
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 81
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 82
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 83
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 84
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 85
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 86
    • Implications to Language Learning and Teaching Create situations that will allow interaction and communication. 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 87
    • Bottomline 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 88 • For a child to learn a second language, allow her/him to engage or participate in meaningful communication.
    • Conclusion 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 89 • Schumann and Giles are interested in explaining the rate of SLA and the level of proficiency achieved, Hatch is interested in explaining how SLA takes place.
    • Conclusion 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 90 • The Discourse Theory does not address the nature of the learner strategies responsible for SLA.
    • Conclusion 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 91 • When Hatch talks of processes, she means external processes – those which can be observed in face-to-face interaction – not internal processes, those that can only be inferred by observing how learners perform
    • References • Ellis, Rod. Understanding Second Language Acquisition • Macdonnell, Diane. Theories of Discourse: An Introduction • Pohlman, Craig. Revealing Minds • Hatch, Evelyn. Second Language Acquisition • Brown, Douglas. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching • www.camebridgedelta.org • www.slideshare.net • Images from: – www.flickr.com, www.google.com, www.dogpile.com, www.istockphoto.com, personal file 9/19/2013 LANGUAGE THEORIES: Discourse Theory 92