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Balancing LiteracyJaneen M. HarrisFoundations in Reading
Phonemic AwarenessPhonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the sounds lettersrepresent, including blending sounds to make words, creating rhyming patterns,and counting phonemesPhoneme IsolationPhoneme IdentityPhoneme CategorizationPhoneme BlendingPhoneme SegmentationPhoneme Deletion(McEwan, 2009)
Instructional ResourcesPrint based Non-printPrint based and online activity are appropriate for K-2ndgrade students.(www.pbs.org) (www.k12reader.com)
Instructional StrategyTiming and GroupingPhonemic awareness should be a priority in pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and early first grade reading instruction. Studies havefound that young children benefit the most from short instructional sessions (up to 30 minutes long) offered in small group settings.Teachers working with small groups should focus on between 2 and 3 phonemic awareness skills at a time to help children solidifythese important pre-reading abilities.Segmentation activitiesObjectives: Students will be able to segment various parts of oral language.Activity:Early in phonological awareness instruction, teach children to segment sentences into individual words. Identify familiar short poemssuch as "I scream you scream we all scream for ice cream!" Have children clap their hands with each word.As children advance in their ability to manipulate oral language, teach them to segment words into syllables or onsets and rimes. Forexample, have children segment their names into syllables: e.g., Ra-chel, Al-ex-an-der, and Rod-ney.When children have learned to remove the first phoneme (sound) of a word, teach them to segment short words into individualphonemes: e.g., s-u-n, p-a-t, s-t-o-p.(www.hillsboroschools.net)
Authentic AssessmentDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-DIBELS IS APPROPRIATE FOR ALL STUDENTS LEARNING TO READ INENGLISH WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS:1. Students who are deaf2. Students who have fluency-based speech disabilities(e.g., stuttering-oral apraxia)3. Students who are learning to read in a language other than English4. Students with severe disabilitiesa. Reading is not on the IEPb. Reading is on the IEP but long-term goal is functional use ofenvironmental printYopp-Singer Test of Phoneme SegmentationDescription The Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation is a list of 22 common words. Students are given the words and asked to break each word apart (segmentation). individually administered by teacher, instructional assistant, paraprofessional timeframe: 5 – 10 minutes per child It was originally designed for English speaking kindergarteners; however , it has also proven useful with first grade studentsand older children.(www.pcbow.net)
PhonicsPhonics is an understanding of the alphabetic principle and ability to apply thisknowledge in the decoding of unfamiliar words.Focuses solely on the letters and sounds of wordsHelps children learn to read and spell.Help students understand which letters are used to form words.(McEwan, 2009)
Instructional ResourcesAlphabet activities-Alphabet knowledge is a significant predictor of future reading success. Students at the earliest stages of readingrequire instruction in letter names and formation among other critical pieces of early literacy instruction (i.e., phonological awarenessand phonics instruction, concept of word development using connected text, vocabulary and comprehension development through readalouds, writing opportunities to practice their developing knowledge of letters and sounds).( online)Analogy Books-The goal of an analogy book is to emphasize the utility of using what you know to read and spell other words withsimilar parts. For example, if you know the –at rime as in cat, then you know how to read and spell hat, mat, sat, and pat. While doinganalogy-based work, teachers should explicitly talk about the similarities of the words. The sound, pattern, and position of the targetfeature of phonics/spelling instruction should be emphasized. Students can review their analogy books and refer to them when readingor spelling unknown words.(print based)www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/profdev/phonics/iadpss.html
Instructional StrategiesWord Sorts:Have ready an assortment of words on cards. Have students work in small groups to sortthe words according to word patterns. Have students start with an open sort, allowing each group todetermine which word patterns they want to use. Then, have them sort given a set of guidelines,such as open syllables or closed syllables. Extensions: allow students to cut words out ofnewspapers or magazines to add to their sorts, gluing them onto construction paper.Word building:This activity builds a chain of words that will help students become aware of rimes inwords. Using a pocket chart, place the letters a and n in the chart. Have the students say each soundand then blend the sounds. Place another an underneath the first letters, this time adding a b to thebeginning. Have the students say each sound and then blend the sounds. Continue this procedurethrough the alphabet using as many letter combinations as possible to show the rime.www.student.fcgu.edu
Assessment StrategyLetter Sound Knowledge- Simply put, phonics is the connection between letters and sounds. PALS provides you with an assessmentof letter sound knowledge that will allow you to align instruction to meet the letter sound needs of your students. Students must have afirm grasp of letters and their corresponding sounds, so you should take note of the automaticity of their responses. As with letterrecognition, there is a significant difference between the student who knows 20 letter sounds automatically and the student who knows20 letter sounds only after given time to think and process. The procedure for this task is outlined on the PALSwebsite.www.pals.virginia.eduScholastic Phonics Inventory- SPI identifies students in Grades 3-12+ who lack foundational reading skills.As a server-based programwith a high concurrency rate, SPI can screen hundreds of students at one time.SPI makes four skills-based recommendations thatdirectly correspond to Tiers II and III in any RTI implementation. Tier III recommendations place students within the scope andsequence of an explicit and systematic decoding intervention.SPI provides three equivalent forms for benchmarking and progressmonitoring purposes. Automated reporting in five preformatted reports provides data on the individual student level to the districtlevel.www.scholastic.com
FluencyFluency is the ability to read so effortlessly and automatically that workingmemory is available for the ultimate purpose of reading—extracting andconstructing meaning from the text. Fluency can be observed in accurate,automatic, and expressive oral reading and makes possible, silent readingcomprehension. (McEwan, 2009)Readers have very little difficulty decoding text.Readers can process more than one word at a time with their eyes.Readers have a large base of core words from which to draw.
Instructional ResourcesPrint-based- Fluency Formula- is a reading program designed to supplement the fluency component in a school’score reading program. Fluency Formula is designed to help all students in grades 1-6 develop fluency at thedifferent levels of reading from identification of letters to reading connected text. Daily lesson of 10-15 minutestarget a specific skill necessary for fluent and effortless reading. (www.fcrr.org)Non-print based-Online Leveled Reading Books- The Raz-Kids K-6 are animated leveled books and interactivequizzes give educators choices. Students listen to books read aloud, read with vocabulary and pronunciationsupport, and read without support. They read freely in the bookroom. Or, teachers easily limit students toappropriate reading levels and specific books and track student reading progress. Students can practice reading toimprove reading comprehension and reading fluency anywhere with Internet access. (www.raz-kids.com)
Instructional StrategiesChoral Reading- Choral reading is simultaneous oral reading of text by a small group or class of students. The textis displayed on an overhead projector or everyone has a copy of the text. (McEwan, 2009)Taped Reading- Students read aloud once or twice shore passages of text at their independent reading levels andthen record the passage via a tape recorder. The tapes are then replayed as students follow along with the textwhile monitoring their oral reading. (McEwan, 2009)
Assessment StrategiesReading Fluency Monitor--The Reading Fluency Monitor is an assessment by Read Naturally instrument thatallows teachers to monitorstudent progress. Fall, winter, and springadministrations are recommended. Grade-levelpassages are available for grades 1–8, as wellas a software program for reporting and recordkeeping.(www.fcrr.org)The ―Pets‖ fluency passage is leveled in a unique pyramid design: the first paragraph is at the first grade (Fleish-Kincaid) reading level; the second paragraph is at the second grade level; the third paragraph is at the third gradelevel; the fourth paragraph is at the fourth grade level; the fifth paragraph is at the fifth grade level; the sixthparagraph is at the sixth grade level; and the seventh paragraph is at the seventh grade level. Thus, the readerbegins practice at an easier level that builds confidence and then moves to more difficult academic languagethrough successive approximation. As the student reads the fluency passage, the teacher will be able to note thereading levels at which the student has a high degree of accuracy and automaticity. Automaticity refers to theability of the reader to read effortlessly without stumbling or sounding-out words.(www.penningtonpublishing.com)
VocabularyVocabulary represents the breadth and depth of all words we know, the wordswe use, recognize and respond to in meaningful acts of communication (Vacca,Cacca, Gove, Burkey, Lenhart& McKeon 2012).Classified as having four components:o Listeningo Speakingo Readingo Writing
Instructional ResourcesWord Generation is a research-based vocabulary program for middle school students designed to teach words through language arts,math, science, and social studies classes. The program employs several strategies to ensure that students learn words in a variety ofcontexts.The program consists of weekly units that each introduces 5 high-utility target words through brief passages outliningcontroversies currently under debate in this country. (www.scoe.org)myvocabulary.com-A free site that allows students at high-elem., junior high and high school levels, teachers and life-long learners toacquire and retain vocabulary. Each free session has three levels. Each level has 3 puzzles with 12 words each (36 total words in asession) and contains seven (7) additional activities/exercises that help develop vocabulary. It is continuouslyupdated.(www.myvocabulary.com)
Instructional StrategySemantic Mapping – is a strategy that shows readers and writers how to organize important information. During vocabulary activities,it provides a visual display of how words are related to other words. Semantic mapping is good for K-12 students. (Vacca, Cacca,Gove, Burkey, Lenhart& McKeon 2012).Predictogram- used to sort vocabulary words into categories according to literary elements such as setting, characters, conflicts, andresolution.Predictograms teach students how to utilize context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words when readingfiction. It is a graphic organizer for sorting words into categories according to the elements of plot. Appropriate for grades K-8.(www.scholastic.com)
AssessmentThe Vocabulary Recognition Task (VRT) is a teacher-constructed yes-no task used to estimate vocabulary recognition in a contentarea (Stahl, 2008). Like the VKS, it combines self-report with demonstrated knowledge. Stahl applied the VRT with second gradersreading at a mid-first-grade level. The purpose was to identify content-related words that the students could both read and associatewith a unit of study. (www.readingrockets.org)The Word Meaning Test (WMT) is an assessment of expressive vocabulary. It is an oral test that you will give to your learnersindividually. Scores are given as Grade Equivalents (GE) from grade 1-12.For the WMT, you score the test in ―real time‖; that is, youwill have to decide whether a learner has given a correct response while you are giving the test (this is so because the number correcton each level determines which level you will give next, as explained in the section above). (http://lincs.ed.gov)
ComprehensionComprehension is the extraction or construction of meaning from text using theseven cognitive strategies of highly skilled readers as appropriate. (McEwan2012)In order to comprehend text, students must be able to: (1) decode what theyread; (2) make connections between what they read and what they already know;and (3) think deeply about what they have read. One big part of comprehensionis having a sufficient vocabulary, or knowing the meanings of enough words.(www.readingrockets.org)Most complex aspect of readingRequires reader to draw upon general thinking skills.Skills develop and improve over time through instruction and practice.
Instructional ResourcesAbcteach.com features over 1,000 multi-page reading comprehension activities,complete with study questions and is appropriate for grades K-12.www.abcteach.comReading games for kids are a great help for parents and teachers who are lookingfor fun ways to develop healthy reading habits in children. The virtual worldhere at JumpStart has a fun collection of games to encourage reading in kids.This activity is appropriate for grades K-5. (www.jumpstart.com)
Instructional StrategiesDirected Reading-Thinking Activity(DR-TA)- builds critical awareness of the reader’s role and responsibility in interacting with thetext. It involves readers in the process of predicting, verifying, judging and extending thinking about the test material. (Vacco,Vacco,Gove, Burkey, Lenhart& McKeon 2012)Circular Story Map- uses pictures to depict the sequence of events leading to the problem in the story. The strategy is useful forstudents whose strengths include visual representation. Appropriate for grades K-5. (Vacco,Vacco, Gove, Burkey, Lenhart&McKeon 2012)
AssessmentDRP Core Comprehension Tests are designed to guide, monitor, and support students in their achievement of the grade-level CommonCore State Standards (CCSS) for ELA and Literacy and, subsequently, to assist in their preparation for postsecondary education andcareer training. The tests gauge how students are advancing toward these goals; determine their functional reading complexity levels;and provide diagnostic information about their comprehension and the enabling skills that support comprehension. Test results helpclassroom teachers, literacy coaches, and reading specialists—as well as local-, district-, and state-level administrators—support thedevelopment of each student’s reading power. Appropriate for grades 1-12. (www.questarai.com)Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) are a set of assessments used for universal screening and progressmonitoring in grades K-6. They are standardized, efficient and extensively researched.They help educators identify students who mayneed additional literacy instruction in order to become proficient readers. DIBELS can be an integral part of most RTI programs.(www.dibels.uoregon.edu)