Five Basic Components of a Balanced Literacy Program


Published on

This is a visual representation of my foundational knowledge about the daily five basic components of a balanced literacy program as identified by the National Reading Panel report in 2000.

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Five Basic Components of a Balanced Literacy Program

  1. 1. Christine Valente Wilmington University MRD 6202
  2. 2. 1. Phonemic Awareness 2. Phonics 3. Fluency 4. Vocabulary 5. Comprehension
  3. 3. The ability to identify and manipulate the sounds letters represent, including blending sounds to make words, creating rhyming patterns, and counting phonemes (individual sounds). (McEwan, 2009)
  4. 4. • As students acquire PA, they are led to an understanding of the alphabetic principle which is “the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds” (McEwan, 2009). • PA is easy for many but not so easy for many more. Students who do not have PA will struggle with phonics, have difficulty with sounding and blending new words, have difficulty remembering words from one day to the next, and have difficulty learning to spell. • The most commonly assessed and taught PA skills are: • Phoneme isolation (recognizing individual sounds in words) • Phoneme identity (recognizing the common sound in different words) • Phoneme categorization (recognizing the word with the odd sound in a sequence of 3 or 4 words) • Phoneme Blending (listening to a sequence of separately spoken sounds & combining them to form a recognizable word) • Phoneme Segmentation (breaking down a word into its sounds by tapping out or counting the sounds or by pronouncing and positioning a marker for each sound • Phoneme Deletion (Recognizing what word remains when a specified phoneme is removed (McEwan, 2009)
  5. 5. How to use Elkonin Boxes: 1. Pronounce a target word slowly, stretching it out sound by sound. 2. Ask the child to repeat the word. 3. Draw “boxes” or squares with one box for each syllable or phoneme. 4. Have the student count the number of phonemes in the word, not necessarily the number of letters. 5. Direct the child to slide one chip of each cell of the Elkonin box as s/he repeats the word. Elkonin Box for the word “sheep”, which consists of 3 phonemes(sounds): /sh/ /ee/ /p/
  6. 6. Reading Eggs is an online software that concentrates on phonemic awareness early in the program. Strategies for developing phonemic awareness include reading games and activities that feature: Nursery rhymes, Listening skills, Sound play, Alphabet books These lessons engage young readers in activities that help their phonemic awareness to develop and flourish. Later on in the program, readers listen to words in order to discern the lesson’s focus sound. They work with onsets and rhymes, such as c-at, b-at, r-at, so that they become adept at breaking words into smaller parts. Being able to manipulate phonemes builds phonemic awareness skills, which when combined with phonics, rapidly increases a student’s bank of readable words.
  7. 7. Picture Flashcards A series of flashcards containing pictures that the are familiar to the students • Student names the picture featured on each card • After saying the word, the student is asked to identify the first and second sounds (phonemes) in the word This activity helps children realize that words are made up of a series of independent sounds or phonemes. This instructional strategy is appropriate for Pre-K & Kindergarten.
  8. 8. Rhyme Generation (Kindergarten & 1st Grade) • Students identify the rhyme within an authentic text, such as a poem or song • Teacher use the identified rhymes to color-code the onset and rime on chart paper • Teacher displays selected sentences from song or poem and students apply the skill by creating their own sentence that generates a new rhyme for the context. • Teacher develops students’ skill in manipulating onsets and rimes by encouraging rhyme generation with their names. The primary purpose for implementing the rhyme generation activity is to encourage students to develop critical phonemic awareness skills such as manipulation of the onset and rime. This instructional strategy is appropriate for Kindergarten & 1st grade.
  9. 9. PA can be assessed using standardized measures. DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) provides two measures that can be used to assess phonemic segmentation skills, Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF) and Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF). Click on the following link to see a video of ISF Click on the following link to see a video of PSF This assessment is appropriate for kindergarten and 1st grade.
  10. 10. Phonemic awareness can be assessed using an informal diagnostic assessment tool. PAST (Phonological Awareness Skills Test) is a quick, easy and comprehensive tool to be used as a baseline and a progress reporting assessment. Click on the following link to see the forms used when administering PAST: ual-past-assessment-form.pdf This assessment is appropriate for kindergarten and 1st grade.
  11. 11. An understanding of the alphabetic principle (that letters either singly or in combination represent various sounds) and the ability to apply this knowledge in the decoding of unfamiliar words. (McEwan, 2009)
  12. 12. • Phonics can be taught whenever students have the prerequisite PA skills to identify and manipulate the various sounds (phonemes). • The most intensive phonics instruction typically takes place in first grade • There are 4 ways to read words 1. Contextual Guessing-guessing based on the context of the selection, usually using picture cues 2. Letter-Sound Decoding-connecting the letter seen to the sound, or phoneme 3. Analogy-reading a word by drawing an analogy to another known word in the student’s memory 4. Sight-the ultimate goal of reading is to be able to read the word on sight within a split second (McEwan, 2009)
  13. 13. Word Family Card Game • Print out at least eight copies of the word endings printouts for the word families you wish to practice and at least two copies of the lower case letters printouts. It is best to print them on cardstock & laminate for future use • Shuffle the cards and "deal" 3 to 5 cards per player (depending on how many players you have). • Place the remaining cards face down in the middle. • Flip over the top card and lie it face up beside the face down pile. (You end up with a face up and a face down card).
  14. 14. STEP 1: the player can choose to: • pick the top card from the face up pile and discard one of their cards (placing it on top of the face up pile) OR • pick the top card from the face down pile (it will be a surprise) and discard one of their cards (placing it on top of the face up pile) OR • skip STEP 1 (keep the cards they have in their hand) STEP 2: the player can then choose to: • place cards in front of them to form ONE word family word. (the player can only form one word per turn. this can be 1 word ending card (words like "at" and "an" count!) one lower case letter card + 1 word ending card (c-at) two lower case letter cards + 1 word ending card (t-h-at) OR • if they cannot form a word family word, the player must draw a card from the face down pile. THEN the player sounds out the word family word they made (if they made one) and it is the next player's turn.
  15. 15. Starfall is an online program that is a free, public service to teach children to read with phonics. Their systematic phonics approach, in conjunction with phonemic awareness practice is perfect for preschool, kindergarten, 1st & 2nd grades, special education and ELLs. Their method of instruction motivates students in an atmosphere of imagination and enthusiasm. It provides opportunities for child-directed instruction and supports ELLs and struggling readers .
  16. 16. Sound out a word by elongating its sounds: This is when we have students segment the sounds from left to right to sound out a word, stretch the sounds and produce them in order. This strategy is not applicable every time. When using this strategy, some things a teacher might say include: • Sound it out, start at the beginning, and make each sound • Stretch that word out, and say it slowly. Find all the sounds that are there. This strategy is appropriate for any student that has prerequisite PA skills.
  17. 17. Flexible Grouping • is correlated with increased reading outcomes (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, Moody & Schumm, 2000; National Reading Panel, 2000) • is for all ability levels from gifted students to learning disabled (Vaughn, Hughes, Moody & Elbaum, 2001) • Has groupings formed and reformed in response to the students’ instructional needs (Kingore, 2004) This strategy is appropriate and beneficial for ALL students but vital for struggling readers.
  18. 18. Phonics can be assessed using standardized measures. The DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) is a standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle including letter-sound correspondence in which letters represent their most common sounds and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds (Kaminski & Good, 1996). Click on the following link to see a video of NWF This assessment is appropriate for kindergarten through second grade.
  19. 19. Words Their Way spelling inventories are another way to assess a student’s phonics skills. The teacher says a word, uses it in a sentence and then repeats the word. This type of assessment allows the teacher to see the students phonics strengths and weaknesses. Click on the following link to see the Elementary Spelling Inventory: es/rwproject/resources/assessments/spelling/spe lling_elementary.pdf The Elementary Spelling Inventory is appropriate for students who have spelled more than 20 words correct on the primary spelling inventory.
  20. 20. The ability to read so effortlessly and automatically that working memory is available for the ultimate purpose of reading-extracting and constructing meaning from the text. Fluency can be observed in accurate, automatic, and expressive oral reading and makes possible, silent reading comprehension (Harris & Hodges, 1995, p. 85; Pikulski & Chard, 2005, p. 510) McEwan, 2009
  21. 21. • Fluency serves as “the bridge between word identification and comprehension.” (Pikulski & Chard, 2005) • Fluency encompasses at least 5 different components: 1. The proportion of words recognized as sight words 2. The variation in the speed in which sight words are processed by the reader 3. The speed with which the reader identifies novel/new words 4. The use of context to speed word identification 5. Speed with which word meanings are identified • The human brain is limited in what it can process at one time. As students become more fluent oral readers, they are better able to understand what they are reading. McEwan, 2009)
  22. 22. Accessible Texts: The authentic way to build fluency is by putting accessible books into the hands of students so they can increase their own fluency by doing lots of independent reading-orally at the beginning of the process and silently later on. Leveled readers are just one source of accessible text.
  23. 23. Fluency Tutor helps young and struggling readers develop oral reading fluency and improve comprehension. It is a web-based program that allows students to practice reading, take assessments and see how they did. Teachers can access students, monitor progress and individualize instruction.
  24. 24. Taped Reading Students read aloud a short passage that is at their independent reading level. They record themselves while reading. The students then listen to themselves and follow along with the text. When using this strategy, they are monitoring their own oral reading. They then record themselves again and listen for improvement. This process continues as often as needed to reach their goals. (McEwan, 2009) This strategy is appropriate for second graders and up.
  25. 25. Readers’ Theater In this method of repeated reading, students have to opportunity to read a play but without using any props, scenery or having rehearsals. They do not need to memorize lines or wear costumes. To prepare for their performance, they just repeatedly read their lines. (McEwan, 2009) The performer’s goal is to read a script aloud effectively, enabling the audience to visualize the action. There are several benefits to using readers’ theater in the classroom: • Develops fluency to repeated exposure to text • Increases comprehension • Integrates reading, writing, speaking, and listening in an authentic context • Engages students • Increases reading motivation • Creates confidence and improve the self image of students • Provides a real purpose for reading • Provides opportunities for cooperative learning This strategy is appropriate for any grade level as long as the text is accessible.
  26. 26. Fluency can be assessed using standardized measures. DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is a standardized, individually administered test of accuracy and fluency with connected text. The passages used with ORF are designed to identify children who may need additional support and monitor progress toward instructional goals. These passages are calibrated for each grade level. Student performance is measured by having students read a passage aloud for one minute. Words omitted, substituted, and hesitations of more than three seconds are scored as errors. Words self-corrected within three seconds are scored as accurate. The number of correct words per minute is the oral reading fluency score. Click on the following link to see a video of ORF: This assessment can be used starting in first grade.
  27. 27. Fry Word Lists These “instant words” are widely accepted to contain the most used words in reading and writing. The list is divided into ten levels and then divided into groups of 25 words, based on frequency of use and difficulty. When using these high frequency word lists with a student, you will be able to identify what words they are having trouble with. Recognizing these words by sight will increase a student’s reading fluency. Click on the following link to see the complete list of the 1,000 words: This assessment can be used beginning in first grade.
  28. 28. Word knowledge is knowing the meanings of words, knowing about the relationships between words (Word schema), and having linguistic knowledge about words. World knowledge is having an understanding (background knowledge) of many different subjects and disciplines (domains) and how they related to one another. McEwan, 2009
  29. 29. • Word knowledge includes the five linguistic facets of word study: 1)phonological awareness, 2)orthographic knowledge, 3)morphological awareness, 4)semantic knowledge, and 5)mental orthographic images • Restructuring vocabulary is sometimes necessary for low-achieving students; it’s important to directly explain why they’re learning the new words – for better understanding • New vocabulary is learned best through active engagement – by seeing pictures, handling objects, and doing experiments, as well as using new words in speaking, reading and writing (McEwan, 2009)
  30. 30. Frayer Model A graphic organizer that is used for concept development and vocabulary building. It requires students to think about a concept or vocabulary word. When using a Frayer Model, you should follow these steps: 1. Define the word 2. Identify characteristics of the word 3. Provide examples of the word 4. Provide non-examples of the word
  31. 31. Super Word Toss-Synonyms and Antonyms Word Toss: Synonyms and Antonyms is a fun educational game for kids to practice matching synonyms and antonyms. Students can choose from two different levels of difficulty before they play. The rules of the game are simple. Get 10 correct matches and choose a new ball! Get 3 incorrect in a row and the game is over!
  32. 32. Build Big Words Into Everyday Routines It is suggested that teachers use big words when giving directions or sharing routine information. Repeated exposure to big words increases a student’s word knowledge. An example of this can be changing the way you ask your students to write his or her name on the board. Instead, you could say, “Please add your name to the list of those who will be receiving accolades at the end of the week.” (McEwan, 2009) This strategy can be used with any grade level.
  33. 33. Teach Word Parts: Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots When students know the meanings of lexemes (meaning units), they have access to a whole family of words. They can readily add dozens of new words and expressions to their mental lexicons. There is a natural redundancy in the English language and students will automatically know many words just by learning one word or word part. This strategy can be used with any grade level.
  34. 34. Vocabulary can be assessed using standardized measures. DIBELS Word Use Fluency (WUF) is an individually administered test of vocabulary and oral language. WUF assesses a student’s expressive vocabulary skills. Expressive vocabulary is the ability to use words to convey a specific meaning for a particular label or word. This assessment can be used for kindergarten through third grade.
  35. 35. Define the vocabulary word in your own words. This is an informal way of assessing a student’s knowledge of a new word. If a student is able to correctly use the word in dialogue or writing, you know that the student has grasped the meaning of the new word. This assessment can be used in any grade level because it can be done orally or in written format.
  36. 36. The extraction or construction of meaning from text using the seven cognitive strategies of highly skilled readers as appropriate. (McEwan, 2009)
  37. 37. • Comprehension is not a discreet skill, but rather a cognitive process requiring readers to draw on word and world knowledge, past experiences, and previously read texts. • Comprehension isn’t always about one correct answer. Although, that is usually how comprehension is assessed. • Teaching comprehension is difficult. Comprehension of text, while certainly dependent on fluency, is also related to another set of variables: 1. Familiarity with the text structure 2. Word and world knowledge 3. An age-appropriate understanding of how to apply the seven strategies of highly effective readers (McEwan, 2009)
  38. 38. Graphic Organizers Using graphic organizers helps students construct meaning from text. There are many different graphic organizers that can be used with any book across grade levels. Teachers can use them to monitor their students’ understanding of what they are reading, observe their thinking process on what you read as a class, as a group, or independently. Some examples are: • Idea Web • Venn Diagram • Timeline • KWL Chart • Character Comparison Sheet
  39. 39. Ticket to Read is a self-paced, student-centered online program that results in improved reading performance. As students complete tasks in the areas of foundational skills, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, they earn points that can be used to decorate their personal clubhouse or stock their toy store. Key features of Ticket to Read include: • Content displayed in an easy-to-navigate interface • Interactive activities supported by audio and animation • Support for English language learners • Hundreds of high-interest reading passages and games • Entry points based on students’ reading levels • Automated quizzes and self-correcting guidance • Motivating rewards system to keep students engaged and on task
  40. 40. Scaffolding In the instructional realm scaffolding is in place when the tasks that students are asked to complete or master are graduated in difficulty, with each new one being only slightly more difficult than the last. Scaffolded instruction ensures success and keeps students confident and motivated to learn. To scaffold text, use easy, high-interest reading material during the initial phases of cognitive strategy instruction. We sometimes need to scaffold the task at hand. The key to scaffolding, is knowing when to remove the scaffold. A scaffold is a lot like training wheels on a bicycle. We don’t leave the training wheels on forever because than children would never learn to ride a bike. It is the same with scaffolding, as the student becomes better at the comprehension skill, teachers need to remove the scaffold. (McEwan, 2009) This strategy can be used with all grade levels.
  41. 41. Modeling This use of this cognitive strategy with students requires thinking aloud by teachers. Teachers need to show students exactly how a good reader would apply a particular strategy. The challenge associated with this strategy is that you need to do three things as the same time: 1)comprehend the text, 2)figure out in your mind just what you did to understand it, 3)articulate for students what was going on in your mind. (McEwan, 2009) This strategy can be used with all grade levels.
  42. 42. Comprehension can be assessed using standardized measures. Daze or the DIBELS Maze comprehension task, is a group-administered measure of reading comprehension. Students are asked to read a passage silently. In the passage, every seventh word (approximately) is blank, with a maze of options (i.e., three possible word choices for the blank). One of the words in the maze is always correct, and the other two are incorrect. Daze requires students to choose the correct word as they read the passage. Students are given three minutes to work on this task. The score is the number of correct words circled minus half of the number of incorrect words circled. Please click on the following video to hear more information about Daze: This assessment can be used with third through sixth grade.
  43. 43. DCAS is a computerized test taken in the state of Delaware. DCAS is an acronym for Delaware Comprehensive Assessment System. It is a multiple choice test. The difficulty of the questions the student answers is determined by the performance of the student when taking the test. If a student were doing well, then the questions will be harder than another student who is doing poorly. This is based on ten questions embedded within others that bump the next questions' difficulty levels up or down, depending on whether the student answered correctly or incorrectly. The harder questions are worth more points, which increase the number grade. This assessment is for students in grades two through ten.
  44. 44. • McEwan, E. K. (2009). Teach them all to read: catching kids before they fall through the cracks (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin. • Elkonin Boxes. (n.d.). Reading Rockets. Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • Learning to Read for Kids. (n.d.). –Reading Eggs. Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • Effective Strategies for Teaching Phonemic Awareness. (n.d.). Reading Worksheets Grammar Comprehension Lesson Plans. Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • . (n.d.). . Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • Word Family Card Game. (n.d.). Phonics Free printable worksheets. Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • Starfall's Learn to Read with phonics. (n.d.). Starfall's Learn to Read with phonics. Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • . (n.d.). . Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • . (n.d.). . Retrieved June 25, 2014, from ng_summer07.pdf • . (n.d.). . Retrieved June 25, 2014, from • Texthelp. (n.d.). Fluency Tutor. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from tutor • for Librarians | What Is Readers Theater. (n.d.). for Librarians | What Is Readers Theater. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from • University of Oregon Homepage. (n.d.). Official DIBELS Home Page : UO DIBELS Data System. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from • Fry Word List - 1,000 High Frequency Words. (n.d.). Reading Worksheets Grammar Comprehension Lesson Plans. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from • Graphic Organizers for Reading Comprehension | (n.d.). Scholastic Teachers. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from • Have Any Questions?. (n.d.). Ticket to Read. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from