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# Session 3

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• Israel Dominguez
The phonological awareness development sequence is listed below, from broad awareness of sounds to understanding the smallest units of sound, or phonemes. When students are comfortable with phonemes, they are ready to begin instruction in phonemic awareness. Examples of phonemic awareness interactions between a teacher and a student are listed below in their developmental sequence. These can be made into interactive games and interesting activities using words that are familiar to students.
1. Phoneme Isolation: Students recognize individual sounds in a word.
Teacher: What is the first sound in cap?
Student: The first sound in cap is /k/.
2. Phoneme Identity: Students recognize the same sounds in different words.
Teacher: What sound is the same in man, mop, and mill?
Student: The first sound, /m/, is the same.
3. Phoneme Categorization: Students recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the 'odd' sound.
Teacher: Which word doesn't belong? net, nap, rug.
Student: Rug does not belong. It doesn't begin with /n/.
4. Phoneme Blending: Students listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word. Then they write and read the word.
Teacher: What word is /p/ /i/ /g/?
Student: /p/ /i/ /g/ is pig.
Teacher: Now let's write the sounds in pig: /p/, write p;
/i/, write i; /g/, write g.
Teacher: (Writes pig on the board.)
Now we're going to read the word pig.
5. Phoneme Segmentation: Students break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap or count. Then they write and read the word.
Teacher: How many sounds are in clap?
Student: /k/ /l/ /a/ /p/. Four sounds.
Teacher: Now let's write the sounds in clap: /k/, write c;
/l/, write l; /a/, write a; /p/, write p.
Teacher: (Writes clap on the board.)
Now we're going to read the word clap.
6. Phoneme Deletion: Students recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from a word.
Teacher: What is cluck without the /k/?
Student: Cluck without the /k/ is luck.
7. Phoneme addition : Students make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word.
Teacher: What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of nail?
Student: Snail.
8. Phoneme substitution: Students substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word.
Teacher: The word is run. Change /n/ to /g/. What's the new word?
Student: Rug.
Activity
Post the chart with the words to Willoughby Wallaby Woo. Have everybody sing the words together. Model adding names one or two times using your name and someone’s name in the group. Then, invite them to go around their tables singing the song with each person’s name. (All tables go at the same time.)
Distribute assignment cards, one assignment card per table. If there are more than 3 groups, give out the same assignment to multiple table groups. Introduce this activity by saying:
“Promoting phonological and phonemic awareness happens by incorporating experiences throughout the day that engage children in listening to and playing with the sounds of language. You can do the best job of this when you have a large repertoire of ideas. This next activity will give you a chance to share strategies you currently use as well as get new ideas from your colleagues.”

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• Teachers in heaven
• Current researchers state that a student’s phonemic awareness skill level is a more powerful predictor of reading ability than IQ.
• Children’s phonological awareness includes a continuum of skills that develop over time.From simples to the most complex: rhyme and alliteration sentence segmentation syllable blending and segmentation onset-rime blending and segmentation phoneme blending, segmentation, and manipulationAlso, within each phonological skill level, degrees of comlexity exist.
• As soon as print is added to a phonological awareness activity, it becomes a phonics activity.
• Phonemic Awareness Activity CardsFind the card: “Blending Sounds”The top card is a phonemic awareness activity.The activity card below has been expanded to include letter-sound knowledge.Students blend and match sounds with letters together to read words.Let’s look at how this activity has linked phonemic awareness to print.Read and discuss the +Print Blending Activity Sounds activity card.How has this activity been expanded to include print? Letters were substituted for the blank countersNow, it’s your turn.Have participants pair up. Assign one of the Phonemic Awareness Activity Cards to each pair.Link your activity cards to letters and print.
• ### Session 3

1. 1. Reading … Set … Go!<br />Application of Research-Based Instructional Practices <br />Competency 2<br />Component # 1-013-311<br />Center for Professional Learning<br />Session 3<br />Instructor: Carmen S. Concepcion<br />readingsetgo.blogspot.com<br /> Fall 2010<br />
2. 2. The Pig Personality Profile<br />
3. 3. Status of Reading Grades 4 -12<br /><ul><li>Over 8 million students in grades 4-12 are struggling</li></ul> readers<br /><ul><li>Every school day, 3000 students drop out of high</li></ul> school<br /><ul><li>Only 70% of high school students graduate on time</li></ul> with a regular diploma<br /><ul><li>High school students in the lowest 25% of their class</li></ul> are 20 times more likely to drop out than the highest<br /> performing students<br /><ul><li>53% of high school graduates enroll in remedial</li></ul> courses in postsecondary education<br />
4. 4. FLaRE Professional Paper Phonemic Awareness<br /> “The lack of phonemic awareness is the most powerful predictor of difficulty in learning to read.”<br />-Bill Honig, Linda Diamond, and Linda Gutlohn, 2000<br />Teaching Reading Sourcebook for Kindergarten through Eighth Grade, p. 2.16<br />
5. 5. What We Know From Research<br />Phonemic awareness instruction:<br />Involves students’ understanding of how words in spoken language are represented in print.<br />Helps all young students to learn to read. <br />Is most effective when students learn to read.<br />Is most effective when students learn to use letters to represent phonemes.<br />Also helps preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders learn to spell.<br />
6. 6. Phonological Awareness Continuum<br />
7. 7. Phonological Awareness Cards<br />Match the activity cards to one of the phonological awareness on the continuum<br />Write the type of phonological awareness on a sticky note and attach it to the card<br />Some types will have more than one activity<br />
8. 8. Reflection<br />Would any of these activities be useful with your current students? Why or why not?<br />What adaptations might you make at the secondary level?<br />
9. 9. Phonemic Awareness and Phonics<br />Phonemic awareness instruction:<br />Focuses students’ attention on the sounds of spoken words<br />Helps students make the connection between letters and sounds<br />During reading and spelling activities, students begin to combine their knowledge of phonemic awareness and phonics<br />
10. 10. Phonemic Awareness + Print<br />When students are ready, many phonemic awareness activities can be expanded to help students make the connection between letters and sounds.<br />Phonemic Awareness is the platform for the instruction<br />
11. 11. Share Investigative Activity Phonemic Awareness<br />
12. 12.
13. 13. Learn Network <br />Set up passwords<br />http://www.justreadflorida.com/learn/<br />Watch the following videos<br />Phonics Instruction at the Elementary Level<br />Phonics Instruction for Struggling Adolescent Readers<br />Website Reflection <br />How does this website enhance student learning?<br />How can this website be utilized best in the classroom?<br />
14. 14. Remember… <br /> Phonemic awareness “…provides children with essential foundational knowledge in the alphabetic system. It is one necessary instructional component within a complete and integrated reading program.”<br />-National Reading Panel, 2000<br />Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific <br />research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction, p. 8<br />
15. 15. Investigative Activity<br />Read: A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction A Review of Scientifically Based Reading Research for Teachers pages 5-12<br />Use guiding questions on next slide to reflect <br /> Post your reflection on the class blog<br />Be ready to share next session<br />
16. 16. Guiding Questions<br />What does phonological awareness look like in your classroom?<br />Are activities sequenced, and aligned to a developmental continuum? Does everyone (students, teachers, and parents) understand the continuum?<br />Is phonemic awareness a part of your daily language arts lesson?<br />Does each activity have a clear focus on a linguistic unit that is appropriate by level (phoneme, on-set, syllable, word)?<br />Is the difference clear between oral language manipulation and written symbol manipulation?<br />Are students allowed to practice enough?<br />How will you measure progress?<br />*If you do not teach Reading, please interview one of the reading teachers at your school<br />