Cimini Five elements of a balanced literacy program
Christina CiminiWilmington UniversitySummer 2013MRD 6202
DefinitionPhonemic Awareness is the ability to identify andmanipulate the sounds letters represent, includingblending sounds to make words, creating rhymingpatterns, and counting phonemes (individual sounds)
• McEwan (2009) says there are 4 ways children can learn PhonemicAwareness:• Be environmentally blessed with parents/caregivers who talk to themconstantly• Play word games constantly• Read aloud nursery rhymes and poetry daily• “Learn it from highly effective teachers using research-based curriculataught explicitly, systematically, supportively, and intensely”• Phonemic Awareness is usually taught in Pre-Kindergartenprograms, but if a child hasn‟t learned it by the time s/he entersKindergarten, intervention is indicated• Students who enter kindergarten with low PA skills are at high risk ofreading failure and need immediate and intensive interventions(McEwan, 2009)
• Phonics flash cards from ReadingA-Z• Picture cards for phonemic awareness• Letter cards for word building and blending/segmentingactivities• Word family (phonogram) cards• Decodable word cards• High-frequency word cards
• Phonemic Awareness Instruction article from“Reading Rockets.org”• Gives details and explanation of what phonemicawareness is• Discusses the effectiveness of phonemic awareness inthe elementary classroom• Gave the findings of a research study on the use ofphonemic awareness strategies in the classroom• Offers educators tips on how to tackle phonemicawareness in the classroom• (National institute of child health and human development, 2013)
• Tapping and Clapping• Allows students to “break up” words by clapping or tapping outtheir syllables• . Tapping can be performed with fingers, hands or an object suchas a stick. Adults should model clapping or tapping.• Once children understand the activity they should be encouragedto perform it independently on a regular basis. This kinestheticconnection allows children to become actively engaged withwords.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YzdLA_ZMxQ
• „Why not‟ Games• Help students to distinguish the differencebetween rhyming words• Example: Give the student „bat‟ and „bit‟ andhave child say words and then tell you whythey don‟t rhyme.
• Phonological AwarenessSkills Test• An informal, diagnostic,individually administeredassessment tool to helpdetermine the point ofinstruction for students andmonitor progress made fromdoing the activities selected.• I found this assessment to beeasy to administer and ithelped me to see a specificarea of phonemic awarenessthat my students struggledwith.
• PALS – PreK• A scientifically-based phonological awareness and literacyscreening that measures preschoolers‟ developing knowledge ofimportant literacy fundamentals and offers guidance to teachersfor tailoring instruction to children‟s specific needs.• Measures name writing ability, upper-case and lower-casealphabet recognition, letter sound and beginning soundproduction, print and word awareness, rhyme awareness andnursery rhyme awareness
DefinitionPhonics is the knowing, and being able to use, therelationship of letter-sound correspondence, thealphabetic principal of our language. Phonicsenables students to phonemically decode wordsby matching graphemes (letters of the alphabet) tophonemes (the sounds the letters represent).
• There are basically four ways to read words:a) Contextual guessing – guessing based on the context of the selection, usually using picturecuesb) Letter-Sound Decoding – connecting the letter seen to the sound, or phonemec) Analogy – reading a word by drawing an analogy to another known word in the student‟smemoryd) Sight – the ultimate goal of reading is to be able to read the word on sight within a splitseconde) Phonemic Awareness is usually taught in Pre-Kindergarten programs, but if a child hasn‟tlearned it by the time s/he enters Kindergarten, intervention is indicated• Phonics instruction can begin in kindergarten if students are ready;however, first grade is traditionally where the most intensivephonics instruction takes place.• The code that is most important to students who do not know howto read is the English alphabetic code. If nonreaders are toexperience the thrill of deciphering the indecipherable and figuringout what those mysterious squiggles on the page mean, they needto acquire an accurate knowledge of the code.
• Words Their Way: WordStudy for Phonics, Vocabulary,and Spelling Instruction• Instructional approach is aphenomenon in word study, providing apractical way to study words withstudents.• Easy to use• Offers a variety of resources that canbe used with every grade level• I use it in my classroom specifically forspelling but I have used it before forphonics as well.
• Phonics Instruction by the National ReadingPanel on Reading Rockets.org• Explains the types of phonics instructionalmethods and approaches• Analogy phonics• Analytic phonics• Embedded phonics• Phonics through spelling• Synthetic phonics
• Differentiation through flexible grouping• Groups based on skill level as identified byassessment• Within or outside the classroom, ensuring thatall teachers deliver same instruction to eachgroup, strict devotion to time with routines toreduce transition time• Within grade or outside of the grade level
• Word Hunts• The goal of a word hunt is for students to apply what theyare learning in isolation by finding additional examples oftarget phonics features in connected text.• Students return to texts they have previously read to hunt forwords that follow the same target features examined duringtheir teacher-directed lessons. These words are thenrecorded in the appropriate categories.• For example, after reading thewords make, shape, ate, take, game in the category a_eas in cake, you would discuss that each of these words‟ends include a long a sound and has the spelling patterna_e.
• Reading A-Z Phonics Assessment• Determine students‟ understanding ofsound/symbol relationships with two types ofphonics assessment.• The first type assesses a childs ability toassociate a sound with a given symbol• The second type assesses a childs ability todecode nonsense words.• See http://www.readinga-z.com/assess/phonics.html to view theassessments
• Informal Phonics Inventory• Scholastic Phonics Inventory™ is computer-based assessmentthat measure decoding and sight-word reading fluency in fewerthan 10 minutes.• Scholastic Phonics Inventory is a:• Universal screener• Placement test• Progress monitor• Computer to the right is anexample of the sight wordrecognition portion of the test
DefinitionFluency is the ability to read so effortlessly andautomatically that working memory is available for theultimate purpose of reading – extracting and constructingmeaning from the text. Fluency can be observed inaccurate, automatic, and expressive oral reading andmakes possible, silent reading comprehension (Harris &Hodges, 1995, p. 85; Pikulski & Chard, 2005, p. 510)
• McEwan suggests that Fluency cannot be taught, butrather, facilitated in the following ways:a) Making text accessibleb) Scaffolding instruction with explicit phonics instructionc) Providing lots of time for structured, oral repeated reading ofaccessible text• Fluency serves as the “bridge between word identificationand comprehension”• The major fluency objective in most classrooms today isincreasing students rate and accuracy in oral reading.Increasing the number of words correct per minute thatstudents can read orally is the bottom line.
• Fry‟s Instant Sight Word List• The list was compiled by Dr. Edward B. Fry in 1996. His researchfound that just 25 words make up approximately 1/3 of allpublished text. He noted that 100 words make up about1/2, and 300 words make up 65% of all written material.
• Developing Fluent Readers by Jan Hasbrouck onthe ReadingRockets.org website• Discusses what fluency is and why it is important• Gives tips for how to teach beginning readers tobecome fluent• Gives tips for how to maintain reading fluency for on-level readers• Gives suggestions for intervention for strugglingreaders
• Echo Reading• A parent, tutor, older student, orteacher orally reads the first lineof the text, and the student thenreads the same line, modelingthe tutor‟s example.• The tutor and student read inecho fashion for the entirepassage, gradually increasingthe amount of text that eitherthe tutor or the student reads atone time.• The tutor should graduallyincrease the reading speed topush the student to identifywords more quickly.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLpEkMUqZJg
• Taped Reading• In this version of repeated oral reading, studentsread aloud once or twice short passages of text attheir independent reading levels and then recordthe passage via a tape recorder.• The tapes are then replayed and students followalong with the text and monitor their oral reading.• Students then record the passage again and listenfor improvement.• Students continue to read, record, and monitortheir recording as often as needed to reach theirgoals.
• Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills(DIBELS)• A set of assessments used for universal screening and progressmonitoring in grades K-6• They are standardized, efficient and extensively researched.• They help educators identify students who may need additionalliteracy instruction in order to become proficient readers. DIBELScan be an integral part of most RTI programs.• We use the DIBELs program at our school to track whichstudents need interventions in fluency. It is part of ourRTI program and gives a good glimpse of word accuracyand reading speed.
• Read Naturally• Progress monitoring tool that includes an assessment of studentgrowth and is a repeated reading technique.• We use this tool as a form of progress monitoring and interventionfor our struggling readers. It gives students a sense of ownershipbecause they want to improve their cold read scores.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ZEdvy3WYIs
DefinitionVocabulary is knowing the meanings of words, knowingabout the relationships between words (word schema), andhaving linguistic knowledge about words.
• McKeown, Beck, Omanson, and Pople (1985) suggest thateven as many as four teaching encounters with a word do notgive learners enough knowledge to improve their readingcomprehension in text containing that word. It may take asmany as 12 experiences.• Word knowledge (vocabulary) includes the five linguistic facetsof word study: phonological awareness, orthographicknowledge, morphological awareness, semanticknowledge, and mental orthographic images.• By the end of first grade, the word knowledge differencesbetween linguistically rich and linguistically poor studentsamount to about 15,000 words. Unless we provide ongoinglanguage development through direct and systematicinstruction of word and world knowledge, the durability oflinguistically poor student achievement is suspect.
• Building Academic Vocabulary: ATeacher’s Manual by Robert J.Marzano and Debra J. Pickering• Gives teachers a practical way to helpstudents master academic vocabulary.• A method to help teachers, schools, anddistricts determine which academicvocabulary terms are most essential fortheir needs• A six-step process for direct instruction insubject area vocabulary.• Using the teacher s manual andvocabulary notebooks, educators canguide students in using tools andactivities that will help them deepen theirown understanding of critical academicvocabulary--the building blocks forachievement in each discipline.
• The vocabulary rich classroom: modeling sophisticatedword use to promote word consciousness and vocabularygrowth by Holly Lane and Stephanie Allen onReadingRockets.org• By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promotestudents vocabulary growth and word consciousness.• In this article, the research support for this approach isexplained, suggestions are provided for how teachers mightaccomplish this goal, and examples are shared from teachers whohave done it successfully.• Examples: The Weather Watcher, Affable Annie• Gives tips to being a word-conscious teacher
• Making Students Word Wizards• In this article, the research support for this approach isexplained, suggestions are provided for how teachersmight accomplish this goal, and examples are sharedfrom teachers who have done it successfully.• Students were awarded points for noticing words intheir environment that were first introduced in school.• Points are awarded to students who are caught being aWord Wizard (using the word in writing or conversationin the classroom).
• Semantic Maps• A Semantic Map is one type ofgraphic organizer.• It helps students visuallyorganize and graphically showthe relationship between onepiece of information andanother.• As a post-reading activity,words, categories, and newconcepts can be added to theoriginal maps to enhanceunderstanding.
• The Vocabulary Knowledge Scale• A self-report assessment that is consistent with Dales (1965) incrementalstages of word learning.• The VKS is not designed to tap sophisticated knowledge or lexicalnuances of a word in multiple contexts. It combines students self-reportedknowledge of a word in combination with a constructed responsedemonstrating knowledge of each target word.• Students identify their level of knowledge about each teacher-selectedword.• The VKS format and scoring guide fall into the following five categories:1. I dont remember having seen this word before. (1 point)2. I have seen this word before, but I dont think I know what it means. (2 points)3. I have seen this word before, and I think it means __________. (Synonym or translation;3 points)4. I know this word. It means _______. (Synonym or translation; 4 points)5. I can use this word in a sentence: ___________. (If you do this section, please also docategory 4; 5 points).•
• Expressive Vocabulary Test• Measures expressive vocabulary and word retrieval in StandardAmerican English. Provides 5 levels of diagnostic analyses and isco-normed with the PPVT-4.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ5T5s-NAIE
DefinitionThe extraction or construction of meaning from text usingthe seven cognitive strategies of highly skilled readers asappropriate. It is the understanding of what one reads.
• Comprehension doesn‟t always require coming up with onecorrect answer, although that is the way most teachers andtests assess it.• Students can only become skilled comprehenders byengaging in the silent reading of a lot of different kinds of texts,learning lots of new words, listening to skilled readers thinkaloud about how they are making sense of the text, thinkingaloud for others, and receiving explicit and direct instruction inhow to the use the seven strategies.• Each of the strategies is multifaceted; using them involvesmultiple thoughts and behaviors that depend on the reader‟spurpose for reading as well as the degree of success thereader has in constructing meaning from the text.
• Strategies That Work: TeachingComprehension for Understanding andEngagement by Harvey and Goudvis• Part I highlights what comprehension is and howto teach it, including the principles that guidepractice, a review of recent research, and a newsection on assessment.• Part II contains lessons and practices forteaching comprehension.• Part III includes chapters on social studies andscience reading, topic study research, textbookreading and the genre of test reading.• Part IV shows that kids need books they cansink their teeth into and the updated appendixsection recommends a rich diet of fiction andnonfiction, short text, kids magazines, websitesand journals that will assist teachers as theyplan and design comprehension instruction
• Modeling• Modeling cognitive strategy usage for students requiresthinking aloud by teachers – “showing students exactlyhow a good reader would apply a particular strategy”.• The purpose of thinking aloud/modeling is to showstudents how you personally process and respond towhat you read.• In so doing, you become the master reader and yourstudents serve as cognitive apprentices
• Marzano‟s Instructional Strategies for Comprehension• Example: Summarizing• Summarizing is restating the essence of text or an experience in as fewwords as possible in a new, yet concise form.• Summarizing and note taking requires the ability to synthesizeinformation.• Students must be able to analyze information and organize it in a waythat captures the main ideas and supporting details that is stated intheir own words.• Students can summarize information in different ways, includingdeleting information that isnt important to the overall meaning of thetext, substituting some information, and keeping some information.• As students practice these strategies, it enhances their ability tounderstand specific content for learning.
• Standard Diagnostic Reading Test• Provides group administered diagnostic assessment ofthe essential components of reading in order todetermine students strengths and needs.• Includes detailed coverage of reading skills, includingmany easy questions, so teachers can better assessstudents struggling with reading and plan instructionappropriately.• Makes it possible to assess emerging literacy skills ofstudents in Kindergarten and grade 1.
• Qualitative Reading Inventory-4• Contains narrative and expositorypassages at each pre-primerthrough high school level.• Provides graded word lists andnumerous passages designed toassess the oral reading, silentreading, or listening comprehensionof a student as well as questions toassess prior knowledge.• Instructors can measurecomprehension by retellingpassages, implicit and explicitquestions, and other devices.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRxIjCJm1xk
• McEwan, E. K. (2009). Teach them all to read: Catching kidsbefore they fall through the cracks. (2 ed.). Corwin A Sagecompany.• Phonemic Awareness• Brummitt-Yale, J. (2008). Effectiv e Strategies for Teaching Phonemic Awareness Retrievedfrom http://www.k12reader.com/effective-strategies-for-teaching-phonemic-awareness/• Cambiam Learning. Phonological Awareness and Phonics Overview. Retrieved fromhttp://www.readinga-z.com/phonics/• National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2013). Phonemic AwarenessInstruction. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/255/• Phonological awareness skills test. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/~specconn/page/instruction/ra/case/caseb/pdf/caseb_scene1_2.pdf• The Rector. , & The Board of Visitors (2007). Pals pre-k assessment. Retrieved fromhttp://pals.virginia.edu/tools-prek.html• Yopp, H. K., & Yopp, R. H. (2000). Supporting phonemic awareness development in theclassroom. The Reading Teacher, 54(2), 130-143. Retrieved fromhttp://www.icyte.com/saved/teacherweb.com/659936?key=d7a5704e16c0ec1a79751d8c46130e469f77911a
• Fluency• Fry, D. E. B. (1996). Sight word list : frys 1000 instant words (1-300). Retrieved from http://www.spelling-words-well.com/sight-word-list.html• Hasbrouck, J. (2013) Developing Fluent Readers. Retrieved fromhttp://www.readingrockets.org/article/27176/• Read Naturally, Inc. (2013). Read naturally. Retrieved fromhttp://www.readnaturally.com/index.htm• University of Oregon. (2013). Dibels data system. Retrieved fromhttps://dibels.uoregon.edu/
• Vocabulary• ASHA. (2012). Expressive Vocabulary Test. Retrieved fromhttp://www.asha.org/SLP/assessment/Expressive-Vocabulary-Test-Second-Edition-(EVT-2).htm• Gunning, T. G. (2004). Creating literacy instruction for all children. Boston:Allyn & Bacon.• Heimlich, J. E., & Pittelman, S. V. (1986). Semantic mapping: ClassroomApplications. Newark, DE: International Reading Associationteaching. Forum, 33(3), 6-9.• Lane, H. & Allen, S. (2013). The Vocabulary-Rich Classroom: ModelingSophisticated Word Use to Promote Word Consciousness and VocabularyGrowth. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/40991/• Marzano, R. J., & Pickering, D. J. (2005). Building academicvocabulary, teachers manual. Alexandria, Virginia: Assn forSupervision & Curriculum.
• Comprehension• Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work, teachingcomprehension for understanding and engagement. (2nd ed ed.).Chicago: Stenhouse Pub.• Karlsen, B., & Gardner, E. F. (1995). Stanford diagnostic reading test,fourth edition (sdrt 4). Pearson. Retrieved from• Leslie, L., & Caldwell, J. S. (2006). Qualitative reading inventory. Allyn &Bacon.• Marzono, R. (2008). Classroom Instruction that Works. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tltguide.ccsd.k12.co.us/instructional_tools/Strategies/Strategies.html• North East Florida Educational Consortium. (2013).Comprehensioninstructional sequence. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nefec.org/reading/page-377/