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Comparative Study on Ti Surface Modified by Grit Blasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
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Comparative Study on Ti Surface Modified by Grit Blasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

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Ikhwan Hidayat Thesis Defense 2009

Ikhwan Hidayat Thesis Defense 2009

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  • that titanium can be successfully fused into bone when osteoblasts grow on and into the rough surface of the implanted titanium

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  • 1. Comparative Study on Ti Surface Modified by Grit Blasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants Ikhwan Hidayat Supervisor: Professor Sukyoung Kim Biomaterials Lab - Department of Materials Science & Engineering Yeungnam University , South Korea - 2009 Thesis Defense, December 7 th , 2009
  • 2. Outline Objectives Background Introduction Methodology Materials Results & Discussions Conclusions
  • 3.
    • Biomaterial is…
    • "any substance (other than drugs) or combination of substances synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as a part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body".
    • - Williams, 1987
    Introduction Orthopedic screws/ fixation Dental Implants Skin/ cartilage Drug Delivery Devices Ocular implants Heart valves Bone replacements Biosensors Implantable Microelectrodes
  • 4. Introduction A dental implant is an artificial tooth root replacement and is used in prosthetic dentistry to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth The Romans, Chinese, and Aztec used gold in dentistry more than 2000 years ago.. The most widely accepted and successful dental implant today is the osseointegrated implant , discovered by Professor Per-Ingvar Brånemark in the 1950s crown crown gum gum bone bone root implant tooth implant
  • 5. Background The ability of material to attach with the living host tissue Surface roughness Chemical composition Surface morphology & Topography Surgical techniques Bone quality Implant Design surface faster healing implants, cheaper way to manufacture implants Successful implant…
  • 6. Objectives
  • 7. Project Road Map Project Start Literature Study Polishing Grit Blasting Acid Etching In Vitro Cell Test Final Report Project End Project Crushing Sieving Granule Size: 100-150 μm , 150-200 μm , 200-250 μm , and 250-325 μm Output: EDS,Surface Profilometer, SEM Output: EDS,Surface Profilometer, SEM, XRD Output: MTT assay ALP staining
  • 8. Materials – Substrate
    • Titanium discs : cp-Ti grade 4
      • Diameter:15 mm, thickness: 2 mm
    Titanium is biocompatible (non-toxic and is not rejected by the body) and has the inherent property to osseointegrate enabling use in dental implants that can remain in place for over 30 years. a Aluminum 6.00% vanadium 4.00% and other element 0.1% or 0.4% total. All are maximum allowable weight percent. Element Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Ti6Al4V a Nitrogen 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 Carbon 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.08 Hydrogen 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.0125 Iron 0.20 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.25 Oxygen 0.18 0.25 0.35 0.40 0.13 Titanium balance
  • 9. Grit Blasting
      • Granules size : 100-150 μm, 150-200 μm, 200-250 μm, and 250-325 μm
    • Hydroxyapatite
    • [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ]
    Bioactive, able to integrate in bone structures and support bone ingrowths, without breaking down or dissolving combination of excellent corrosion resistance, good biocompatibility, high wear resistance and reasonable strength.
    • Aluminum Oxide [Al 2 O 3 ]
    Ti
  • 10. Acid Etching
      • Concentration: 1 Volume %
      • Duration: 2 Minutes
      • Phosphoric Acid [H 3 PO 4 ]
      • Nitric Acid [HNO 3 ]
    a colorless, viscous liquid mineral (inorganic) acid, used in medical especially in dentistry as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid, used for the production of fertilizers, production of explosives, etching and dissolution of metals Ultrasonic machine H 3 PO 4 / HNO 3 Blasted Ti disc
  • 11. Characterization XRD EDS
  • 12. Cell Test
    • The cells were seeded on all groups of samples placed in a 6-well plate at 1 x 10 5 cells per well, and cultured at 37 o C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO 2 and 95% air.
    • The cell proliferation ability was measured after 2 hours, 1 day and 1 week cell culturing by using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay.
    • The optical densities were measured at 570 nm in an ELISA reader.
    Attached cells Samples MC3T3-E1 Cells Bulk Material Surface Layer of Material Adsorbed layer of water, ions & proteins Cells in biological fluid
  • 13. Results & Discussion >
  • 14. Results & Discussion: Surface Chemistry
    • EDS - Dot Mapping
    HA Blasted HA Blasted + H 3 PO 4 Etched HA Blasted + HNO 3 Etched Al 2 O 3 Blasted Al 2 O 3 Blasted + H 3 PO 4 Etched Al 2 O 3 Blasted + HNO 3 Etched
    • EDS – HA Chemical Composition
    • EDS – Al 2 O 3 Chemical Composition
    50 μ m 50 μ m 50 μ m 50 μ m 50 μ m 50 μ m Samples Ca P Ti at% at% at% HA Blasted 9.12 7.09 83.79 HA Blasted + H 3 PO 4 Etched 0.49 0.82 98.69 HA Blasted + HNO 3 Etched 0.55 1.07 98.38 Samples O Al Ti at% at% at% Al 2 O 3 Blasted 50.82 9.74 39.45 Al 2 O 3 Blasted + H 3 PO 4 Etched 50.80 14.10 35.10 Al 2 O 3 Blasted + HNO 3 Etched 48.31 11.05 40.64
  • 15. Results & Discussion
    • The HA blasted titanium discs shows some peaks of titanium and hydroxyapatite , after etching the hydroxyapatite peaks disappear.
    • Al 2 O 3 blasted titanium discs shows some significant peaks of titanium and aluminum oxide, before and after etching.
    Surface Chemistry – XRD
    • XRD Peaks – HA
    • XRD Peaks – Al 2 O 3
  • 16. Results & Discussion
    • The higher grit size blasted generated higher surface roughness
    • Al 2 O 3 blasted samples have higher surface roughness than the HA blasted samples.
    Surface Roughness – blasted samples
  • 17. Results & Discussion
    • After etching process, the surface roughness of HA were drastically decreased, meanwhile Al 2 O 3 only slightly decreased
    Surface Roughness – etched samples
  • 18. Results & Discussion
    • Surface Morphology of: (a1) HA granules, magnification 100x, (a2) Al 2 O 3 granules magnification 100x, (b1) HA grits, magnification 1000x, (b2) Al 2 O 3 grits magnification 1000x.
    Surface Morphology (b1) (b2) (a1) (a2) Figure IV.8 Surface Morphology of: (a1) HA granules, magnification 100x, (a2) Al 2 O 3 granules magnification 100x, (b1) HA grits, magnification 1000x, (b2) Al 2 O 3 grits magnification 1000x.
    • The HA granules have a round and irregular shape, meanwhile Al 2 O 3 granules have a sharp and tapering shape
  • 19. Results & Discussion Surface Morphology SEM micrographs (a1) HA blasted; (a2) HA blasted & H 3 PO 4 etched; (a3) HA blasted & HNO 3 etched; (b1) Al 2 O 3 blasted; (b2) Al 2 O 3 blasted H 3 PO 4 etched and; (b3) Al 2 O 3 blasted HNO 3 etched (grit size 200-250 μm) magnification 1000x. The black arrows points the residual alumina particle (b1) (b2) (b3) (a1) (a2) (a3)
  • 20. Results & Discussion Cell Proliferation – HA [i] K. Anselme. Osteoblast adhesion on biomaterials Biomaterials 21 (2000), pp. 667–681
    • HA blasted, after 1 week culturing the cell proliferation decreased, due to residual grits.
    • etched samples showed better cell proliferation, after 1 day and 1 week culturing keep increasing.
  • 21. Results & Discussion Cell Proliferation – Al 2 O 3 Piatelli et al [i] conclude that the osseointegration of titanium dental implant is not affected by residual aluminium oxide. [i] A. Piatelli, M. Degidi, M. Paolantonio, C. Mangano and A. Scarano, Residual aluminium oxide on the surface of titanium implants has no effect on osseointegration. Biomaterials 24 (2003), pp. 4081–4089.
    • Overall, after 1 week culturing the cell proliferation increased
    • HNO 3 etched sample, the higher grit size sample is better than the lower grit size samples
  • 22. Conclusions
    • After etching with HNO 3 and H 3 PO 4 aluminum and oxygen remained on the surface of Al 2 O 3 blasted samples meanwhile calcium and phosphorous were successfully removed from the surface of HA blasted samples.
    • Al 2 O 3 blasted samples have a higher surface roughness than HA blasted samples due to alumina grit’s hardness and surface shape, and the rougher surface is obtained by the higher grit size.
    • The HA blasted and etched samples showed the best cell viability and proliferation. Overall, surface roughness does not effect significantly to the cell viability and proliferation.
    • Despite the residual grit embedded on the surface, the Al 2 O 3 blasted and etched samples also showed a good cell viability and proliferation and could be an alternative for manufacturers.
  • 23. Thank you… Send your comments or questions to: [email_address] Q&A Session >