I B A H R I N E 6 1 A L Jazeera F R O M C H A N N A L T O N E W T W O R K

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I B A H R I N E 6 1 A L Jazeera F R O M C H A N N A L T O N E W T W O R K

  1. 1. AL Jazeera and Its Sisters 6 1 Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY in IFRANE SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES PROGRAM
  2. 2. AL Jazeera and Politics
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The last decade has witnessed a change in the media landscape of almost all countries of the Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>These media developments have highlighted the need to consider issues of the media’s role in triggering political change, because the Arab world continues to lag far behind other regions in political modernity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Question <ul><li>The key question is to what extent can these media developments contribute towards democratization and good governance in these societies </li></ul>
  5. 5. History <ul><li>He divides the development of Arab world television into three main periods </li></ul><ul><li>The first period is the formative phase (1954-1975) </li></ul><ul><li>It was characterized by the &quot;commercial start&quot; and by &quot;private players&quot; that were engaged in these activities &quot;for purely commercial purposes&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. History <ul><li>The second phase is that of national expansion (1976-1990) </li></ul><ul><li>During this phase, Arab regimes &quot;sought to build up their national broadcasting capabilities through </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>training local staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increasing local production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pooling inter-Arab production resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and by extending transmissions to cover national territories“ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Imported programs from the United States, Europe, and Egypt dominated the programming </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>The third phase is the regional and global expansion since 1990 due to a number of developments including: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid urbanization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political transformation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ayish’s Typologies <ul><li>1. The traditional government-controlled television pattern is dominant in countries such as Libya, Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco </li></ul><ul><li>2. The reformist government-controlled television pattern is to be found in countries such as the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Egypt, Bahrain, and Algeria. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The commercial liberal television pattern is dominant in Qatar, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon </li></ul>
  9. 9. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>A decade after its emergence, Al-Jazeera ’s has quickly acquired a large audience </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Jazeera ’s different “cross-fire” types of political talk shows, its most revolutionary programmes, are watched by large audiences, because they debate on some of the most sensitive issues in Arab society </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, they are being assumed the role, among other things, to spreading democratic attitudes, as well as building the foundations of a radically new pluralist culture of political debate, necessary for the development and functioning of a herrschaftsfreie public sphere, where different discourses compete discursively and argumentatively over the hearts and minds of Arab people </li></ul>
  10. 10. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>Al-Jazeera has contributed to the formation of a public sphere that supports a discursive culture of political debate or to its fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Ittijah Al-Moakis on issues related exclusively to political reform and democratisation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>Al-Jazeera’s motto “ opinion and counter-opinion ” has given it the reputation that its political talk shows function as a free, independent and open critical public space, where Arab citizens can speak and expect to be heard </li></ul><ul><li>However, Al-Jazeera has been often accused that its political talk shows seek “sensationalism” and the promotion of the culture of conflict rather than consensus </li></ul><ul><li>It has been reported that professional standards of objectivity and balanced journalism have not crystallised so far in Al-Jazeera’s journalistic work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>Other accounts argue that Al-Jazeera ’s political talk shows have “degenerated into unproductive shouting matches in which abuse replaced dialogue” </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of functioning as a platform for rational debate, Al-Jazeera ’s political talk shows have turned out to be a platform of political emotionalism and “a vehicle for the collective venting of emotion” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>One common explanation among journalists, communication scholars and policy makers for this degeneration of the political talk shows is that the status of media ethics in the Arab satellite broadcasting is not professional enough </li></ul>
  14. 14. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>However, it can be argued that the problem of media ethics is not only influenced by the hard-to-die tradition of authoritarian grip over media institutions and weak professional background but also by the Arab passive and mediot (idiot of the media) audience, with its uncritical media habitus </li></ul>
  15. 15. Al-Jazeera ’s Political Talk Shows <ul><li>Under the combined impacts of Arab and American pressures, Al-Jazeera formulated during its first “World Forum” in Doha in July 2004 its one-page “ Code of Ethics ” </li></ul><ul><li>In it, Al - Jazeera pledges, among other things, to adhere to journalistic standards of balance and independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) to treat audiences with respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) to present diverse points of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) to distinguish between news and opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(see, Al- Jazeera’s Code of Ethics ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Code of Ethics <ul><li>Has Al-Jazeera abided by its “Code of Ethics”? </li></ul>
  17. 17. AL Jazerra Channel in Rabat
  18. 19. Checklist for Class today: MOROCCO TV satellite dishes, Chaouen.
  19. 20. Online Coverage of the 2007 Moroccan Elections: Al Jazeera’s Arabic Website as a Case Study Source: personal product
  20. 21. Online Coverage of the 2007 Moroccan Elections: Al Jazeera’s Arabic Website as a Case Study
  21. 22. حسن الراشدي: أنا مؤمن بأن القضاء سينصفني <ul><li>- بعد أن أقدمت وزارة الاتصال المغربية على سحب الاعتماد الممنوح إليك بصفتك مديرا لمكتب قناة « الجزيرة » في الرباط بدعوى بثها لـ « خبر زائف » ، هل هناك بوادر انفراج للأزمة أم إن مكتب القناة في الرباط معرض للإغلاق بإيعاز من جهات معينة تزعجها « الجزيرة »? < للأسف، ليست هناك أية بوادر للانفراج في الملف، الآن نحن نشكل الفريق القانوني الذي سيتولى الدفاع عن مكتب الجزيرة في الرباط، وهو فريق مكون من الأستاذ خالد السفياني، كمحام رئيسي في العملية، وفريق من المحامين المتعاطفين معنا في هذا الملف . لا يبدو أن لنا خياراً آخر سوى تهيئة أنفسنا للمحاكمة، بعد أن وجهت إلينا تهمة نشر نبأ زائف والمشاركة، طبقا للفصل 42 من قانون الصحافة . - بالنسبة إلى المحاكمة كيف تنظر إليها، هل هي محاكمة تندرج في سياق التضييق على حرية الصحافة في المغرب، هل هي محاولة لدفع « الجزيرة » إلى الرحيل من المغرب ؟ < أنا كمعني بهذه القضية، كنت أجد من العدل أن تمس هذه المحاكمة كل الناس الذين نشروا خبر مقتل ستة أشخاص في مدينة سيدي إفني على خلفية المواجهات بين الشرطة والمتظاهرين، عوض أن تشمل المحاكمة أحدا دون الآخر بطبيعة الحال، أنا أعتقد أنه مازالت هناك فرصة أمام الجميع لإعادة الأمور إلى نصابها لو ظهرت إرادة حقيقية . أما المحاكمات التي تطال الصحافيين في المغرب فأعتقد أنها تنتمي إلى عهد ولى، وهذا كل ما لدي من تعليق . - هل فتحت قنوات اتصال موازية معك لحل المشكل مع مسؤولين في مواقع القرار لإعادة الأمور إلى نصابها بعد أن سحبت وزارة الاتصال الاعتماد الممنوح لك؟ < للأسف، أنا شخصيا ليست لي اتصالات مع أية جهة رسمية، حتى إن هذه الجهات لا ترد أحيانا حتى على الهاتف، كنا منذ البداية نطلب لقاءات مع مسؤولين ومع معنيين، دعواتنا لم تؤت أكلها ووصلنا، للأسف، إلى الباب المسدود في ما يخص هذه القضية . الآن، القضية أمام القضاء وأنا لدي ثقة في القضاء، ولا زلت مؤمنا، رغم ما يسعى البعض إلى ترويجه من وجود سوء نية و احتمال اللجوء إلى استعمال فصول متابعة تذكرنا بذكريات غير جميلة، بأن القضاء سينصفني كمغربي وكصحافي ممارس منذ 33 سنة، وسينصفني كإعلامي مهني، وهذا ما أتمناه . * مدير مكتب الجزيرة بالرباط . </li></ul>
  22. 24. Al Jazeera English <ul><li>Al-Jazeera English , the company’s new English-language channel which was launched in November 2006 (with one of its four studios being based in London). </li></ul><ul><li>As the world’s first global English language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East, Al-Jazeera English’s agenda setting editorial mission lies in „balancing the current typical information flow by reporting from the developing world back to the West and from the southern to the northern hemisphere” </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Jazeera English’s main objective is to “give voice to untold stories, promote debate, and challenge established perceptions” </li></ul>
  23. 25. Al Jazeera English <ul><li>During the last decade, Al-Jazeera’s has move d from being a news channel to identifying itself as a network with sports, children, current affairs, documentary and a news website </li></ul><ul><li>With the Al-Jazeera English and an English news website, Al-Jazeera’s network is likely to play a pivotal role in bringing together English-speaking Muslims, one of its potential target groups, in Europe and elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>According to recent estimates, there are about 10 million Muslims in Western Europe. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Al Jazeera Channel on YouTube <ul><li>During the last decade, Al-Jazeera’s has move d from being a news channel to identifying itself as a network with sports, children, current affairs and documentary </li></ul><ul><li>With the Al-Jazeera English and an English news website, Al-Jazeera’s network is likely to play a pivotal role in bringing together English-speaking Muslims, one of its potential target groups, in Europe and elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Al- Jazeera on YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>According to recent estimates, there are about 10 million Muslims in Western Europe </li></ul>
  25. 27. Al Jazeera Network <ul><li>Al Jazeera Network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>News : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera English </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Mobasher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Urdu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Sports </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Sports +1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Sports +2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Sports +3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Sports HD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentaries : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Documentary Channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera Children's Channel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Al Jazeera Children's Channel
  27. 29. Al Jazeera Sports
  28. 30. Al Jazeera Documentary Channel

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