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PURPOSE DRIVEN STUDY ON
STUDY OF WATER QUALITY FLUCTUATION IN RIVER
VISHWAMITRI
March 2014
INSTITUTION AND INVESTIGATORS
1. NAME OF RESEARCH
STATION AND
ADDRESS & PHONE
GUJARAT ENGINEERING RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
Race ...
Abbreviations
APS Auxiliary Pumping Station
ASP Activated Sludge Process
BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand
CETP Common Effluen...
The Vishwamitri river is a seasonal river which flows east to west between
the Mahi and Narmada rivers in Gujarat. The Vis...
INDEX
Sr.No. Description Page No.
Institution and Investigators
Abbreviations
Preface
Executive Summary
1. Chapter - 1
Int...
Executive Summary
The Vishwamitri basin is a part of Dhadhar basin, which extends over an
area of 3423 sq km. located in E...
human disturbances the presence of the crocodile in large number indicate the
unique ecological significance of this river...
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Background
Water resources management is on top priority on government’s agenda in
India. For r...
1.2 Vishwamitri River Study
The Vishwamitri River is a seasonal river which flows east to west between
the Mahi and Narmad...
1.3 Dhadhar River Basin
The basin characteristics of Dhadhar are described below.
Figure 1.1: Dhadhar River Basin
The Dhad...
trappean rocks that rise abruptly 830 m above M.S.L. The hill is 5 km long and
around 5 km wide and consists of several sc...
minimum is 15 °C, and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are
responsible for a mild chill in January. The ...
1.7 Demography of Vadodara City
Since Vadodara is an important city in the basin, a detailed analysis of the
city was cons...
1.10 Key Stresses due to Human Interventions
As the human demand for water is steeply increasing in the city of
Vadodara l...
1.11 Sources of Pollution
Vishwamitri River is seriously affected by discharge of untreated and
partially treated wastewat...
Nimeta. The capacities of each of the plants are 45 MLD and 50 MLD
respectively. The capacity utilisation of the treatment...
Sewage Collection
Vadodara City has had an underground drainage system since the year
1894. The sewage, which is collected...
sewage from lower depths. Therefore, on the whole, Vadodara has a greater
number of Auxiliary Pumping Stations (APS). Pres...
1.11.3 Issues Related to Sewage Management
Sewage is diverted through the natural drains, as the network does not
exist or...
1.11.4 Municipal Solid Wastes Management
As solid wastes dumping is one of the important factors for Vishwamitri
River wat...
The Gujarat Pollution Control Board monitors the disposal of the biomedical
waste.
The waste process facility (compost pla...
textiles and machine tools. The establishment of Bank of Baroda by Sayajirao III
in 1908 also help industrial growth.
In 1...
effluents reaching to the sewage treatment plants is coming from industrial
sources. Thus, it can be presumed that about 2...
The establishment of large industrial units in a region automatically brings into
existence a number of smaller enterprise...
1.11.7 Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Gujarat Pollution Control Board, which is responsible for regulating
pollution in t...
a) Pollution From Small Rural Villages
Almost as a rule these would not have running water supply not sewered
sanitation. ...
polluting production technologies such as chrome-tanning of leather, use of azo-
dyes in fabrics, use of cadmium in orname...
h) Deposition of Air- Pollutants
Atmospheric pollutants may deposit directly on surface waters. Also the
pollutants deposi...
river, the 25 kilometre stretch of the river which passes through Vadodara is the
home to 100 mugger crocodiles.
1.13 Init...
d) Industrial Pollution Control
The GPCB has taken several initiatives to contain industrial pollution in
Vadodara. All th...
Chapter 2
Methodology
In order to fulfil the preset objective as mentioned in the previous chapter,
the study was carefull...
Figure 2.1 Map of Vishwamitri Basin showing sampling locations
2.3 Selection of Sampling Locations
The sampling locations ...
Figure 2.2: River Vishwamitri at Paladi
2. Vishwamitri River at Pilol Village
The monitoring location is situated about 3-...
3. Vishwamitri River at Dena
This station is located on Vishwamitri river at About 2-3 km downstream of
Pilol near Dena vi...
5. Vishwamitri at Akota
This station is located just in the middle of Vadodara city. The water quality of
this location re...
7. Vishwamitri at Khalipur
This station is located about 4 Km downstream of Kalali area of Vadodara
on Vishwamitri river n...
Figure 2.9: River Vishwamitri at Virpur
10.Vishwamitri at Pingalwada
This Station is located on Vishwamitri River at about...
Groundwater Quality Sampling Locations
In order to assess the impact of river water quality on the groundwater of the
surr...
Table-2.1
Planned & actual position of collection of the samples
Sr.
No.
Particulars No. of
Samples
Planned
No. of
Samples...
2.4 Preparation for Sampling
At least one day before sampling, it was made sure that all the
arrangements are made as per ...
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2 4 * 1 + + + , + ,
2 4 * 1 + + + + + +
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4 * 1 + + +...
Chapter 3
Results & Discussions
The Vishwamitri basin including Dhadhar basin extends over an area of 3423sq
km. The total...
in water treatment that contribute to the removal of viruses, bacteria and other
organisms.
b) DO
!" # $ % &' & &$ # #( ))...
c) BOD and COD
4 " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 0 2 /&' +, 2& % - . &$ (( $
#/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ 3
5 " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 6 #/0 2 /...
COD and BOD values are goes on increasing. The maximum value of COD and
BOD at Kalali are observed 100mg/L and 30mg/L duri...
8 " # $ % &' & &$ # #( & % )) &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# *
)01 &2 $
The average value of Calcium and in river water varies from 25...
industrial activities. A high value of chloride is troublesome in irrigation water and
also harmful to aquatic life.
The m...
; " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 0#)<0&$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# *
)01 &2 $
Phosphate is present in natural water as soluble phosphates a...
3.3 General Characteristics of Surface water
a) pH & DO
In the present study the mean values of pH at all 7 locations rang...
d) Calcium, Magnesium and Hardness
!!" & &$ # #( &'/ 2 # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # )
!4" & &$ # #( & ) 2 # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$...
For all the locations, Calcium concentration lies within the permissible limit of
200mg/L prescribed by BIS (2012).
The me...
f) Sulphate, Phosphate and Nitrates
!8" & &$ # #( '<0&$ # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # )
!?" & &$ # #( $ &$ # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$...
Nitrate content have been observed probably due to pollution from anthropogenic
activities and excessive use of fertilizer...
Chapter – 4
Conclusions and Recommendations
4.1 Water Quality of river Vishwamitri
The Vishwamitri river carries only dry ...
Table 4.2: water quality of Vishwamitri River as measured by GPCB during 2009-10
(Once in a Year)
Monitoring Station pH TD...
b) Segment II:
This segment (about 12 km) lies between Dena Village and Sama Village. This
segment is characterized by mor...
4.3 Important Water Quality Issues of Vishwamitri River
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Gujarat Pollution C...
4.4 Water Quality of Ground water
The samples collected were analyzed for groundwater quality to see the suitability
of gr...
4.5 Recommendations and Remedial Measures
1. The state government is also concerned about the water quality of this
river....
References
1. CPCB (2009) Status of Water Supply, Wastewater Generation And
Treatment In Class-I Cities & Class-II Towns O...
Temp. Odour EC TDS
mg/L
pH NH4-N
mg/L
NO3-
N
mg/L
PO4 -
P
mg/L
BOD
mg/L
COD
mg/L
DO
mg/L
Turbid
ity
NTU
CO3
mg/L
HCO3
mg/L...
Temp. Odour EC TDS
mg/L
pH NH4-N
mg/L
NO3-
N
mg/L
PO4 -
P
mg/L
BOD
mg/
L
COD
mg/L
DO
mg/L
Turbi
dity
NTU
CO3
mg/L
HCO3
mg/...
Temp. Odour EC TDS
mg/L
pH NH4-
N
mg/L
NO3-
N
mg/L
PO4 -
P
mg/
L
BOD
mg/L
COD
mg/L
DO
mg/
L
Turbi
dity
NTU
CO3
mg/L
HCO3
m...
Temp. Odour EC TDS
mg/L
pH NH4-
N
mg/L
NO3-
N
mg/L
PO4 -
P
mg/
L
BOD
mg/L
COD
mg/L
DO
mg/L
Turbi
dity
NTU
CO3
mg/L
HCO3
mg...
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
Guj sw study of wq fluctuation in river vishwamitri_0b
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  1. 1. PURPOSE DRIVEN STUDY ON STUDY OF WATER QUALITY FLUCTUATION IN RIVER VISHWAMITRI March 2014
  2. 2. INSTITUTION AND INVESTIGATORS 1. NAME OF RESEARCH STATION AND ADDRESS & PHONE GUJARAT ENGINEERING RESEARCH INSTITUTE Race Course, Vadodara-390 007 0265 – 2313413, 14, 15 2. PROJECT DIRECTOR AND PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Shri P C Vyas Chief Engineer and Director GERI, Race Course, Vadodara-390 007 3. CO-PROJECT DIRECTOR Shri. R.H.Fefar Joint Director (I) GERI, Race Course, Vadodara-390 007 Fax No. (0265) 2324067 Website:www.gerionline.org e-mail : geribrd@rediffmail.com 4. CO-INVESTIGATOR 1. Smt. P.S.Chari Research Officer Material Testing Division GERI, Vadodara. Email:romtgeri@gmail.com 2. Smt. T.N.Vaidya, Assistant Research Officer Chemistry Unit, GERI, Vadodara 5. LABORATORY PERSONNEL 1. Ku. Bhavisha D. Akbari Assistant Engineer Chemistry Unit, GERI, Vadodara 2. Shri. A.N.Luhana Senior Scientific Assistant Chemistry Unit, GERI, Vadodara 6. PROJECT TITLE Study of Water quality fluctuation in River Vishwamitri 7. PERIOD OF THE PROJECT 3 Years
  3. 3. Abbreviations APS Auxiliary Pumping Station ASP Activated Sludge Process BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand CETP Common Effluent Treatment Plant CGWB Central Ground Water Board COD Chemical Oxygen Demand CPCB Central Pollution Control Board CWC Central Water Commission DO Dissolved Oxygen FC Fecal Coliform GOI Government of India GERI Gujarat Engineering Research Institute GIDC Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation GPCB Gujarat Pollution Control Board GSWSSB Gujarat State Water Supply and Sewerage Board HIS Hydrology Information System HP-II Hydrology Project Phase-II IMA Indian Medical Association IMD Indian Meteorological Department IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission KM Kilometer LPCD Liter per Capita per Day MCM Million Cubic Meter MGD Million Gallons per day MLD Million Liters per day MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forest PDS Purpose Driven Study SS Suspended Solids SSI Small Scale Industries STP Sewerage Treatment Plant SWM Solid Waste Management TPD Tonnes per Day VMC Vadodara Municipal Corporation WTP Water Treatment Plant
  4. 4. The Vishwamitri river is a seasonal river which flows east to west between the Mahi and Narmada rivers in Gujarat. The Vishwamitri flows west through the city of Vadodara and joins with the Dhadhar and Khanpur River and empties into the Gulf of Khambat. This river system includes the Sayaji Sarovar on the Vishwamitri River near Ajwa, and the Dev Dam on the Dhadhar Branch. As it flows through Vadodara, the Vishwamitri River is subjected to the drainage of the city's sewage and effluents from nearby industries. The river is a home for crocodiles. The water quality degradation has seriously affected the survival and habitat of crocodiles in various ways. In order to address this problem several efforts have been initiated by the Government of Gujarat. For rational planning of water quality restoration program for Vishwamitri River, complete knowledge of nature and magnitude of water quality problems of the river is pre-requisite. In order to acquire this knowledge an intensive water quality surveillance of the river is essential. Hence it was thought appropriate to take up a water quality study under Hydrology Project as a Purpose Driven Study (PDS). The Study was carried out by GERI during the period of 2009-2011. GERI expresses sincere thanks to (1) Dr.R.C.Trivedi and (2)Director, NIH, Roorkee, Head of the Environmental Hydrology Division, NIH Roorkee and Dr. M.K.Sharma, Scientist and Water Quality Lab In charge, NIH, Roorkee for extending their support and giving us the necessary technical guidance in preparation of this report.
  5. 5. INDEX Sr.No. Description Page No. Institution and Investigators Abbreviations Preface Executive Summary 1. Chapter - 1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Vishwamitri river Study 1.3 Dhadhar River Basin 1.4 Tributaries 1.5 Climate 1.6 Rainfall 1.7 Demography of Vadodara City 1.8 Water Use 1.9 Ground Water 1.10 Key Stresses due to Human Interventions 1.11 Sources of Pollution 1.12 Ecological Issues 1.13 Initiatives for Vishwamitri River Restoration 2. Chapter - 2 Methodology 2.1 Monitoring Programme 2.2 Sampling Location 2.3 Selection of Sampling locations 2.4 Preparation for sampling 2.5 Sampling Procedure 2.6 Preservation and transport of sample to the lab 3. Chapter - 3 Results and Discussions 3.1 Observations and Findings 3.2 General Characteristics of Surface water 3.3 General Characteristics of Ground water 4. Chapter – 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 4.1 Water Quality of river Vishwamitri 4.2 Water Quality Segments 4.3 Important Water Quality issues of Vishwamitri river 4.4 Water Quality of Ground Water 4.5 Recommendations and Remedial Measures 5. References
  6. 6. Executive Summary The Vishwamitri basin is a part of Dhadhar basin, which extends over an area of 3423 sq km. located in Eastern Part of Gujarat. It raises in the Pavagadh hills. The total length of the river from the head to its outfall into the Dhadhar is about 80 km. The principal tributaries of the river are the Surya and Jambua. The river Vishwamitri and its tributaries are all rain-fed. The rainfall being fairly low and restricted to only 3 monsoon months. Vadodara being the largest urban centre in the basin and is the main polluter of the river. The total domestic sewage generation from Vadodara city is about 215 MLD out of which the treatment is being given to only 180 MLD of the sewage. The treated and untreated wastewater is let out into the river. Vadodara Municipal Corporation has established the sewage treatment capacity of about 215 MLD out of which 180 MLD is being used as a sewage collection facility. Contribution of industrial sources is estimated at about 20-25 MLD, out of which two industrial areas are treating their wastewater through CETPs (capacity 7.75 MLD). The other industries are treating their wastewater through their own treatment plants. However, there is large number of small scale industries located in residential areas generating significant amount of wastewater and not having any treatment plant. The wastewater from such industries is let out into the VMC sewerage system, which is being treated at STPs. Some large industries are having their own effluent channel. The treated effluent from these industries is directly transported to the Gulf of Khambhat. Vadodara Municipal Corporation plans to implement the Vishwamitri River Front Development in the line of Sabarmati River and intends to establish a body to implement such plan. They have taken several initiatives to reduce sewage and municipal solid wastes flow into the river. The River Vishwamitri has a unique ecological importance in Gujarat as it inhabits a unique crocodile species called mugger (Crocodylus palustris). The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) has been listed by IUCN as one of the threatened species under “Red” list. Inspite of heavy pollution load and large
  7. 7. human disturbances the presence of the crocodile in large number indicate the unique ecological significance of this river. Looking to the ecological significance of the river and to assess the impacts of all the initiatives to restore the river, the present study was implemented under Hydrology Project and a Purpose Driven Study (PDS). Samples were collected from 11 locations all along the river right from Paldi Village to Surwara, for seven locations ground water Bore from Paldi to Virpur. Bi-monthly samples were collected and analysed in GERI’s Vadodara Laboratory. The river Vishwamitri u/s of Vadodara city at Akota to Khalipur has been identified as heavily polluted stretches. The major water quality issues are high organic, nutrient and dissolved solid load. The detailed survey of these stretches have been carried out and they have indicated that immense urban and industrial growth combined with growing demand of drinking and irrigation water have taken their toll as observed by the deteriorating water quality recorded particularly from Akota to Khalipur. Due to several urban, industrial, agricultural activities carried out in the vicinity have contaminated the groundwater. The artificial landfills of various wastes, subsurface injection of chemicals, hazardous wastes, are also affecting groundwater pollution.
  8. 8. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Water resources management is on top priority on government’s agenda in India. For rational planning and implementation of water resources management, water related information is pre-requisite. Hydrology Project-I (HP-I) was taken up to develop Hydrological Information System (HIS) by creating facilities and standardized procedures for data collection, data compilation, processing and data storage for data use in 9 peninsular states of the country including Gujarat. HP-I was implemented during the period 1995 to 2003. Under Gujarat State Narmada, Water Resources, Water supply & Kalpsar Department 4 groundwater and 3 surface water labs were established. A network of water quality monitoring was established comprising of 2042 groundwater sampling sites and 154 surface water sampling sites. Activities accomplished during HP-I were the establishment and improvement of Data Collection Network; Data entry, validation and storage system; Computerized data banks. As an extension to the HP-I, HP-II was conceived to include more agencies in the Project to establish facilities for hydrology information system (HIS) and further strengthen the HP activities by adding 23 new locations are added in HP-I. Gujarat has been monitoring water quality for about 8-10 years now and has developed a good competence, skill and expertise in sampling, analysis, data handling and storage. In order to optimally utilize the facilities and competence developed, it was thought appropriate to carry out studies on some water quality problems in the HP States as “Purpose Driven Study” (PDS). In Gujarat three PDS were conceived on water quality as follows: 1. Sabarmati River Study 2. Vishwamitri River Study 3. Hot spots study
  9. 9. 1.2 Vishwamitri River Study The Vishwamitri River is a seasonal river which flows east to west between the Mahi and Narmada rivers in Gujarat, India. It originates in the hills of Pavagadh. The Vishwamitri flows west through the city of Vadodara and joins with the Dhadhar River and Khanpur River and empties into the Gulf of Khambat, near Khanpur village. This river system includes the Sayaji Sarovar on the Vishwamitri River near Ajwa, and the Dev Dam on the Dhadhar Branch. As it flows through Vadodara, the Vishwamitri River is subjected to the drainage of the city's sewage and effluents from nearby industries. In order to restore the river, Vadodara Municipal Corporation (VMC) plans to establish a body for the development of Vishwamitri River on the lines of the Sabarmati River Front Development. The river is a home for crocodiles. The water quality degradation has seriously affected the crocodiles in various ways. The most important effect was observed in terms of loss of food of crocodiles. As the river becomes anaerobic, the fish, which is main food for crocodiles, disappeared. Due to this the crocodiles are attacking the cattle and sometimes human beings also. This is causing serious loss to the Vadodara people and the rural population in the downstream. In order to address this problem several efforts have been initiated by the Government of Gujarat. For rational planning of water quality restoration programme for Vishwamitri River, complete knowledge of nature and magnitude of water quality problems of the river is pre-requisite. In order to acquire this knowledge an intensive water quality surveillance of the river is essential. Hence it was thought appropriate to take up a water quality study under Hydrology Project as a Purpose Driven Study (PDS). The Study was carried out by GERI during the period of 2009-2011. Objectives: 1. To update the water quality data. 2. To study the effect of wastewater discharges through various drains on water quality of River Vishwamitri. 3. To study the influence of Vishwamitri River on groundwater in terms of concentration of pollutants.
  10. 10. 1.3 Dhadhar River Basin The basin characteristics of Dhadhar are described below. Figure 1.1: Dhadhar River Basin The Dhadhar River is one of the west flowing rivers in Gujarat state. It originates from the Pavagadh Hills of Gujarat state and flows through Vadodara and Bharuch districts. The river Dhadar after flowing 87 Km. receives Vishwamitri tributary from right bank at Pingalwada village 500 m. up stream of Gauge and Discharge site. After flowing another 55 km. it falls in to the Gulf of Khambhat. The total length of the river from its source to outfall in the Gulf of Khambhat is about 142 km. The important tributaries of the Dhadar River are Vishwamitri, Jambua river, Dev and Surya River. The catchment area of the Dhadar basin is 3423 Sq.km. and catchment area up to the site is 2400 Sq.km. It lies between east longitude 72° 30’ and 73° 45’ and North latitude 21° 45’ and 22° 45’. The Vishwamitri River, which falls in the semi-arid region of the Gujarat alluvial plain, is a major tributary of the Dhadhar river (Figure 1.1) The Pavagadh hill is made up of
  11. 11. trappean rocks that rise abruptly 830 m above M.S.L. The hill is 5 km long and around 5 km wide and consists of several scarps separated by extensive plateaus. It shows terraced appearance on account of the differential weathering of the horizontally disposed constituent rocks. A number of subsurface anticlines and geomorphic highs control the drainage of the Vishwamitri river. These highs have caused anomalous bends in the channel of Vishwamitri River and such areas are poorly drained. The Vishwamitri river flows for most of its length in the Gujarat Alluvial Plain made up of loose sediments of gravel, sand, silt and clay. The channel of the Vishwamitri river is highly sinuous and slope deviatory and is controlled by subsurface heights, lineaments and faults in the area. The drainage of the Vishwamitri river shows asymmetry as tributaries like Surya and Jambua join Vishwamitri at its left bank and there is no trace of any drainage on its right bank. 1.4 Tributaries Vishwamitri river originates from the Pavagadh Hill passes nearby Pratappura tank and passes through Vadodara City. 13 km stretch of the river divides Vadodara city in to two parts like Northern and Southern Part. There are two main tributaries to the river Vishwamitri i.e. Surya river joins Vishwamitri at Dena Village and Jambua River joins at Jaas village near Khalipur village. In the course of about 21 Km in the vicinity of Vadodara the River Vishwamitri receives a large number of sewage drains, industrial discharges and discharges from sewage treatment plants. All these inputs deteriorate the water quality to a large extent. The river ultimately meets river Dhadhar at Pingalwada. The water from Pratappura Sarovar, Haripura Tank, Dhanora Tank and Asoj feeder flows in the river Vishwamitri. The river Dhadhar finally joins the Gulf of Khambat. 1.5 Climate Vadodara features a tropical savanna climate under Koppen's Climate classification. There are three main seasons: Summer, Monsoon and Winter. The climate is dry. The weather is hot through the months of March to July — the average maximum summer is 36 °C, and the average minimum is 23 °C. From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C, the average
  12. 12. minimum is 15 °C, and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The highest temperature recorded is 47 °C and the lowest is 15 °C. In recent years, Vadodara has suffered from increasing air, water and soil pollution from neighbouring industrial areas. This has also amounted into a constant and uncomfortable increase in average temperatures across all three seasons. Uncontrolled chemical dump from nearby industries has arguably turned the local river Vishwamitri into one big sewer. 1.6 Rainfall: The basin receives most of the rainfall from the south west monsoon from June to September. The average annual rainfall in Vadodara is 930 mm. The climate of Vishwamitri River Basin is tropical monsoon climate. The rainfall occurs almost entirely during the monsoon months. The rate of evaporation is at its maximum during April to June due to a rise in temperature and increase in wind speed. There is large variation in the average annual rainfall in the basin. The rainfall variation in last 7 years at IMD stations in Vadodara district in the basin is shown in Figure 1.2. As clear from the figure there is steep decreasing trend of rainfall in the district. The river is seasonal in nature with three smaller sub-basins namely: Surya, Jambua and Vishwamitri. The average annual run-off at Pingalwada as measured by CWC is 489.5 MCM (MoWR, 2005). Fig 1.2 : Rainfall trend in Vadodara District
  13. 13. 1.7 Demography of Vadodara City Since Vadodara is an important city in the basin, a detailed analysis of the city was considered important in this study. Vadodara is the third most populated city in Gujarat. As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Vadodara in 2011 is 1,666,703; of which male and female are 866,701 and 800,002 respectively. Vadodara city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Vadodara Urban Agglomeration. Although Vadodara city has population of 1,666,703; its urban / metropolitan population is 1,817,191 of which 946,280 are males and 870,911 are females. 1.8 Water Use 1.8.1 Irrigation Major/Medium projects: Ajwa tank, Pratappura, Dhanora, Haripura, Deo Dam are the medium existing/ongoing projects in the basin. Major part of water is used for irrigation and drinking. Industries also use significant part of water in the basin. Industrial development, agricultural activities and urban sprawl along the river causes significant effect on water quality of the river Vishwamitri. The river receives sewage and industrial effluents from the metro-city of Vadodara. The farmers in the downstream use its water for irrigation. 1.8.2 Domestic Use The drinking water source for the city of Vadodara is mainly from Ajwa dam, which is part of Vishwamitri Basin. 1.9 Groundwater With a groundwater development of 85 to 100% Vadodara district falls in the “dark” category as per the Central Groundwater Board (CGWB). Water quality is highly deteriorated. The groundwater drawn for domestic water supply to the urban residential area has high Chlorides, TDS, Fluoride and Nitrate level exceeding the permissible limits of drinking water.
  14. 14. 1.10 Key Stresses due to Human Interventions As the human demand for water is steeply increasing in the city of Vadodara leading to over-exploitation of groundwater and discharge of untreated and partially treated wastewater from domestic and industrial sources are leading to serious ecological impacts on the River Vishwamitri. Urban influence and accessibility to technology further add on to the stress on the water resource in the area. Technologies like bore wells and pumps are making, even the otherwise inaccessible water resource accessible to people resulting in water mining in the region. This water resource use scenario in the area of interest, clearly presents the enormous pressure that exists over the resource. As water becomes scarce and technology is growing the access to the resource has become a function of capital power, resulting in inequitable use of water. This has an important implication on the social system and is a potential source of conflicts between various resource users. As the existing water resources have to support agricultural needs along with industrial and domestic, the water resources of the basin have to be shared with newly developed residential areas and industrial estates as the area is fast urbanizing and industrializing. On the other hand, these urban areas and industries are also contributing to large scale deterioration of the water quality in the area as they usually dispose their waste water in existing surface or ground water. Deterioration in water quality inflicts a chain of events adversely impacting the health of the entire ecosystem of the river. The worst effect was observed on the crocodiles. The shrinking of river and deterioration of its water quality led to vanishing of fish fauna from a large portion of the river. This has led to starvation of the crocodiles. The starved crocodiles attack the cattle and human population living along the river. This has become a serious social concern over the last few years. Besides these, another aspect which remains mostly untouched is the requirement of water by nature, the natural flow of water required for the sustenance of the ecosystem is often compromised for meeting human water requirements. This practice has serious long term implications which might lead to total lapse of the ecosystem.
  15. 15. 1.11 Sources of Pollution Vishwamitri River is seriously affected by discharge of untreated and partially treated wastewater from domestic and industrial sources located all along its bank in the city of Vadodara. Before entering in the vicinity of Vadodara city the river maintains reasonably good quality. As we know Vadodara city is growing very fast, the waste generation is steeply increasing. Due to lack of adequate transport and treatment system for the waste, a large part of it is getting into the River Vishwamitri through various storm water drains. In order to understand the water pollution problem better a detailed analysis of water supply, wastewater generation and treatment is presented in the following sections. 1.11.1 Water Supply System The main sources of water for the Vadodara city are the Sayaji Sarovar (Ajwa) on the northeast and Mahi River on the northwest of the city. On an average, VMC draws 45-50 MLD from Sayaji Sarovar. The present raw water delivery system is capable of transmitting 45-50 MLD of discharge by gravity to the Nimeta water treatment plant (WTP). The average per capita water supply is around 183 lpcd with a daily supply for 45 minutes twice a day. However, this is not a regular phenomenon and not covering the entire city. Tube wells are an alternate source of water supply in VMC. The water from these tube wells is directly injected into the distribution system. Depending upon the area served, the tube wells work from 1 to 18 hours every day. Based on the capacity of pumps and working hours, the water supplied is believed to be 10 MLD from about 46 tube wells. These well operate in the areas where the water could not be supplied due to pressure problems. The average water table in the city is around 20 metres and gets recharged regularly due to the presence of perennial rivers in the north. Besides these tube wells, a series of 56 tube wells in the riverbed and around the banks of Mahi have been under development. In all, about 56 tube wells have been sunk. Of these, about 40 wells located on the bank are in working condition with submersible/turbine pumps already installed and commissioned. These tube wells are used in case of shortage of surface water. With the help of these wells, VMC has been tiding over the current water crisis in the last couple of years especially during drought situations. Two water treatment plants are located at
  16. 16. Nimeta. The capacities of each of the plants are 45 MLD and 50 MLD respectively. The capacity utilisation of the treatment plants is 73%. Water from underground sources such as intake wells and tube wells is not treated, but the supplies are chlorinated. Households have to use pumps to lift water up to storage tanks since there is weak pressure in the system. In addition submersible pumps are used to lift groundwater to supplement supply from municipality. Several hundreds of boreholes in the city further add to draw down of the aquifer. Considering the gross supply of 180 lpcd (both domestic and non-domestic), the requirement of water for the future would increase and is estimated by VMC as 355-375 MLD (gap of 105-115 MLD) by 2013 as against the present demand of 248 MLD (gap of 8 MLD). Areas with inadequate water supply are generally influenced by a combination of the following factors • High population density • Higher supply rate • Inadequate pressure • Inadequate supply timing • Discrepancy in service connections and poor operations 1.11.2 Sewage Management Sewage Generation Vadodara city generates about 215 MLD of sewage of which about 180 MLD is getting treatment. Taking population and per capita water supply information from municipal authority may not be adequate to estimate sewage generation as a large population in Vadodara has its own bores and those who can afford them have deeper ones. A major cause of concern for such condition is the receding groundwater levels of the aquifers (shallow and deep) beneath the city. This is an outcome of the overdrawing of groundwater for irrigation and to a lesser degree increased municipal abstraction with rapid urbanization.
  17. 17. Sewage Collection Vadodara City has had an underground drainage system since the year 1894. The sewage, which is collected through a system composed of an underground drainage network, auxiliary pumping stations (APS) and pressure mains, disposes into the natural drains and rivers after treatment. It is reported by VMC that only about 40% of the city is covered by the sewerage network. The sewerage in the city is inadequate and thus the existing system is overloaded. Many areas remain un-served and wastewater in several locations flow uncontrolled to depressions, open drains and nallahs. Apart from allowing direct exposure of human to sewerage, there is also long term contamination of shallow groundwater. This has particular implications for the poor in the newer settlements not yet served by municipal water supply, who are dependent on hand pumps that access shallow groundwater for their every day needs. Wastewater stagnates around the houses, causing inconvenience in the streets, unhygienic conditions and reduces the volume of wastewater actually coming out of the town resulting in low estimate of sewage. Large number of ponds around the settlement or nearby villages would collect water from homes, but only effluent from bathing and washing. These ponds were handy for buffaloes to sit in but that is not possible any more since toilets are also being drained into these ponds, which are now only breeding ground for mosquitoes. The people defecated in the field in the past but now increasingly getting difficult especially for the women. Another important consideration is distribution losses, which adds to the wastewater volume. There are large number of areas, where the sewage overflows onto streets, which causes foul smell unhygienic conditions. Moreover the open storm water drains, which transport sewage in the city also remain clogged with solid wastes, restricting the flow of sewage and creating further hygiene problems. In many areas, the sewage flows in poorly developed unpaved open drains that are clogged with solid wastes. As a result the sewage flows onto the streets and the lanes in front of houses, creating cess-pools in open plots of low lying land. The VMC has been planning to establish complete sewerage network in the city. The topography of the city is relatively flat, with the ground mildly sloping from northeast to southwest. Laying sewers in such a flat topography is difficult as the depth of excavation substantially increases, thus requiring frequent lifting of
  18. 18. sewage from lower depths. Therefore, on the whole, Vadodara has a greater number of Auxiliary Pumping Stations (APS). Presently, Vadodara has 29 APS and three main pumping stations covering all the three drainage zones. The sewerage master plan prepared by VMC in 1999 has not been fully implemented. It has extended the sewerage system in some of the areas as per the priorities and availability of funds from time to time. The master plan had the following main components: • Strengthening of sewerage network • Providing new network • Providing new sewage pumping stations and pumping mains • Providing new sewage treatment plant VMC has initiated and completed projects on improving sewerage network in the city. It is expected that the serious problems of untreated sewage getting released in the river and that of manhole overflowing could be solved after the projects envisaged under JNNURM get completed. Sewage Treatment Although the STPs have the capacity to treat entire 215 MLD, however, the sewage is not reaching to the STPs due to inadequate sewerage. In spite of having more capacity, the system is not functioning to its fullest extent. This is also quite evident form that fact that 40% of the VMC area is not covered by the sewerage network. Based on the topography, the city is divided into three drainage zones; each of these zones has separate Sewerage Treatment Plants (STP). At present, there are two STPs each at Wadi and Atladara and one at Tarsali. The old plants at Wadi and Atladara have a capacity of 27 MLD each. From 2000 to 2003, three new plants were constructed at Wadi, Atladara and Tarsali based on the latest treatment technology. The total capacity of treatment plants is 215 MLD. The details are given in the Table 1.1. Table 1.1. Capacity of STPs in Vadodara Drainage Zone Capacity, MLD Technology Zone-I at Tarsali 52 ASP Zone-II at Gujrawadi 66 + 27 (old) ASP Zone-III at Atladara 43 +27 (old) UASB + ASP (old) Total 215
  19. 19. 1.11.3 Issues Related to Sewage Management Sewage is diverted through the natural drains, as the network does not exist or is inadequate. To avoid sewage overflowing in the streets and lanes, the lines are connected to these nallahs as a temporary measure. Hence, as a priority measure, the network needs to be separated and diverted to STP. The pollution resulting in Vishwamitri is largely due to the untreated sewage, which enters at various points across the 21-km odd meandering stretch of the river in the city. Also, the river being non-perennial, the water flowing in the river for most part of the year is nothing but sewage let out. The water in the downstream is used for irrigation purpose by the adjoining farms. Lack of storm water drains also results in the overflowing of sewers and frequent cleaning and maintenance. The overflowing sewage, many a times, finds its way to the river / nallah / water bodies. Consequently, rain water is also let out in the sewers. Hence, one of the prime objectives of the department is to separate sewage from storm water. The sewerage system has not reached the newly developed areas of the city. The sewage from this area needs to be collected and conveyed to the treatment plant location and treated before it is discharged in the river. The entire area is not covered with the sewerage system, the sizes of the pipelines are inadequate and the old trunk mains are caving in or collapsing. The master plan identified the following problems with the sewerage collection and disposal system: • Main lines are overloaded; • Many APS are old and have fewer capacities; • Old pumping machinery operates at as low as 20 to 25% efficiency; • Pumping stations have non-operative screens; • Pressure lines as well as receiving gravity lines are of inadequate size; • Untreated sewage is discharged into the river; • 40 % of the VMC area does not have sewerage facility and the STP facility is inadequate.
  20. 20. 1.11.4 Municipal Solid Wastes Management As solid wastes dumping is one of the important factors for Vishwamitri River water quality degradation, a brief description on solid wastes management and main issues emerged out of that are presented here. The municipal corporation is responsible for proper handling and scientific disposal of the wastes. Poor handling and management may result in the contamination of ground water due to leaching, obnoxious smell due to burning of wastes, and spreading of epidemic diseases due to mixing of biomedical waste with municipal waste. During the monsoon period the wastes are washed away to nearby water body, which degrade the water quality adding to pollutants present in the waste. Around 390 grams per capita per day of waste totalling to roughly 510 tonnes per day (TPD) of waste is generated in the city. VMC has restricted itself to handle domestic waste, trade waste, construction debris, street sweeping waste and other non-hazardous waste. The total waste collected is 440 TPD. The primary collection involves waste disposal by households and conservancy work. The sweepers in the conservancy department in the respective wards collect the waste. The street sweeping work is being handled and monitored by the ward’s office and is carried out twice a day i.e. in two shifts (7 am to 11 am and 2 pm to 6 pm). The uncollected waste is thus, getting into the drains chocking them and creating unhygienic conditions. Waste transportation is being carried out with the help of dumper trucks, container lifting and transportation vehicles, and private tractors. The same is carried in closed containers. A dumper truck is fully covered with plastic/tarpaulin sheets. The dumping site is located at Vadsar, about 10 kms away from the city with a total area in use of 12145 m2 . The roadside boundary of the site is fenced. Provision for gas venting and leachate collection is not provided. VMC has one incineration plant located at Gajrawadi in Ward no. 3; it was set up in 1999. This facility is meant for the disposal of small animals. The Indian Medical Association (IMA) is dealing with bio-medical waste in Vadodara. Approximately, two per cent of the total waste generated is biomedical waste which is handled by an incinerator, auto claving and waste shredding facility. About 800 hospitals and private clinics have been registered under this facility.
  21. 21. The Gujarat Pollution Control Board monitors the disposal of the biomedical waste. The waste process facility (compost plant) is located at Atladara STP premises. The capacity of this plant for treating un-segregated solid waste is 250 TPD. The biodegradable waste is segregated and composted in the plant and the reject is transported to the dumping site. This has been successfully functioning at 80% of its capacity since the last six months; this is one step taken towards waste minimisation at the dumping site. 1.11.5 Issues pertaining to SWM As brought out by the VMC, the main issues related to solid wastes management in Vadodara are as follows: • Mixing of bio-medical waste with municipal solid waste; • Disposal of waste with municipal solid waste by a large number of private clinics and hospitals; • Burning of waste at storage places and dumping site; • Odour nuisance surrounding compost plant and dumping site, during the monsoon season; • Presence of waste on the streets, lanes and by-lanes in the absence of a proper disposal facility; • System of door-to-door collection which has commenced, but needs 100% coverage; • Lack of organised rag-pickers; • Poor participation from NGO. 1.11.6 Industrial Pollution Vadodara enjoys a special place in the state of Gujarat. Until the early 1960s Vadodara was considered to be a cultural and educational centre. The first modern factory (Alembic Pharmaceuticals) was established in Vadodara in 1907 and subsequently companies such as Sarabhai Chemicals, and Jyoti came up in the 1940s. By 1962 there were 288 factories employing 27,510 workers. At that time, the dominant industrial groups were chemicals and pharmaceuticals, cotton
  22. 22. textiles and machine tools. The establishment of Bank of Baroda by Sayajirao III in 1908 also help industrial growth. In 1962, Vadodara witnessed a sudden spurt in industrial activity with the establishment of Gujarat Refinery and Indian Oil Corporation Limited at the nearby village of Koyali. Several factors like raw material availability, product demand, skillful mobilisation of human, financial and material resources by the government and private entrepreneurs have contributed to Baroda becoming one of India’s foremost industrial centres. The discovery of oil and gas in Ankleshwar led to the industrial development of Gujarat in a big way. The Vadodara region is the largest beneficiary in the process of this industrialisation. Gujarat Refinery went into the first phase of production in 1965. The refinery being a basic industry made vital contributions on several fronts at the regional and national levels. Vadodara is a major industrial city of Gujarart State situated on the broad gauge track on the Mumbai - Delhi and Mumbai - Ahemedabad routes. The present municipal area of Vadodara is 108.26 sq. km. The city has a typical mixed land use structure with residential, industrial and commercial areas. There are number of industries located in and around the residential areas of the city which are having significant environmental impact. There are 3263 industries situated in Vadodara City out of these, 117 are chemical industries and others are mainly engineering, plastic and non polluting units. All 117 chemical industries are including large, medium and small scale. All industries discharge their domestic & industrial treated effluent in to Vadodara Municipal Corporation (VMC) drainage line. Three sewage treatment plants (STP) are treating the effluent coming through VMC drains. Atladara STP is receiving effluent from 267 no. of industries out of which 36 are chemical. Gajrawadi STP is receiving effluent from 1193 no. of industries out of which 28 are chemical. However, Tarsali STP is receiving effluent of highest no. of industries i.e. 1798 out of which 65 are chemical. Entire treated sewage of the city finally goes to Vishwamitri river. Such a large number of chemical units inside the municipal limit definitely have some significant impact on the water environment. Although precise estimation of volume of industrial effluents is not available, but it is estimated that about 20% of the total volume of
  23. 23. effluents reaching to the sewage treatment plants is coming from industrial sources. Thus, it can be presumed that about 20 to 25 MLD of industrial effluents is generated in Vadodara. There are following large industries in Vadodara: 1. Reliance Industries Ltd. (Formerly IPCL), Vadodara 2. Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd, Vadodara 3. Gujarat Alkalis and Chemicals Ltds, Vadodara 4. Heavy Water Project 5. Gujarat Industries Power Company Limited (GIPCL) 6. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) 7. Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) 8. AdmarcPolycoat Company Padra Vadodara 9. EI DupontSavli Vadodara 10.Transpek Ind. Ltd (Ekalbara), Ekalbara Ta. Padra Vadodara. 11.Ineous ABS Ltd. Vadodara 12.Bombardier Transportation, a Canadian company manufacturing the Delhi Metro from its site in Savli 13.General Motors, 14.ALSTOM, 15.ABB, 16.Philips, 17.Panasonic, 18.FAG, 19.Sterling Biotech, 20.Sun Pharmaceuticals and Areva T&D, 21.GAGL (Gujarat Automotive Gears Limited). 22.Haldyn Glass, 23.HNG Float Glass and 24.Piramal Glass. Most of these large industries discharge their effluents after treatment into a effluent channel specially created for transporting the effluent to the sea.
  24. 24. The establishment of large industrial units in a region automatically brings into existence a number of smaller enterprises. Vadodara is no exception and the city and the surrounding areas are today humming with industrial activity. The industrialisation of Vadodara has attracted entrepreneurs not only from Vadodara but also from all over Gujarat and the rest of India. In line with the 'Knowledge City vision of the Confederation of Indian Industry, Vadodara is gradually becoming a hub in Gujarat for IT and other development projects. A large number of small scale industries operated in the residential area are not having satisfactory control measures and let out their effluents into the sewage making it unsuitable for biological treatment. Thus, the treatability of the effluent is greatly affected by the industries in the residential; areas. Apart from the mighty industrial giants there are few industrial estates also, which generate significant quantity of the effluents. The industrial estates are listed in Table 1.2. Table 1.2: Industrial Estates in Vadodara Industrial Estate Area, ha Sankheda 0.81 JetpurPavi 0.95 Dabhoi 10.91 Ranoli (Autonagar) 41.21 Limda 53.1 PorRamangamdi 134.44 Nandesari 271.67 Waghodia 315.94 Makarpur 355.07 PCC 666.38 Savli 814.11 Savli Biotech Park 40.00 Sehra 4 Total 2708.59
  25. 25. 1.11.7 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Gujarat Pollution Control Board, which is responsible for regulating pollution in the State, took several measures to contain pollution of Vishwamitri. All the large and medium industries were asked to put up effluent treatment plants and comply with the national standards. The small scale industries located in the 13 industrial estates were asked to install common effluent treatment plant (CETP). Under these initiatives 2 CETPs were installed in the Vishwamitri Basin, with a capacity of 7.75 MLD contributed by 221 industrial units. The detail of these CETPs is provided in table1.3. Table 1.3: Common Effluent Treatment Plants in Vishwamitri Basin S. No. Name of Common Effluent Treatment Plant Number of Members Capacity, MLD 1 Pollution Advisory Committee, Nandesari Industrial Association (NIA), GIDC, Nandesari, Vadodara 170 5.5 2 Environment Infrastructure Co. Pvt Ltd, Padra, Vadodara 51 2.25 Total 221 7.75 1.11.8 Diffuse Pollution The nature and magnitude of diffuse pollution in the Vishwamitri basin is diverse. Due to the prevailing situation in the basin, quantification of the diffuse pollution is extremely difficult. For the sake of understanding the nature and magnitude of diffuse pollution, a brief description on various sources and their nature is explained below. For a proper understanding of the nature and the magnitude of diffuse water-pollution under different circumstances, it would be necessary to consider some source-related characteristics, briefly discussed below for diffuse pollution from some more common sources.
  26. 26. a) Pollution From Small Rural Villages Almost as a rule these would not have running water supply not sewered sanitation. In many areas in the basin most people would use open field for defecation, with a few using pit-latrines or septic-tanks. Much of the bathing and washing (clothes, utensils etc.) shall be in or near the water-body reducing abstraction and transport of water but causing in-situ diffuse pollution. Generation of liquid effluents would be minimal and all wastewater generated shall soak into the nearby land. One would be tempted to say that such habitats would cause no water pollution. And yet a careful materials-balance as also field experience would show significant quantities of various types of pollutants including salts, nutrients, organics and micro-organisms from such hamlets and rural areas reaching ground or surface water bodies through leachate and as washings in the storm run-offs. b) Wastewaters and Pollutants from Unsewered Towns For improving standards of life, running water- supply has been established in most of the towns and even in some villages over the past three decades in the Vishwamitri Basin. This has, in turn, led to flush- latrines and much large use of water in homes for bathing, washing of clothes utensils etc, generating significant amounts of wastewaters. Use of soaps and detergents and amounts of various food materials going to the sink have also grown with improved life standards. Unfortunately, sewerage or improved sanitation is not adequately addressed. Hence sewerage has lagged far behind water supply. A large part of the population in the basin either does not have any sewerage system or the sewerage system is inadequate, overloaded or defunct. All this resulted in large amount of wastewater uncollected leading to storm water drains and ultimately to the river. The bulk of pollution shall get retained on land to percolate, leach or get washed-off. c) Industrial Pollutants from Cottage/ Small Scale Industries: Encouragement of cottage and small-scale industries through subsidies, market-preferences or other benefits has been an important component of economic development programmes of India particularly Gujarat in the past. These units, in general, neither have nor can afford appropriate sanitation and/ or pollutant disposal systems, and yet have not been hesitant in adopting highly
  27. 27. polluting production technologies such as chrome-tanning of leather, use of azo- dyes in fabrics, use of cadmium in ornaments and silver-ware, electroplating with cyanide baths, production of dye-intermediates and other refractory and toxic chemicals etc. Their solid wastes and sludge’s get scattered-around or dumped in unlined pits and effluents flow to streams through storm-drains or stagnate in depressions to percolate, leach or get washed-off during next rainy season. This is the story of many industrial areas & urban centres in the Vishwamitri Basin resulting in generation of large quantity of diffuse pollution. d) Industrial Pollutants from Large Industries While they might claim to have installed costly treatment and disposal, these are also often causing leachates and wash-over from storage yards, waste dumping, ash-ponds, sludge-pits etc. And treated effluents, having at least some pollutants, are get leached or washed to streams as diffuse pollution. e) Pollutants due to Leakages and Escaping due to Accidents during Transportation, Storage or Handling With increasing storage, handling and transport of various chemicals, including those highly toxic and/ or hazardous, the contribution of these has been growing. Accidents involving mineral oils, acids, chlorine, ammonia etc are too well known in the industrial areas around Vadodara. f) Effluents, Leachates and Wash-over from Cattle-farms and Animal Husbandry Cattle-farms in the Vishwamitri basin rarely have adequate arrangements for collection, treatment and proper disposal of their solid and liquid wastes. Such wastes are properly collected and used in rural areas, but in most of the urban areas this kind of wastes are flushed into the drains leading to increased pollution load. g) Pollutants in Agricultural Drainage Waters Drainage waters from irrigated agricultural land are always high in salts, since they also have to carry the salts originally contained in the trans-evaporated fraction of the irrigation water. Intensive and ever increasing usage of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides and other chemicals is adding a new facet to such pollution, though the problem in this respect may yet be at a lower stage than in developed countries.
  28. 28. h) Deposition of Air- Pollutants Atmospheric pollutants may deposit directly on surface waters. Also the pollutants depositing on vegetation and soils may get leached or washed- over to water bodies. 1.12 Ecological Issues The River Vishwamitri has a unique ecological importance in Gujarat as it inhabits a unique crocodile species called mugger (Crocodyluspalustris). The mugger crocodile (Crocodyluspalustris) (literally "crocodile of the marsh"), also called the Indian, Indus, Persian, or marsh crocodile, is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding countries. It is one of the three crocodilians found in India, the others being the Gharial and the Saltwater crocodile. The mugger has been listed by IUCN as one of the threatened species under “Red” list. Monitoring of over a two decade period (1987–2007) of mugger (Crocodyluspalustris) population of River Vishwamitri (Gujarat State, India) by Raju Vyas (Vyas 2010) indicates the present status of the species in and around Vadodara City to be the most noticeable and unique (Vyas 2010). The population found in Vishwamitri-Dhadhar River System as per Dr Raju Vyas represents a unique case study of relationship between a crocodilian species and humans. The population of muggers is growing with at the rate of 7.77 animals per year and has reached over 100. Also, mugger conflict is increasing; a total of 292 muggers were rescued from human settlements and translocated, including 38% small (under 1 m), 48% large (1 – 2 m) and 14% huge sized (over 2 m) muggers. But few of them returned to the same location in the Vishwamitri River. A total of 14 crocodile attacks were recorded, including six that were fatal. The present study provides recommendations and an action plan for the long-term mugger conservation in the area. Although passing through densely populated areas of Vadodara city, river Vishwamitri supports a healthy breeding population of Crocodyluspalustris. In spite of many unfavourable factors like water pollution, distressing anthropogenic activities and urbanization along the river banks, a significant population of C. palustriswas observed in the midstream of this river. Records of occurrence of C. palustrisin River Vishwamitri dates back to the pre-independence era as documented in Gazette of Baroda State (Vyas 2010). A study conducted in 2002 by the Crocodile Specialist Group has shown that in spite of heavy pollution in the
  29. 29. river, the 25 kilometre stretch of the river which passes through Vadodara is the home to 100 mugger crocodiles. 1.13 Initiatives for Vishwamitri River Restoration Looking to the poor conditions of the Vishwamitri River, Govt of Gujarat took several initiatives to restore this river. Some of the important initiatives are as follows: a) Sewage Treatment There are three sewage treatment Plants established in Vadodara. The details of these treatment plants are provided in the earlier sections of this report. b) Solid Waste Management The VMC has taken several measures to improve the solid waste management in the city including establishment of waste treatment and disposal system, compost plant, segregation of waste and door-to-door collection in some of the areas of the city. With such initiatives the situation is expected to improve a lot in future. c) River Front Development The VMC has proposed an ambitious plan in the line of Sabarmati River Restoration Plan for Vishwamitri River called Vishwamitri Riverfront Development Project. It has also proposed to establish a body for the restoration of Vishwamitri River in the line of Sabarmati. The Vishwamitri Riverfront Development Project is an environmental improvement, social uplift and urban rejuvenation project to restore Vishwamitri River. The project is proposed to be implemented by VMC in collaboration with different authorities in Vadodara. The important activities under Vishwamitri River Front Development include innovative solutions to the challenges of managing a river in a rapidly growing urban metropolis. Solutions include laying interceptor sewer lines along the length of the river and building pumping stations to capture previously untreated sewage and preventing waste water disposal in the Vishwamitri. The Riverfront Development reclaims the banks of the Vishwamitri, making the entire stretch of river publicly accessible.
  30. 30. d) Industrial Pollution Control The GPCB has taken several initiatives to contain industrial pollution in Vadodara. All the large and medium industries have established the effluent treatment plants. These plants are being regularly monitored by the GPCB to ensure compliance of the consent conditions. For all the small scale industries common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) are being promoted by the board.
  31. 31. Chapter 2 Methodology In order to fulfil the preset objective as mentioned in the previous chapter, the study was carefully designed to achieve the objectives. An inventory was carried out on the basin activities, including population, water use, urbanization, industrialization, wastewater generation, treatment and disposal, information on basin activities, industrialization, pollution load generation, treatment and disposal, solid waste generation, collection, treatment and disposal. Information was also collected on different initiatives taken by the Govt of Gujarat to restore the Vishwamitri River. All important activities initiated are summarized in this report. The monitoring programme was designed as explained below. 2.1 The Monitoring Programme Objectives: 1. To update the water quality data; 2. To study the effect of wastewater discharges through various drains on water quality of River Vishwamitri; 3. To study the influence of Vishwamitri River on groundwater in terms of concentration of pollutants. 2.2 Sampling Locations The sampling locations of the Vishwamitri along with major outfalls of drains are depicted in Figure 2.1. The details of locations are presented below: 1. Paladi 2. Pilol 3. Dena (where Surya meets) 4. Sama 5. Akota 6. Kalali 7. Khalipur 8. Junikarali(Where Jambua meets) 9. Virpur 10.Pingalwada (Where Dhadar meets) 11.Surwara 12.12 to 18 locations of tubewells situated on river bank of river Vishwamitri
  32. 32. Figure 2.1 Map of Vishwamitri Basin showing sampling locations 2.3 Selection of Sampling Locations The sampling locations on the River Vishwamitri were selected on the basis of the need to fulfill the set objectives of the study based on potential of water quality impacts due to pollution load contributed by the drains and impact of garbage dumps. Easily accessible sites with road connectivity were the main consideration for site selection. There are many disturbing influences in the river, especially cattle wading, encroachments by several urban activities, fishing, sand recovery, etc. These disturbances can drastically influence chemical processes and the water quality. It was tried to avoid such influences in the samples. 1. Vishwamitri at Paladi Village The water quality of the river at Paladi is very important as it is least influenced by human activities and thus represent the baseline quality of the river. Large rural population use the river water for domestic purpose including bathing, washing of cloths utensils and watering the cattle. The river is also used for irrigation through pumping the water from the river.
  33. 33. Figure 2.2: River Vishwamitri at Paladi 2. Vishwamitri River at Pilol Village The monitoring location is situated about 3-4 km downstream of Paladi village near village Pilol. A small tributary is joining the river at this point and hence the quality of water reflects the contribution by the tributary. Hence this location was selected for water quality assessment. Sampling at this location reflects the water quality before receiving the wastewater discharges from Vadodara. During monsoon period the river receives several tributaries and land wash through run- off. The impact of such contribution can be studied at this location. Figure 2.3: River Vishwamitri at Pilol Village
  34. 34. 3. Vishwamitri River at Dena This station is located on Vishwamitri river at About 2-3 km downstream of Pilol near Dena village at National Highway. This location helps in assessing the impact of a large tributary Surya River. The water quality at this location reflects the impact of agricultural and rural activities including cattle wading and run-off. Figure 2.4: River Vishwamitri at Dena 4. Vishwamitri at Sama This station is located on Vishwamitri at about 3 Km downstream of Dena village near Sama village. The water quality at this location reflects the impact of the sewage outfalls from the surrounding urban population and a small tributary joining the river. There is large number of slum population living along the river generating lot of pollution, which is getting into the river. Figure 2.5: River Vishwamitri at Sama Village
  35. 35. 5. Vishwamitri at Akota This station is located just in the middle of Vadodara city. The water quality of this location reflects the impact of sewage outfalls in the upstream and garbage dumps along the river. There is large number of slum population living along the river generating lots of pollution, which is getting into the river. The water quality of this location reflects the combined impact of all these activities. Figure 2.6: River Vishwamitri at Akota 6. Vishwamitri at Kalali This station is located at about 1 Km downstream of Akota near Kalali area in Vadodara. This station is important to understand the assimilation of pollution joining upstream of Kalali and impact of the drains joining at Kalali. Figure 2.7: River Vishwamitri at Kalali
  36. 36. 7. Vishwamitri at Khalipur This station is located about 4 Km downstream of Kalali area of Vadodara on Vishwamitri river near Khalipur Village. This station helps in evaluating the impact of all the sewage outfalls of Vadodara city as it is located downstream of Vadodara. 8. Vishwamitri at JuniKarali This station is located on Vishwamitri river about 3 Km downstream of Khalipur Village near JuniKarali. The water quality of this station will help in assessing the impact of tributary Jambua, wastewater discharges from Vadodara city and their self-purification in the river. The water quality data of this location also helps in explaining the suitability of water quality for the wild life in the river and for villagers living around and using its water. Figure 2.8: River Vishwamitri at JuniKarali 9. Vishwamitri at Virpur This station is located on Vishwamitri river at about 3 Km downstream of Junikarali. The water quality of this station helped in assessing the self-purification capacity of the river and suitability of water for the use rural population is putting too.
  37. 37. Figure 2.9: River Vishwamitri at Virpur 10.Vishwamitri at Pingalwada This Station is located on Vishwamitri River at about 2 Km downstream of Junikarali near village Pingalwada. The water quality of this station helped in assessing the quality of Vishwamitri before it joins the Dhadhar River. 11.Dhadhar at Surwara This station is located on Dhadhar River at about 5 Km downstream of Pingalwada Village. The water quality of this station helps in assessing the impact of Vishwamitri on Dhadhar River. Figure 2.10: River Vishwamitri at Surwara
  38. 38. Groundwater Quality Sampling Locations In order to assess the impact of river water quality on the groundwater of the surrounding locations, few groundwater locations were selected for sampling. The groundwater locations are generally bore wells in the villages. Following villages were considered for groundwater quality assessment. 1. Paldi 2. Pilol 3. Dena 4. Akota 5. Kalali 6. Khalipur 7. Virpur Figure 2.11: Bore at KalaliTalsat Road Figure 2.12: Bore at Khalipur Village
  39. 39. Table-2.1 Planned & actual position of collection of the samples Sr. No. Particulars No. of Samples Planned No. of Samples collected Parameters tested 1. Surface Water (River Water Samples) 132 128 Temperature, Odour, EC, pH, TDS, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Carbonate, Bi-Carbonate, Chloride, Sulphate, Turbidity, DO, COD, BOD, Phosphate, Nitrates, Fluoride, Ammo. Nitrogen, Total Alkalinity ,Total Hardness. 2. Ground Water (Bore-Well Water Samples) 84 84 Table-2.2 Analytical Techniques Analytical techniques generally used for the monitoring purposes are as per the SAP guidelines given below: Sr. No. Parameter Analytical Method 1. Conductivity Conductometric method 2. pH Potentiometric/Electrometric method 3. TDS Gravimetric calculation method 4. Sodium & Potassium Flame photometric method 5. Calcium & Magnesium EDTA Titrimetric method 6. Carbonate & Bi-carbonates Volumetric Titration method 7. Chlorine Volumetric Titration (AgNO3) method 8. Sulphates& Nitrates U.V/Vis Spectro-photometric method 9. Turbidity Nephelometric method 10. DO Winkler Azide Titrimetric method 11. COD Open Reflux method 12. BOD Bottle Incubation method 13. Phosphate Molybdate Colorimetric method 14. Fluoride Ion Meter method 15. Boron Curcumine Colorimetric method 16. Total Coliform Multiple Tube Dilution Method
  40. 40. 2.4 Preparation for Sampling At least one day before sampling, it was made sure that all the arrangements are made as per the check list. It was also made sure to know how to reach sampling sites. Help of maps, google images and landmarks was extensively taken before ensuring proper location. For each sampling location depending on the pre-decided sampling procedure the sampling check-list was prepared and accordingly the preparation was done. It was always safer to carry a few numbers in excess. 2.5 Sampling Procedure The objective of sampling is to collect a portion of water from the water body small enough in volume to be conveniently transported and handled in the laboratory, while still accurately retaining its representativity. This implies that the relative proportions or concentrations of the components of interest should be the same in the samples when they are being analyzed, as they were originally in the river or drain. This requires that the sample will be handled and, if necessary, treated in such a way that no significant changes in composition occur that may hamper proper analysis. In other words, no addition (e.g. contamination), loss (e.g. adsorption to the wall of the sample bottle) or deterioration (e.g. physico- chemical or biological degradation or transformation) can be allowed. 2.6 Preservation and Transport of Samples to the Labs With respect to preservation, samples are taken to perform analysis on two types of parameters: for some parameters, such as BOD, COD and Sulphate, the samples have to be cooled without adding any preservative. Thus ice preservation is ideal. The samples for these parameters were immediately preserved in ice box. The sample for DO was preserved by fixing it with manganous sulphate and sodium azide. The samples for ammonical Nitrogen, Nitrate and Phosphate were preserved by adding sulphuric acid as preservative.
  41. 41. ! " ! ! " # # # $ % " & ' ( )*&++ + , - . / 0 # " '1 . * ' 2 3 4 & ' ( )*&++ ++ , - . / 0 # " '1 * 5 '1 # # $ " & ' ( )*&++ +++ , - . 6 0 # " '1 5 * 7 # & - . / , # " '1 5 * 0 7 2 )4 5 '1 # ,+ 8 , * 9 9 ! & - . + / , ! " , 8 * 1 ,, + ! ) # :!
  42. 42. 9 9 $ 7 9 % 9%,,6.;&6/, $ % & % '()*'+ , -. ! " / # ! # " '1 2#'4 * . 5 5 '1 # 2'#4 * 1 , 0 0 ( )*&++ 1 + ++ +++ - " . / . / . + 6+ . / . + / - 3 1 &+ 0++ 0++ ' < = " * 1 ++ & ++ , &++ - 2 '04 * 1 ,++ - 2 '04 * 1 ,++ ( - 2 '04 * 1 ,++ 2 4 * 1 & & 9 2 74 * 1 + 0 + ( 2 ( 4 * 1 + 2 4 * 1 , + .++ .++ % 2 %'54 * 1 5++ 5++ & +++ ) 2 )'04 * 1 ,+ + 7 2 74 * 1 & & & 2 ,- '-4 * 1 + ++, + ++ + ++ ( 2 - 4 * 1 + ++& 2 4 * 1 + +& + +&
  43. 43. -. ! " / # ! % 2 %4 * 1 + +& + + 2 4 * 1 + + + , + , 2 4 * 1 + + + + + + > 2 4 * 1 + & + & ? 2 ?4 * 1 & & 2 .@ 4 * 1 + + + + 2 ( %4 * 1 + , & & 2 4 * 1 & 7 2 )4 * 1 & , ! " * 1 , , + % 1 ,. * 1 ,
  44. 44. Chapter 3 Results & Discussions The Vishwamitri basin including Dhadhar basin extends over an area of 3423sq km. The total length of the river from the head to its outfall into the Dhadhar is about 80 km. The river Vishwamitri and its tributaries are all rain-fed. The rainfall being highly fluctuating in the basin, its water wealth potential is very low. Intensive agricultural practices, fast urbanization and industrialization in the basin have put intense pressure on its water resources both in terms of its quality and quantity. The river is in a very serious state and deserves urgent attention. The study revealed that the temperature has direct effect on certain parameters due to chemical activities. Since the Gujarat state is a hot and semi-arid region the temperature of study sites ranged between 10 c in January to 42+ °c in May. The temperature gradually increases from the month of March till the onset of monsoon season in July and gradually decreases from the rainy season to the post monsoon months. The rise in temperature could be due to shorter winter period less intense than summer. 3.1 Observation and Findings The parameters are tested as per standard analytical procedures described in under methodology and are enlisted from Statement No. 1 to 11 for 11 surface locations, Statement No. 12 for Abstract of surface water locations. And Statement No. 13 to 19 for 7 ground locations, Statement No. 20 for Abstract of ground water locations. 3.2 General Characteristics of Surface water a) pH The pH is the scale of intensity of acidity and alkalinity of water and measures the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the present study the mean values of pH at all the eleven sites of river ranged between 6.9- 8.9. This is nearly in accordance with the prescribed limit of 6.5-8.5. pH is not directly affects with human health but it correlated with other parameters which used in unit processes
  45. 45. in water treatment that contribute to the removal of viruses, bacteria and other organisms. b) DO !" # $ % &' & &$ # #( ))#'* % +, - . &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ 3 DO values can be treated as the basic criteria required for water quality assessment. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is very crucial for the survival of aquatic organisms. It is also used to evaluate the degree of freshness of a river. As per the limits of designated best use, the minimum value of DO should be 4mg/L. In the present study, the value of DO is within limit up to SamaSavli location, which is indicator of good quality of water up to SamaSavli location. The DO values steeply decreases and observed nil from Akota onwards which may be attributed to the mixing of effluents from different kind of industries and domestic waste from the surrounding areas. From Junikarali DO starts increasing from junikarali to Surwara locations which may be attributed due to self-purification capacity of river system. At Pingalwada locations the value of DO gets further improved due to dilution of fresh water from Dhadhar river meeting the Vishwamitri river.
  46. 46. c) BOD and COD 4 " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 0 2 /&' +, 2& % - . &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ 3 5 " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 6 #/0 2 /&' +, 2& % -6 . &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ 3 COD is a measure of oxygen equivalent to the organic matter content of the water susceptible to oxidation. While BOD is a measure of the amount of oxygen that is require for the bacteria to degrade the organic compounds present in water. In this particular study, COD values are very low in the fresh water region and hence the BOD values are not required to be monitored. BOD values are required only when the water is highly polluted or COD values are high due to any reason which may affect the aquatic life. The maximum value of COD observed 30mg/L from paladi locations to Samasavali locations which indicates good quality of water. As the river passes from Akota location, due to industrialization and urbanization the 7 8 !7 !8 47 48 57 58 6-29. #/&$ # ) 6 & :7; & :7; &,:7; ':7; <:7; #*:7; & :!7 & :!7 &,:!7 ':!7 <:!7 #*:!7 2 )) =' 2 $ -29. #/&$ # ) ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  47. 47. COD and BOD values are goes on increasing. The maximum value of COD and BOD at Kalali are observed 100mg/L and 30mg/L during the month march-09. From Junikarali onwards river enters again in rural area, the value of COD and BOD decreases further as pollution load decreases and due to self purification capacity of river. d) TDS > " # $ % &' & &$ # #( #$&' ))#'* % #' % - . &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ TDS value is low before Akota location and then onwards the TDS value increases due to industrialization and urbanization. High TDS level in river water may be due to pollution i.e. discharge from industries and sewage. The average value of TDS varies between 354.0mg/L to 861.0mg/L in the entire stretch with 1199.0 mg/L being the highest value at Kalali location and minimum being 122.0mg/L at Dena bypass location e) Calcium, Magnesium and Hardness Total hardness is mainly imparted by the calcium and magnesium ions in most of fresh waters, which apart from sulphate, chloride and nitrate are found in combination with carbonates and bicarbonates. In the present study Ca+Mg showed higher values in pre-monsoon season due to reduced inflow and evaporation followed by monsoon and post monsoon. -29. #/&$ # ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  48. 48. 8 " # $ % &' & &$ # #( & % )) &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ The average value of Calcium and in river water varies from 25.0 mg/L at Kalali to 56.0 mg/L at Virpur. The average value of Magnesium varies from 6.0mg/L at Kalali to 30.37mg/L at Junikarali. The hardness of water depends upon the dissolved salts present in the water. The present values in fresh water stretch could be attributed to no discharge of industrial effluent or no industrial activities in this zone containing high values of dissolved cations and anions. Magnesium form salt with chlorides and mainly remains present as MgCl2. It may also remain present with phosphates, sulphates and nitrates. When the Magnesium quantity is high the Calcium remains in the lower range. f) Chloride ? " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 0'# % &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ Chloride occurs naturally in all types of water. High concentration of chloride is considered to be the indicator of pollution due to organic wastes of animal or % &&%))-29. #/&$ # ) & % )) ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $ & & & % %& 0'#%-29. #/&$ # ) 0'# % ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  49. 49. industrial activities. A high value of chloride is troublesome in irrigation water and also harmful to aquatic life. The mean value of chloride varies between 64 to 187 mg/L in river water with maximum value of 268 mg/L. being at Kalali village location. Overall chloride value does not show any drastic rise or fall, which one may find worth paying attention. g) Sulphate, Phosphate and Nitrates @" # $ % &' & &$ # #( '<0&$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ The mean concentration of sulphate was observed in the range of 17.0 to 186.0 mg/L. in the entire river stretch with minimum of 0.0 mg/L at starting of river location and 608.0 mg/L at khalipur location. The variation in the fresh water stretch depends on the rainfall, evaporation process, monsoon, and discharge of polluted water by the industries. A" # $ % &' & &$ # #( $ &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ The concentration of nitrate varied from 2.3mg/L to 11.5 mg/L in the entire stretch of the river. % & '<0&$-29. #/&$ # ) ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $ & & & % %& $&$-29. #/&$ # ) ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  50. 50. ; " # $ % &' & &$ # #( 0#)<0&$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # &'# * )01 &2 $ Phosphate is present in natural water as soluble phosphates and organic phosphates. In river water the phosphate values ranges from 0.17 mg/L to 7.85mg/L. with maximum value of 35.3 mg/L. The high concentration of phosphate attributed due to detergent contents in the water from urban areas and the over use of fertilizers in agriculture. h) Ammonical Nitrogen Ammonical nitrogen gives an indication of industrial effluent discharge. During the study concentration of Ammonical Nitrogen is found highest i.e. 10.9mg/Lat Kalali village location in January 2010. This may be due to mere coincidence of untreated discharge from the industry and collection of sample, during this period. There is reason to believe this because there are no other location which had given such high value of ammonical nitrogen during entire scheme. The concentration of ammonical nitrogen at Kalali is around 2 to 3mg/L. In the entire stretch of the river average value of ammonical nitrogen varies from 0 to 1.98 mg/L. i) Fluoride Fluoride is one of the important parameters for the monitoring. It was observed that fluoride is not a cause of worry so far as the surface water is concern. The maximum value observed was 1.1 mg/L at Pilol location. However this value is within the permissible limit of drinking water standards (BIS, 2012). & & & % %&0#)<0&$-29. #/&$ # ) 0#)<0&$ ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  51. 51. 3.3 General Characteristics of Surface water a) pH & DO In the present study the mean values of pH at all 7 locations ranges between nearly 7 to 8.This is in accordance with the prescribed limit of 6.5-8.5(BIS,2012). The average value of DO at all 7 locations ranges between 2mg/L to 9mg/L except at the value of 1mg/L at Kalali and 11mg/L at Virpur locations. b) COD and BOD The value of COD at all 7 locations ranges nearly 6mg/L to 14mg/L. The value of BOD at all 7 locations ranges between 0mg/L to 12mg/L most of time the value of BOD is almost nil, which represents ground water gets less affected due to domestic waste and industrial waste compare to surface water. c) TDS !7" & &$ # #( # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) The minimum value of TDS is 443mg/L at Akota location with mean value of 639mg/L. The maximum value of TDS is 2041mg/L at Virpur location with mean value of 1507mg/L. The acceptable limit of TDS is 500mg/L and Permissible limit is 2000mg/L prescribed by BIS(2012). Mean values of TDS at all 7 locations ranges between 639mg/L to 1507mg/L which are almost within the permissible limit of Drinking water. The rise in TDS values is due to seepage of water in soil, which carries soluble salts which are present in soil. ' & ' ' & ' ' & ' -2 9 . #/&$ # ) ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  52. 52. d) Calcium, Magnesium and Hardness !!" & &$ # #( &'/ 2 # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) !4" & &$ # #( & ) 2 # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) !5" & &$ # #( & % )) # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) The mean value of calcium ranges between 37mg/L to 54mg/L. The maximum values of Calcium are observed at Kalali (152mg/L) and Virpur (88mg/L) locations. % & & % ))-2 9 . #/&$# ) & % )) ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $ & & &'/2-29. #/&$ # ) &'/ 2 ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $ & & &)2-29. #/&$ # ) & ) 2 ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  53. 53. For all the locations, Calcium concentration lies within the permissible limit of 200mg/L prescribed by BIS (2012). The mean value of Magnesium at all 7 locations are ranges between 20.28mg/L to 53.03mg/L. The minimum concentration of magnesium is 4.64mg/L at Pilol and Dena, while maximum concentration is 121mg/L at Kalali location which exceeds the permissible limits of 100mg/L prescribed by BIS(2012). The lowest value of Total Hardness is at Pilol and highest at Kalali locations. The maximum and minimum values of Total Hardness at Pilol Location are 99.75mg/L and 259.46mg/L with mean value is 175.06mg/L, which lies within the desirable limit of 300mg/L prescribed by BIS(2012). The maximum and minimum values at Kalali location are 129.78mg/L and 568.19mg/L with mean value is 344.05mg/L which exceeds the acceptable limits of 200mg/L but lies within the maximum permissible limit of 600mg/L prescribed by BIS(2012). e) Chloride !>" & &$ # #( 0'# % # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) The mean value of Chloride for all 7 locations ranges between 115mg/L at Dena to 404.62mg/L at Virpur locations. As per BIS(2012), the acceptable limit of Chloride is 250mg/L and permissible limit of Chloride is 1000mg/L. Chloride are maximum at Virpur location(585mg/L), followed by Kalali(450mg/L), Khalipur(398mg/L), Paladi(398mg/L) and Pilol(284mg/L), Which exceeds the acceptable limit of 250mg/L. 0'#%-29. #/&$ # ) 0'# % ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  54. 54. f) Sulphate, Phosphate and Nitrates !8" & &$ # #( '<0&$ # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) !?" & &$ # #( $ &$ # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) As water moves through soil and rock formations that contain sulfate minerals, some of the sulfate dissolves into the groundwater. Minerals that contain sulfate include magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and calcium sulfate. The mean value of Sulphate for all locations varies between 17.08mg/L at Paladi to 120.63mg/L at Virpur location. The maximum concentration of sulphate is observed 466mg/L at Pilol, Kalali and Virpur locations, which exceeds the permissible limits of 400mg/L prescribed by BIS. Phosphate concentration, which is generally negligible in ground water, has been observed maximum of 1.49mg/L at Kalali location with mean value of 0.36mg/L. % & '<0 &$ -2 9 . #/&$ # ) '<0&$ ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $ & & & % $&$-29. #/&$ # ) $ &$ ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  55. 55. Nitrate content have been observed probably due to pollution from anthropogenic activities and excessive use of fertilizer in the crops. The maximum value of nitrate varies from 9.51mg/L at Pilol location to 25.30mg/L at Virpur location which lies within the acceptable limit of 45mg/L prescribed by BIS(2012). g) Fluoride !@" & &$ # #( ' # % # % 1 &$ &$ (( $ #/&$ # ) The average Fluoride concentrations for all 7 locations are lies between 0.37mg/L at Paladi to 0.91mg/L at Khalipur location. The acceptable and permissible limits for drinking water are 1.0mg/L and 1.5mg/L as prescribed by BIS (2012). The maximum concentration of fluoride is 1.62mg/L at Khalipur location which exceeds the limit of drinking water standards. ' '& ' '& ' '#%-29. #/&$ # ) '# % ! ! " # $ ! ! " # $
  56. 56. Chapter – 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 4.1 Water Quality of river Vishwamitri The Vishwamitri river carries only dry weather flow without any assimilative capacity and starts stinking right at the beginning of the city as large number of hutments and slums all along the river dump their wastes into the river including some major sewage outfalls. It hardly gets either return flows or groundwater accruals and remains in trickling flow condition for about 8-9 months in a year. The water quality of the river is highly dependent on the availability of freshwater in the river, which greatly varies with time and locations. Precipitation is confined to only three months in a year and varies greatly. Most of the water flows in the Vishwamitri (nearly 90% to 95%) in monsoon period (July, August and September). Whatever water flows in non- monsoon period (October to June) is extensively used for irrigation and drinking leaving very little or no water in the river to flow. Table 4.1: water quality of Vishwamitri River as measured by GPCB during 2008-09 Monitoring Station pH TDS mg/l DO mg/l BOD mg/l COD mg/l NH3N mg/l NO2N mg/l NO3N mg/l Kamatibaug- Sayajibaug, Vadodara 7.80 620 2.0 20 53 3.92 0.04 0.04 Convent School, Fatehgunj, Vadodara 7.95 624 2.2 21 50 0.56 0.46 0.68 Near Kalali Railway Crossing, Vadsar Bridge Road, Vadodara 7.99 780 nil 8 56 19.6 0.13 0.13 Dhadhar at Kothwada, Ta. Padra,Dist. Vadodara 8.19 638 nil 8 36 1.68 0.53 1.21
  57. 57. Table 4.2: water quality of Vishwamitri River as measured by GPCB during 2009-10 (Once in a Year) Monitoring Station pH TDS mg/l DO mg/l BOD mg/l COD mg/l NH3N mg/l NO2N mg/l NO3N mg/l Kamatibaug- Sayajibaug, Vadodara 7.39 442 4.30 4 16 6.16 0.018 0.52 Convent School, Fatehgunj, Vadodara 7.56 464 3.58 6 24 3.92 0.020 0.50 Near Kalali Railway Crossing, Vadsar Bridge Road, Vadodara 7.41 802 NIL 56 70 6.16 0.036 0.86 Dhadhar at Kothwada, Ta.Padra, Dist Vadodara 7.30 542 2.28 10 40 1.12 0.020 0.64 Gujarat Tractor Lt. Mujmuhada 7.42 536 3.28 12 28 5.04 0.026 0.72 The water quality data obtained in the present study and the studies carried out in the past by various agencies like GPCB shown in Table 4.1 and 4.2, revealed that the river is heavily polluted by domestic and industrial wastewater. It is observed that about 50 km long stretch of the river is in bad shape, having water quality, most of the time, below desired level for "designated best use". 4.2 Water Quality Segments Based on flow conditions, water quality and ecological considerations, the Vishwamitririver can be classified into 5 independent Segments. These are: a) Segment I: This segment (length 15 km) is identified from Origin to Dena Village. The major source of water in this segment is only run-off water. Due to excessive groundwater abstraction in the catchment, this segment remainsunder trickling flow condition for about 8-9 months and thus, the river ecosystem is adversely affected. However, the water quality is reasonably good and generally fit for its designated best use.
  58. 58. b) Segment II: This segment (about 12 km) lies between Dena Village and Sama Village. This segment is characterized by more flow due to contribution of tributary Surya River, diffuse pollution, intensive in-stream uses like washing of automobiles, bathing, washing of cloths, utensils, dumping of solid wastes, open defecation, cattle wading and large number of other in-stream activities causing water quality degradation. The main source of water in this segment is ground water accrual and contribution from Surya River. c) Segment III: This 17 km segment of Vishwamitri River is located in between Sama Village to Khalipur Village. This segment is most critical as it receives wastewater from large number of sewage drains of Vadodara city. Due to massive input of untreated and partially treated sewage and industrial wastes, garbage and other instream activities leading to severe degradation of water quality in this stretch. The input of sewage garbage and other wastes has sets off a progressive series of chemical and biological events in the downstream water. This stretch is characterized by high bacterial population, cloudy appearance high BOD and strong disagreeable odour - all indicating general depletion of oxygen. Masses of gaseous sludge rising from the bottom are often noticed floating near the surface of the water. During monsoon due to flood the sludge deposited in this stretch is flushed and stay in suspension causing rise in oxygen uptake in the downstream. d) Segment IV: This Segment of Vishwamitri River is about 25 km long immediately downstream of Khalipur to Pingalwada. This stretch is a zone of recovery. The important tributary Jambua joins the Vishwamitri IN this segment. The river support large number of crocodiles, which can be easily seen along the banks of the river. There are large numbers of crocodile attacks being reported by the villagers in this segment. e) Segment V: This Segment of Dhadhar River is about 55 km long immediately downstream of its confluence with Vishwamitri River. This segment is a zone of recovery, which supports large number of aquatic life including number of crocodiles and other reptiles.
  59. 59. 4.3 Important Water Quality Issues of Vishwamitri River The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) has also been monitoring water quality of the river. They have also carried out some surveys of water quality on different occasions to assess the water quality problems of the river. The results of all these studies and the present study revealed that Organic and pathogenic pollution originated from discharge of domestic sewage is the major water quality issue for the Vishwamitri. The major water quality issues are as follows: a) Organic Pollution River Vishwamitri receives significantly high amount of organic matter, which is generally, originates from domestic sources. For biodegradation, this organic waste requires oxygen, causing significant depletion of dissolved oxygen in river water. The oxygen depletion not only affects biotic community of the river but also affects its self-purification capacity. This problem is critical in the river stretch between Sama and Kalali Villages. In the vicinity of Vadodara city, the load of organic matter is so high that it consumes the entire dissolved oxygen available in river water leading to vanishing of all important aquatic life in the river. b) High Nutrients Load The organic matter after biodegradation release nutrients in the water. High nutrients concentration leads to Eutrophication, a condition characterized by significant diurnal variation in dissolved oxygen concentration and excessive algal growth. This condition can be observed in the river downstream of the Kalali, but also within the city vicinity all along the banks and nooks of the river. c) High Pathogens Continuous flow of sewage waste, dumping of garbage, industrial wastes, religious offerings etc. and instream uses of water like bathing, cattle wading etc. contribute significant load of pathogens in the river water making it unsuitable for drinking and bathing purposes.
  60. 60. 4.4 Water Quality of Ground water The samples collected were analyzed for groundwater quality to see the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation as ground water is a source for drinking in many urban centers. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical and organic parameters. The quality of the groundwater varies from place to place. As compare to Drinking water standards, groundwater quality have higher concentration of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate. In our case study, the groundwater quality has deteriorated due to human activities and Industrialization. Groundwater quality problems near river are caused by contamination and by overexploitation. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in the vicinity has resulted in steep increase of generation of wastes. Due to lack of inadequate infrastructure and resources the waste is not properly collected, treated and disposed; leading to accumulation and infiltration causing groundwater contamination. At various locations large no of industrial activities are taking place in congested, populated areas. The waste generated by industries gets mixed with domestic waste and pollute ground water. When the River passes through the urban area large part of un-collected, un-treated wastewater finds it way to the river and also gets accumulated in the city itself forming cesspools. These cesspools are good breeding ground for mosquitoes and also source of groundwater pollution. The wastewater accumulated in these cesspools gets percolated in the ground and pollute the groundwater. Pollutants are being added to the groundwater system through natural processes also. Solid waste from industrial units is being dumped near the vicinity and is subjected to reaction with percolating rainwater and reaches the groundwater level. The percolating water picks up a large amount of dissolved constituents and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the groundwater.
  61. 61. 4.5 Recommendations and Remedial Measures 1. The state government is also concerned about the water quality of this river. GPCB has been entrusted regular water quality monitoring. The locations monitored by them are Fatehgunj, Sayajibaug, Kalali, MunjMuhada, Kothwada. Several awareness programs in consultation with forest departments, educational institutions, VMC, GIDC, industries are conducted. Several action are taken by GPCB against industries. 2. VMC has also in process of upgrading their STP plants . New drainage network has been laid recently to improve water quality .We can suggest VMC to increase and upgrade their sewage treatment plant. Untreated water under any circumstance should not be discharged in the river. Also new STP proposed should be installed and made fully functional in the newly developed/ proposed urban areas .This will also be beneficial in their project on River Vishwamitri Development front. 3. Stringent monitoring of river from Akota to Khalipur as this segment is highly polluted. GPCB may be requested to regularly collect samples of SW and GW and bring to the notice of industries. Small scale industries release their untreated industrial waste in the river. They may serve notice and action needs to be taken against them. Due to urbanization these industries may be requested to relocate. 4. Due to contamination of surface water menace of mosquito is severe for the residents. During summer foul smell is also observed in the vicinity. Regular spraying of insecticide and improvement in water quality is also need of hour. 5. River Vishwamitri has a unique ecological importance in Gujarat as it inhabits a unique crocodile species called mugger (Crocodyluspalustris). They need to be protected 6. Existing CETP needs to be improved / upgraded. They need to be impressed about the deterioration of surface water quality. 7. Better handling of municipal and industrial waste is being developed through a program called TSDF (Treatment Stabilization Disposal Facility). The activities are being monitored through boards and more efficient ways are being devised.
  62. 62. References 1. CPCB (2009) Status of Water Supply, Wastewater Generation And Treatment In Class-I Cities & Class-II Towns Of India. CONTROL OF URBAN POLLUTION SERIES: CUPS/ 70 / 2009 – 10 2. Drinking Water –Specification, IS 10500-2012. 3. Infrastructure assessment of Vadodara City, Report published by CRISIL, on behalf of Vadodara Municipal Corporation 4. Vyas R.J. (2010): Mugger (crocodyluspalustris) population in and around Vadodara city, Gujarat state, India Russian Journal of herpetology. 17(1): 43-50. 5. Crocodyluspalustris IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (1996) Listed as Vulnerable (VU A1a, C2a v2.3). Hiremath, K.G..Recent advances in environmental science. Discovery Publishing House, 2003.
  63. 63. Temp. Odour EC TDS mg/L pH NH4-N mg/L NO3- N mg/L PO4 - P mg/L BOD mg/L COD mg/L DO mg/L Turbid ity NTU CO3 mg/L HCO3 mg/L SO4 mg/L Cl mg/L F mg/L Na mg/L K mg/ L Ca mg/L Mg mg/L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 Jan-09 25 OL 540.00 351.00 7.02 Nil 5.39 0.18 NP 20.00 5.50 3.00 0.00 274.50 5.20 50.10 0.16 37.60 0.10 68.00 14.50 225.00 230.00 2 Mar-09 32 OL 350.00 227.50 7.27 Nil 0.35 0.18 NP 0.00 5.00 3.10 0.00 213.50 4.19 30.00 0.39 22.50 0.10 56.00 2.42 175.00 150.00 3 May-09 38 OL 474.00 308.10 7.20 1.10 10.74 0.25 NP 20.00 3.80 1.50 0.00 232.00 51.42 58.10 0.59 44.00 0.10 32.00 2.42 190.00 90.00 4 Jul-09 29 OL 495.00 321.75 7.50 1.17 1.42 0.28 8.00 30.00 6.00 5.50 0.00 122.00 81.97 36.00 0.16 27.00 0.00 20.00 19.40 100.00 130.00 5 Sept.-09 35 OL 651.00 423.15 7.88 Nil 7.33 0.20 NP 10.00 7.00 10.70 36.00 292.80 11.44 80.00 0.57 51.80 0.10 68.00 41.10 241.00 339.00 6 Nov.-09 25 OL 325.00 211.25 7.54 Nil 0.27 0.20 8.00 30.00 7.80 4.50 0.00 232.00 3.50 20.00 0.15 13.00 0.10 40.00 16.90 190.00 169.00 7 Jan.-10 27 OL 1278.00 830.70 7.60 Nil 1.77 0.08 NP 10.00 7.50 12.50 0.00 488.00 0.00 198.80 1.01 128.00 0.10 80.00 19.36 400.00 279.00 8 Mar.10 35 OL 395.00 256.75 7.40 Nil 2.20 0.32 NP 20.00 7.40 10.20 6.00 213.50 12.60 30.00 0.39 19.40 0.10 40.00 9.68 180.00 140.00 9 May-10 Blank row shows no sample collection due to dry spot. 10 July-10 Blank row shows no sample collection due to dry spot. 11 Set.10 27 DS 876.00 569.40 7.08 0.00 5.41 0.03 NP 0.00 4.20 NP 0.00 171.00 20.00 90.00 0.22 58.30 0.10 40.00 12.10 140.00 149.71 12 Nov.10 26 DS 408.00 265.20 8.27 0.00 1.50 0.00 0.00 10.00 0.00 8.30 12.00 244.00 32.30 45.00 0.41 29.00 0.10 32.00 18.20 220.00 154.85 38 0.00 1278.00 830.70 8.27 1.17 10.74 0.32 8.00 30.00 7.80 12.50 36.00 488.00 81.97 198.80 1.01 128.00 0.10 80.00 41.10 400.00 339.00 25 0.00 350.00 227.50 7.02 1.10 0.35 0.18 8.00 0.00 3.80 1.50 0.00 122.00 4.19 30.00 0.16 22.50 0.00 20.00 2.42 100.00 90.00 30 0.00 579.20 376.48 7.48 0.57 3.64 0.17 5.33 15.00 5.42 6.59 5.40 248.33 22.26 63.80 0.40 43.06 0.09 47.60 15.61 206.10 183.16 Note: OL = Odour Less, DS = Dirty Smell, NP = Not Performed Minimum Average Month Sr. No. Organic matterNutrient Major Ions Maximun Total Alkalinit y mg/L Total Hardnes s mg/L Statement Showing Surface Water data for Location No1: Paladi Near Halol Highway STATEMENT-1 Major CationsGeneral Other Inorga nic
  64. 64. Temp. Odour EC TDS mg/L pH NH4-N mg/L NO3- N mg/L PO4 - P mg/L BOD mg/ L COD mg/L DO mg/L Turbi dity NTU CO3 mg/L HCO3 mg/L SO4 mg/L Cl mg/L F mg/L Na mg/L K mg/L Ca mg/L Mg mg/L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 Jan-09 25 OL 510.00 331.50 7.05 0.00 1.39 0.20 NP 20.00 7.00 1.00 0.00 225.70 4.30 65.10 0.15 48.80 0.10 48.00 12.10 185.00 170.00 2 Mar-09 32 OL 402.00 261.30 7.50 0.00 0.17 0.21 NP 0.00 7.50 1.00 0.00 232.50 3.54 40.00 0.32 30.00 0.10 60.00 19.40 190.00 230.00 3 May-09 38 OL 810.00 526.50 8.02 0.75 10.75 0.17 NP 20.00 7.50 2.50 18.00 238.00 9.33 78.10 0.36 50.00 0.10 32.00 2.42 210.00 90.00 4 Jul-09 29 OL 286.00 185.90 7.40 0.88 1.03 0.28 7.50 30.00 6.00 1.20 0.00 128.00 30.71 28.00 0.14 21.00 0.00 22.00 18.20 105.00 130.00 5 Sept.-09 35 OL 688.00 447.20 7.60 0.00 0.84 0.00 NP 0.00 7.50 11.50 30.00 286.70 10.13 100.00 0.48 64.80 0.10 40.00 26.60 236.00 209.00 6 Nov.-09 25 OL 400.00 260.00 7.36 0.00 0.51 0.27 8.50 30.00 7.60 2.50 0.00 238.00 10.98 24.00 0.13 15.50 0.10 56.00 24.20 195.00 239.00 7 Jan.-10 27 OL 1020.00 663.00 7.75 0.00 3.38 0.09 NP 20.00 7.00 10.20 0.00 244.00 52.38 227.20 1.05 147.00 0.10 60.00 12.10 200.00 200.00 8 Mar.10 35 OL 665.00 432.25 8.40 0.00 0.76 0.21 NP 20.00 4.00 10.40 30.00 305.00 16.69 60.00 0.36 38.80 0.10 28.00 2.42 275.00 80.00 9 May-10 Blank row shows no sample collection due to dry spot. 10 Jul.10 35 DS 1034.00 672.00 8.69 0.00 2.78 0.26 NP 0.00 5.40 0.00 48.00 421.00 31.35 116.00 0.25 75.68 0.10 16.00 17.00 385.00 94.74 11 Sep.10 27 DS 771.00 501.15 6.81 0.00 4.92 0.20 NP 0.00 4.60 0.00 12.00 253.20 28.00 110.00 0.42 71.28 0.10 32.00 4.84 208.50 99.84 12 Nov.10 27 DS 464.00 301.60 7.87 0.00 1.00 0.00 NP 20.00 0.00 10.00 0.00 305.00 25.50 65.00 0.32 42.00 0.10 40.00 12.10 260.00 150.00 38 0.00 1034.00 672.00 8.69 0.88 10.75 0.28 8.50 30.00 7.60 11.50 48.00 421.00 52.38 227.20 1.05 147.00 0.10 60.00 26.60 385.00 239.00 25 0.00 286.00 185.90 6.81 0.00 0.17 0.00 7.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 128.00 3.54 24.00 0.13 15.50 0.00 16.00 2.42 105.00 80.00 30 0.00 640.91 416.58 7.68 0.15 2.50 0.17 8.00 14.55 5.83 4.57 12.55 261.55 20.26 83.04 0.36 54.99 0.09 39.45 13.76 222.68 153.87 Note: OL = Odour Less, DS = Dirty Smell, NP = Not Performed Average Major Ions Major Cations Maximun Sr. No. Nutrient Organic matterGeneral Other Inorganic Minimum STATEMENT-2 Month Statement Showing Surface Water data for Location No 2: Pilol Village Total Alkali nity mg/L Total Hardne ss mg/L
  65. 65. Temp. Odour EC TDS mg/L pH NH4- N mg/L NO3- N mg/L PO4 - P mg/ L BOD mg/L COD mg/L DO mg/ L Turbi dity NTU CO3 mg/L HCO3 mg/L SO4 mg/L Cl mg/L F mg/L Na mg/L K mg/L Ca mg/L Mg mg/L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 Jan.09 25 OL 572.00 371.80 7.55 0.00 0.39 0.21 0.00 10.00 7.00 1.00 0.00 250.00 15.80 50.10 0.18 37.60 0.10 56.00 53.20 205.00 359.00 2 Mar-09 32 OL 476.00 309.40 7.93 0.00 2.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 7.50 1.00 0.00 268.40 16.79 45.00 0.33 33.80 0.00 48.00 7.30 220.00 150.00 3 May-09 38 OL 565.00 367.25 7.70 0.00 0.88 0.17 0.00 10.00 4.40 4.00 18.00 244.00 22.98 62.10 0.39 47.00 0.00 24.00 7.26 215.00 89.90 4 Jul-09 29 OL 187.00 121.55 7.44 0.00 0.90 0.24 0.00 10.00 7.60 5.20 0.00 122.00 22.80 32.00 0.17 24.00 0.00 26.00 20.60 100.00 150.00 5 Sep-09 34 OL 658.00 427.70 7.55 0.00 10.73 0.18 0.00 0.00 7.60 5.80 0.00 244.00 2.36 105.00 0.45 48.00 0.00 44.00 14.50 200.00 170.00 6 Nov.-09 25 OL 687.00 446.55 7.44 0.00 2.69 0.24 15.00 50.00 6.00 5.00 0.00 342.00 17.51 80.40 0.17 52.10 0.00 60.00 7.30 280.00 180.00 7 Jan.-10 27 OL 298.00 193.70 8.30 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.00 10.00 7.40 10.50 0.00 195.00 0.00 28.40 0.60 18.00 0.00 40.00 12.10 160.00 150.00 8 Mar.10 35 OL 292.00 189.80 8.35 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.00 10.00 7.80 12.00 12.00 170.80 4.98 25.00 0.47 16.20 0.10 20.00 4.84 150.00 59.90 9 May-10 Blank row shows no sample collection due to dry spot. 10 Jul.10 36 DS 1042.00 677.00 8.75 0.00 2.64 0.26 0.00 0.00 4.80 0.00 30.00 427.00 28.35 102.00 0.25 66.10 0.10 16.00 14.52 375.00 109.95 11 Sep.10 27 DS 747.00 485.55 7.00 0.00 4.21 0.10 0.00 0.00 4.80 0.00 21.00 226.00 25.60 105.00 0.34 68.04 0.10 20.00 18.20 202.50 124.89 12 Nov.10 27 DS 470.00 305.50 8.35 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 7.80 12.00 256.00 33.00 75.00 0.18 49.00 0.10 28.00 21.80 230.00 159.69 38 0.00 1042.00 677.00 8.75 0.00 10.73 0.26 15.00 50.00 7.80 12.00 30.00 427.00 33.00 105.00 0.60 68.04 0.10 60.00 53.20 375.00 359.00 25 0.00 187.00 121.55 7.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 122.00 0.00 25.00 0.17 16.20 0.00 16.00 4.84 100.00 59.90 30 0.00 544.91 354.16 7.85 0.00 2.28 0.17 1.36 10.91 5.90 4.75 8.45 249.56 17.29 64.55 0.32 41.80 0.05 34.73 16.51 212.50 154.85 Note: OL = Odour Less, DS = Dirty Smell, NP = Not Performed Total Hardnes s mg/L Minimum Maximun Organic matter Major Ions Major Cations Total Alkalini ty mg/L Statement Showing Surface Water data for Location No 3: Dena Bypass STATEMENT-3 Other Inorganic Average Month NutrientGeneral Sr. No.
  66. 66. Temp. Odour EC TDS mg/L pH NH4- N mg/L NO3- N mg/L PO4 - P mg/ L BOD mg/L COD mg/L DO mg/L Turbi dity NTU CO3 mg/L HCO3 mg/L SO4 mg/L Cl mg/L F mg/L Na mg/L K mg/L Ca mg/L Mg mg/L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 Jan-09 25 OL 990.00 643.50 7.64 0.00 1.13 0.23 NP 20.00 7.00 3.00 0.00 256.20 50.10 200.20 0.19 150.20 0.20 68.00 58.10 210.00 409.00 2 Mar-09 32 OL 935.00 607.75 7.42 0.00 1.23 0.23 NP 0.00 7.40 2.80 0.00 286.70 53.59 170.00 0.34 128.00 0.10 72.00 21.80 235.00 270.00 3 May-09 38 OL 1030.00 669.50 7.80 0.00 0.35 0.18 NP 20.00 7.80 4.50 18.00 232.00 52.24 220.20 0.35 165.00 0.10 36.00 2.42 205.00 100.00 4 Jul.09 29 OL 260.00 169.00 7.35 0.45 0.81 0.27 NP 20.00 6.20 4.20 0.00 134.00 27.63 24.00 0.19 18.00 0.10 40.00 14.50 110.00 160.00 5 Sep.09 33 OL 822.00 534.30 7.70 0.00 10.73 0.18 NP 0.00 7.30 1.50 18.00 178.90 6.53 205.00 0.39 132.80 0.00 36.00 24.20 155.00 190.00 6 Nov.-09 27 OL 320.00 208.00 7.51 0.00 0.39 0.25 NP 0.00 7.40 3.00 0.00 165.00 10.32 34.00 0.18 22.04 0.00 40.00 9.70 135.00 140.00 7 Jan.-10 35 OL 330.00 214.50 8.20 0.00 0.09 0.08 NP 0.00 7.50 7.80 0.00 165.00 0.00 42.60 0.45 28.00 0.20 48.00 16.94 135.00 190.00 8 Mar.10 25 OL 284.00 184.60 8.42 0.00 0.00 0.22 NP 20.00 7.20 18.00 6.00 158.60 4.84 25.00 0.24 16.20 0.00 32.00 4.84 135.00 99.80 9 May-10 34 OL 1463.00 951.00 8.40 0.00 1.73 0.46 NP 0.00 7.00 0.00 12.00 329.00 34.40 170.00 0.25 111.00 0.00 52.00 60.50 280.00 379.00 10 Jul.10 35 DS 877.00 570.05 8.08 0.00 2.49 0.37 NP 0.00 4.80 0.00 0.00 244.00 36.13 153.00 0.21 99.15 0.10 16.00 17.00 200.00 109.95 11 Sep.10 27 DS 1580.00 1027.00 7.31 0.00 19.61 0.00 NP 0.00 4.20 0.00 48.00 488.00 71.60 140.00 0.51 90.70 0.10 28.00 12.10 440.00 119.74 12 Nov.10 26 DS 496.00 322.40 8.14 0.00 15.30 0.00 NP 10.00 0.00 9.30 12.00 250.00 44.10 80.00 0.43 52.00 0.10 36.00 12.10 225.00 139.72 38 0.00 1580.00 1027.00 8.42 0.45 19.61 0.46 NP 20.00 7.80 18.00 48.00 488.00 71.60 220.20 0.51 165.00 0.20 72.00 60.50 440.00 409.00 25 0.00 260.00 169.00 7.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 NP 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 134.00 0.00 24.00 0.18 16.20 0.00 16.00 2.42 110.00 99.80 31 0.00 782.25 508.47 7.83 0.04 4.49 0.21 NP 7.50 6.15 4.51 9.50 240.62 32.62 122.00 0.31 84.42 0.08 42.00 21.18 205.42 192.27 Note: OL = Odour Less, DS = Dirty Smell, NP = Not Performed Total Alkalin ity mg/L Total Hardnes s mg/L Major Ions STATEMENT-4 Statement Showing Surface Water data for Location No - 4: Sama savli road bridge Other Inorganic Average Maximun Major CationsOrganic matterGeneral Minimum Sr.N o. Month Nutrient

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