The Methods Of Science


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Scientific Method, si measurement

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The Methods Of Science

  1. 1. The Methods of Science <ul><li>Science: method for studying the natural world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life, Earth, Physical science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains the natural world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists learn by investigation  observation, experimentation, or modeling </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Scientific Method <ul><li>State a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A possible explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test the hypothesis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Testing a Hypothesis <ul><li>Experiments with variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependant variable changes values as other variables change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variable is changed to determine how it will affect the dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variable that does not change when other variables change is a constant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A control is the standard to which test results are compared </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Analyze data from experiment or investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Form a conclusion based on the data </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce bias by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keeping accurate records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating the experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using data that is measurable </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Standards of Measurement <ul><li>Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exact quantity that people agree to use for comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurements must be taken carefully </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise: how closely measurements are to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate: how closely measurement is to real or accepted value </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. International System of Units: SI <ul><li>Based on the metric system  multiples of 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Used by scientists worldwide </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure distance between 2 points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SI unit of measure is the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meter: about a baseball bat in length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of space occupied by an object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 L= 1 dm 3 = 10 cm 3 = 1000 ml </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measurement of the quantity of matter in an object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density is a combination of units  derived unit </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass/volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum vs. iron </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval between 2 events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SI unit  seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of how hot or cold something is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SI unit is Kelvin  K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 K is the coldest possible temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-273 ºC = 0 K </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Communicating with Graphs <ul><li>Visual display of information or data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to detect patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Line graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows a relationship where the dependent variable changes due to a change in the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x axis = independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>y axis = dependent variable </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Bar graph compares information collected by counting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each bar represents a quantity counted at a particular time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circle graph shows how a whole is broken into parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The parts represent percentages of the whole </li></ul></ul>
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