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Internet
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  • 1. Week 5: Making the Most of Internet Resources 1
  • 2. The Origin of the Internet • ARPANET: – Advanced Research Projects Agency Network – Funded by the U.S. government in the 1960s – Allowed computers at leading universities and research organizations to communicate with each other over great distances 2
  • 3. The Web • The Web is a part of the Internet distinguished by: – common communication protocols TCP/IP and HTML – special links (called hyperlinks) • Web invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee • 1993, National Center for Supercomputing Applications releases the Mosaic browser • Developers of Mosaic release Netscape (1994) • Netscape is beginning of Web’s major growth 3
  • 4. The Internet vs. The Web • Internet – part of the system INTERNET that is primarily hardware infrastructure (telecommunications, routers, servers, disk drives, etcetera) WWW • Web – part of the system that contains intellectual property in many multimedia formats (test files, graphic files, sound files, video files, etc.) 4
  • 5. Internet Communications • Instant Messaging • Voice over Internet (VoIP) • Weblogs • Podcasts • Webcasts and Wikis • Chat Rooms • Newsgroups • E-mail 5
  • 6. Instant Messaging • Real-time text-based conversations • Set up a list of contacts – Buddy list • Contacts must be online • IM software detects presence • Example: AOL Instant Messenger 6
  • 7. Voice over Internet Protocol • VoIP - The Internet as a means to place phone calls • Uses technology similar to e-mail to send voice data digitally • Requires – a microphone – an Internet connection – A VoIP provider • Services differ – Free services require an account on both ends – Paid services connect phone to computer – Cable and DSL providers offer phone through broadband – WiFi IP phones call through Internet hotspots and wireless networks 7
  • 8. Weblogs (blogs) • Known as blogs • Available to the public • Simple to create, read, and manage • Entries listed on a single page Searchable • Most recent entry at the Some are personal top Many are focused on a topic 8
  • 9. Podcasts • Video blog (vlog) – entries are video clips • Podcasts – compressed audio/video files distributed on the Internet • RSS (Really Simple Syndication) technology allows constant updates for subscribers • Podcasts are all over the Web – Requires “aggregator” software to gather podcasts – Requires media player software to play them • Simple to create and attach RSS files DEMO 9
  • 10. Webcasts and Wikis • Webcasts broadcast audio/visual files but are not updated – use streaming media • A wiki is a Web site that allows anyone to change its content • Wikis provide an excellent source for collaborative writing • Unlike blogs, wikis can be edited for a “common” opinion 10
  • 11. E-mail • Electronic mail • Primary means of communication • E-mail accounts – Client-based – Web-based • Spam – Prevention 11
  • 12. Chat Rooms • Real-time text-based conversations • Rooms focus on specific topics or interests • Identity protection 12
  • 13. Newsgroups • Online discussion forums • Post and reply to messages 13
  • 14. Social Networking • Social networking sites like Facebook.com • Members share common interests • Members communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video, and blogs • Members create personalized profiles • Growth has been explosive • Risks must be recognized and reduced 14
  • 15. Web Entertainment • Multimedia: – Involves forms of media and text • Graphics • Audio • Video – Streaming audio and video – Plug-in 15
  • 16. Web 2.0 – Shorthand for the new use-centred Internet where people publicly modifies other’s work, whether it’s an encyclopedia entry or a photo album. – More on this soon. 16
  • 17. Conducting Business Over the Internet • E-Commerce: – Electronic commerce – Business-to-consumer (B2C) – Business-to-business (B2B) – Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) – Secure transactions B2B E-commerce Suppliers Manufacturer Retailer 17
  • 18. Online Annoyances • Spam – electronic junk mail • Pop-ups – intrusive advertising • Cookies – tracking user’s browsing habits • Spyware – programs that collect data from a user’s computer • Malware - software that has a malicious intent • Phishing and Hoaxes – Ruses to fool and maybe steal from users 18
  • 19. Spam • Junk e-Mail • Spam filters • Antispam practices 19
  • 20. Pop-ups • Usually advertising • Pop-up automatically • Pop-up blockers 20
  • 21. Cookies • Text files stored on client computers when visiting Web sites • Used on return visits to Web sites • Unique ID number • Personal information remembered • Privacy risk – Selling information 21
  • 22. Spyware • Added as a program piggybacked with a requested program • Gathers information, usually about surfing habits • Antivirus software doesn’t detect it • Spyware removal programs are required 22
  • 23. Malware • Software that has a malicious intent • Spyware is a form of malware • Other forms are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses • Designed to render a computer useless or penetrate it completely 23
  • 24. Phishing and Hoaxes • Phishing is a phony communication • Attempts to scam someone into sending vital information • Hoaxes are attempts to scam people into sending money, or join a chain letter 24
  • 25. Navigating the Web: Web Browsers • Computer software • Graphical • Enables Web navigation • Popular browsers: – Foxfire Mozilla – Internet Explorer – Netscape Navigator – Safari (Mac OSX) 25
  • 26. Browser Toolbars 26
  • 27. Web Sites • Web site: – Collection of related Web pages – First page known as Home or Index page Home page • Web page: – HTML document • Text and graphics – Unique address – Hyperlinks Related pages 27
  • 28. URL • URL: – Uniform Resource Locator – Unique Web page address Protocol Domain name Path identifies contains the identifies the the means host and top- subdirectories of access level domain within the Web site URL http:// www.nytimes.com/ Pages/cartoons/ 28
  • 29. Current Top-Level Domains .aero Members of the air transport industry .biz Businesses .com Can be used by anyone .net Networking organizations .edu Degree granting institutions .gov United States government .mil United States military .ca Canada .tv Tuvalu (funny story) .org Organizations (often nonprofits) 29
  • 30. Evaluating Web Sites • Who is the author of the article or Web site sponsor? • What audience is the site geared toward? • Is the site biased? • Is the information current? • Are links available? 30
  • 31. Future of the Internet • Large Scale Networking (LSN): – Research and development of cutting-edge networking and wireless technologies • Web 2: – Project sponsored by universities, government, and industry to develop new Internet technologies – Internet2 backbone supports transmission speeds of 9.6 Gbps 31
  • 32. The Following Slides Are Optional For Your Informational Pleasure 32
  • 33. Client and Server • Client computer: – Users connect to the Internet – Request data and Web pages • Server computers: – Store Web pages and data – Return the requested data to the client Server Client 33
  • 34. Search Engines • User keys word or phrase in search box • “Spider” or “Web Crawler” program scans Web pages • Results are indexed and sent to the client 34
  • 35. Connecting to the Internet • Dial-up connection: – Uses standard telephone line – Least costly connection – Requires a modem • Converts analog and digital signals – Slowest connection speed (56Kbps) 35
  • 36. Broadband Connections • Digital Subscriber Lines – Faster than dial-up • Upload (300Kbps – 1.5Mbps) • Download (1Mbps – 1.5Mbps) – Requires special DSL modem DSL modem 36
  • 37. Broadband Connections • Cable: – Uses TV coaxial cable – Fast connection speed (500Kbps – 4Mbps) – Speed depends on number of users – Not available in all areas – Requires a cable modem Coaxial cable 37
  • 38. Satellite Connections • Uses a satellite dish and coaxial cable – Download speed 500 kbps – Upload speed 100 kbps – Signal is affected by location and weather 38
  • 39. Comparing Internet Connection Options Connection Maximum Upload Data Maximum Download Data Option Transfer Rate (approximate) Transfer Rate (approximate) Dial-Up 56 Kbps 56 Kbps DSL 300 Kbps 1 Mbps (ADSL) DSL 1.5 Mbps 1.5 Mbps (SDSL) Cable 500 Kbps 4 Mbps Satellite 100 Kbps 500 Kbps 39
  • 40. Choosing an ISP • Factors to consider: – Customer service – Local access numbers – E-mail options – Cost – Trial period 40
  • 41. Internet Service Providers • ISP: • OSP: – Internet service provider – Online service provider – Provide user access to the – Provide online proprietary Internet content as well as Internet – National, regional, or local access companies – AOL, CompuServe, MSN 41

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