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2017 07 571

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Drama 571 Slides

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2017 07 571

  1. 1. Classifications of Sound. Sound montage. Functions of Music. Practical considerations. Music and Sound
  2. 2. Motion Picture Sound Film Aesthetics Motion picture sound is classified in three ways: •Sound effects, Music, and, Spoken language Musicans and Sound designers are are brought on staff during the planning stages of a film working with the director to shape an overall, consistent soundtrack that exploits the expressive possibilities of the sound medium. The overall sound design is organically related to the narrative and thematic needs of the film, and has an integrity not possible if sound is divided among an entire bureaucracy.
  3. 3. Motion Picture Sound Film Aesthetics • Elements of sound can be synchronous ie recorded at the same time as the images; or nonsyncronous, ie recorded at a different time and dubbed onto the image. • These elements can also be diegetic ie where the source is within the world depicted in the film (eg dialogue or music from a radio in the scene; or nondiegetic, where sound comes from outside this world (voice overs, background music etc.)
  4. 4. DRILL Are these following examples Synchronous or non syncronous? Diegetic/non? 1. Dialogue … recording by mike whilst shooting. 2. Dialogue … dubbed from English to Cantonese. 3. Sound of background TV broadcast but added after. 4. Orchestral music swelling amidst desert scene? These elements can be synchronous ie recorded at the same time as the images; or nonsyncronous, ie recorded at a different time and dubbed onto the image. These elements can also be diegetic ie where the source is within the world depicted in the film (eg dialogue or music from a radio in the scene; or nondiegetic, where sound comes from outside this world (voice overs, background music etc.)
  5. 5. Film Aesthetics Sound -- History • In 1927, The Jazz Singer ushered in the talkie era. • The increased realism brought on by sound forced acting styles to become more natural -- performers didn’t need to compensate visually for lack of dialogue. • Early in talkies era, formalist directors like Sergei Eisenstein were hostile to use of synchronous sound. He believed it would limit editing and kill the very soul of film art. Battleship Potemkin, 1925. • Orson Wells was an important innovator in sound. He perfected the technique of sound montage between scenes. Citizen Kane, 1941.
  6. 6. Film Aesthetics Sound -- History • Theories of music varies. Eisenstein insisted music not be used as mere accompaniment -- that it should retain its own integrity. Other filmmakers insist of purely descriptive music or “mickeymousing” where music is a literal equivalent to the movement. • Beginning with opening credits, music can suggest the mood or tone of a film as a whole. Certain kinds of music can suggest locales, classes, ethnic groups. • Music can be used as foreshadowing, eg. Hitchcock’s “anxious” music he used when preparing an audience.
  7. 7. Film Aesthetics Sound -- History • Music can control emotional shifts within a scene. Example? • Music can provide ironic contrast. The predominent mood of a scene can be neutralized or even reversed with contrasting music. Example? • Characterization can be suggested through musical motifs. Example?
  8. 8. Finding the Elusive Downbeat • Downbeats and Marks: • Listening for the pattern of downbeats (DB) and upbeats (UB) is one of the secrets to hearing the beat of music. On a editing timeline, marking downbeats is a way to promote rhythm through camera switches and introduction of new cuts. Watch for camera switches in Taking Heads I Zimbra. Our example was I Zimbra by Talking Heads.
  9. 9. Music and Sound Practicalities • TEMPO: the rate of speed of a musical piece or passage indicated by one of a series of directions (as largo, presto, or allegro) and often by an exact beats per minute metronome marking. Default speed is 120 bpm. Tempo to Marks example. • PITCH and KEY. Major (cheerful), Minor (sad). • SIGNATURE. 4/4 Time (Almost any popular song as above.) • 3/4 Time ( Waltz) • 7/8 Time (Nubian) (Pink Floyd) You will always want to preset these, as in Garageband.
  10. 10. Music and Sound Practicalities • TEMPO: the rate of speed of a musical piece or passage indicated by one of a series of directions (as largo, presto, or allegro) and often by an exact beats per minute metronome marking. Default speed is 120 bpm. Tempo to Marks example. • PITCH and KEY. Major (cheerful), Minor (sad). • SIGNATURE. 4/4 Time (Almost any popular song as above.) • 3/4 Time ( Waltz) • 7/8 Time (Nubian) (Pink Floyd) You will always want to preset these, as in Garageband.

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