Late 40’s and early 50’s… CARL ROGERS and ABRAHAM MASLOW Supported the human relations movement through their theories of motivation
CARL ROGERS <ul><li>Coined the term “ UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD”. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard is basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does. Rogers believes that unconditional positive regard is essential to healthy development. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard can be facilitated by keeping in mind Carl Rogers’ belief that all people have the internal resources required for personal growth. Rogers' theory encouraged other psychiatrists to suspend judgment, and to listen to a person with an attitude that the client has within himself the ability to change, without actually changing who he is. </li></ul><ul><li>Accdg. To Rogers, the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual who strives to enhance its own human condition. </li></ul>…
ABRAHAM MASLOW … <ul><li>Abraham Maslow published his theory of human motivation in 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maslow differing levels of need that must be satisfied by the individual motivate each human being. </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow published his theory of human motivation in 1943. Maslow grouped the needs into five different categories : </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization, esteem, love/belonging, safety and physiological needs. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A B R A H A M M A S L O W’ S </li></ul><ul><li>H I E R A R C H Y O F N E E D S </li></ul><ul><li>P Y R A M I D </li></ul>
Skinner initiated discussions of behaviorism’s applications By organizational settings <ul><li>B.F. Skinner was a key contributor to the development of modern ideas about reinforcement theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner argued that the internal needs and drives of individuals can be ignored because people learn to exhibit certain behaviors based on what happens to them as a result of their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement theory is the process of shaping behavior by controlling the consequences of the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>In reinforcement theory, a combination of rewards and/or punishments is used to reinforce desired behavior or extinguish unwanted behavior. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Any behavior that elicits a consequence is called operant behavior, because the individual operates on his or her environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement theory concentrates on the relationship between the operant behavior and the associated consequences, and is sometimes referred to as operant conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important principle of reinforcement theory is, of course, reinforcement. Generally speaking, there are two types of reinforcement: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement results when the occurrence of a valued behavioral consequence has the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. The specific behavioral consequence is called a reinforcer. An example of positive reinforcement might be a salesperson that exerts extra effort to meet a sales quota (behavior) and is then rewarded with a bonus (positive reinforcer). The administration of the positive reinforcer should make it more likely that the salesperson will continue to exert the necessary effort in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement results when an undesirable behavioral consequence is withheld, with the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment, but they are not the same. Punishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors; negative reinforcement attempts to increase desired behavior. Thus, both positive and negative reinforcement have the effect of increasing the probability that a particular behavior will be learned and repeated. </li></ul>
<ul><li>An example of negative reinforcement might be a salesperson that exerts effort to increase sales in his or her sales territory (behavior), which is followed by a decision not to reassign the salesperson to an undesirable sales route (negative reinforcer). The administration of the negative reinforcer should make it more likely that the salesperson will continue to exert the necessary effort in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>REINFORCEMENT THEORY APPLIED TO ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>Probably the best-known application of the principles of reinforcement theory to organizational settings is called behavioral modification, or behavioral contingency management. Typically, a behavioral modification program consists of four steps: </li></ul><ul><li>(1)Specifying the desired behavior as objectively as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>(2)Measuring the current incidence of desired behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(3)Providing behavioral consequences that reinforce desired behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(4)Determining the effectiveness of the program by systematically assessing behavioral change. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement theory is an important explanation of how people learn behavior. It is often applied to organizational settings in the context of a behavioral modification program. Although the assumptions of reinforcement theory are often criticized, its principles continue to offer important insights into individual learning and motivation. </li></ul>
Peter F. Drucker’s <ul><li>Management by Objectives (MBO) is the most widely accepted philosophy of management today. It is a demanding and rewarding style of management. It concentrates attention on the accomplishment of objectives through participation of all concerned persons through team spirit. MBO is based on the assumption that people perform better when they know what is expected of them and can relate their personal goals to organizational objectives . </li></ul><ul><li>It suggests that objectives should not be imposed on subordinates but should be decided collectively by a concerned with the management. This gives popular support to them and the achievement of such objectives becomes easy and quick. </li></ul>Management by Objectives (MBO) approach 1954
Features Of Management By Objectives MBO : <ul><li>Superior-subordinate participation: MBO requires the superior and the subordinate to recognize that the development of objectives is a joint project/activity thus, they must be jointly agreed. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint goal-setting: MBO emphasizes joint goal-setting that are tangible, verifiable and measurable. The subordinate in consultation with his superior sets his own short-term goals. However, it is examined both by the superior and the subordinate that goals are realistic and attainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint decision on methodology: MBO focuses special attention on what must be accomplished (goals) rather than how it is to be accomplished (methods). The superior and the subordinate mutually devise methodology to be followed in the attainment of objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Support from superior: When the subordinate makes efforts to achieve his goals, superior's helping hand is always available. The superior acts as a coach and provides his valuable advice and guidance to the subordinate. This is how MBO facilitates effective communication between superior and subordinates for achieving the objectives/targets set. </li></ul>
Steps In Management By Objectives Planning : (1)Goal setting: The first phase in the MBO process is to define the organizational objectives. These are determined by the top management and usually in consultation with other managers. Once these goals are established, they should be made known to all the members. (2)Manager-Subordinate involvement: After the organizational goals are defined, the subordinates work with the managers to determine their individual goals. In this way, everyone gets involved in the goal setting. (3)Matching goals and resources: Management must ensure that the subordinates are provided with necessary tools and materials to achieve these goals. (4)Implementation of plan: After objectives are established and resources are allocated, the subordinates can implement the plan. If any guidance or clarification is required, they can contact their superiors. (5)Review and appraisal of performance: This step involves periodic review of progress between manager and the subordinates. Such reviews would determine if the progress is satisfactory or the subordinate is facing some problems.
1954: JOHN C. FLANAGAN’S CRITICAL INCIDENTS TECHNIQUE <ul><li>The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behavior that have critical significance and meet methodically defined criteria. These observations are then kept track of as incidents, which are then used to solve practical problems and develop broad psychological principles. </li></ul><ul><li>CIT is a flexible method that usually relies on five major areas. The first is determining and reviewing the incident, then fact-finding, which involves collecting the details of the incident from the participants. When all of the facts are collected, the next step is to identify the issues. Afterwards a decision can be made on how to resolve the issues based on various possible solutions. The final and most important aspect is the evaluation, which will determine if the solution that was selected will solve the root cause of the situation and will cause no further problems. </li></ul><ul><li>CIT is also widely used in organizational development as a research technique for identification of organizational problems. CIT is used as an interview technique where the informants are encouraged to talk about unusual organizational incidents instead of answering direct questions. </li></ul>
Late 1950’s : Douglas McGregor proposed his Theory X and Theory Y assumptions of the relations between employees and organizations <ul><li>McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. </li></ul><ul><li>McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. </li></ul><ul><li>theory x ('authoritarian management' style) </li></ul><ul><li>The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else. </li></ul>
<ul><li>theory y ('participative management' style) </li></ul><ul><li>Effort in work is as natural as work and play. </li></ul><ul><li>People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>People usually accept and often seek responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. </li></ul><ul><li>In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized. </li></ul>
Early 1960's: Fred Fiedler proposed contingency models of leadership <ul><li>The contingency model emphasizes the importance of both the leader's personality and the situation in which that leader operates. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiedler relates the effectiveness of the leader to aspects of the group situation. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Model also predicts that the effectiveness of the leader will depend on both the characteristics of the leader and the favorableness of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The basis of Fiedler's contingency model involved assessing a potential leader with a scale of work style ranging from task-oriented at one end, to relationship-oriented at the other. Then contingent on factors such as stress level in the organization, type of work, flexibility of the group to change, and use of technology, a customized coordination of resources, people, tasks and the correct style of management could be implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>The key to leadership effectiveness is viewed by most variants of Contingency Theory as choosing the correct style of leader. This style is dependent on the interaction of internal and external factors with the organization. For example, the ability to leaders is dependent upon the perception of subordinates of and by the leader, the leader's relationship with them, and the degree of consensus on the scope of a given task. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Fiedler's theory further posits that most situations will have three hierarchical aspects that will structure the leader's role. The first aspect is atmosphere - the confidence, and loyalty a group feels towards the leader. The second variable is the ambiguity or clarity of the structure of the group's task. Lastly the inherent authority or power of the leader plays an important role in group performance. </li></ul><ul><li>1964: Vroom proposed VIE theory (valence, instrumentality, expectancy) of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>This theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance, </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward, </li></ul><ul><li>The reward will satisfy an important need, </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. </li></ul>
Vroom’s theory is based upon the following beliefs: Valence Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, time-off, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards). Management must discover what employees value. Expectancy Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need. Instrumentality The perception of employees as to whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that. Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain.
Mid 1960's: David McClelland proposed need for achievement theory <ul><li>In his acquired-needs theory, David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement , affiliation , or power . </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement : People with a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement. Achievers prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers. </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation : Those with a high need for affiliation (nAff) need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. High nAff individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction. They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Power : A person's need for power (nPow) can be one of two types - personal and institutional. Those who need personal power want to direct others, and this need often is perceived as undesirable. Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Late 1960's: Frederick Herzberg proposed his two-factor theory of motivation (motivators & hygiene factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Accdg. To the two factor theory of Herzberg, people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth was a factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. </li></ul><ul><li>-HYGIENE FACTORS are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>-MOTIVATION FACTORS are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical hygiene factors include: </li></ul><ul><li>*Working conditions, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, interpersonal relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical motivation factors include: </li></ul><ul><li>*Achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility for task, interest in the job and advancement to higher level tasks/growth. </li></ul>
Late 1960's: Edwin Locke outlined his goal setting approach to motivation <ul><li>Locke's theory operates on the premise that individuals create goals by making careful decisions to do so and are compelled toward those goals by virtue of the goal having been set. Basically, Locke's theory states that if an individual sets goals, he will be motivated to achieve those goals by virtue of having set them. Goals serve four primary functions: </li></ul><ul><li>(1)By specifying a goal, one must direct focus toward that goal and away from activities unrelated to that goal. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The setting of a goal is a behavior-stimulating act. According to Locke, "high goals lead to greater effort than low goals." (3)Goals have a positive effect on persistence. However, there is an inverse relationship between time and intensity. (4)Goals subconsciously direct the person toward discovering better ways of doing things, be they calculations or physical acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Locke's theory states that, in order for a goal to be successful, the person must be committed to it wholly and possess self-efficacy. This self-efficacy must be boosted initially by the fact that the person was assigned the task and thus believed to be capable of its completion. </li></ul>
Title VII, section 703a of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RACE,COLOR, RELIGION,SEX,OR NATIONAL ORIGIN It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer – (1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or (2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
1966: KATZ AND KAHN PUBLISHED RESEARCH OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND CLASSIC TEXT OUTLINING THEORY Organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, and teams. Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, group, organization, and social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving individual, organizational, and social objectives. Katz and Kahn proposed three categories of behaviour to achieve high levels of organizational effectiveness: · Employees must be hired and retained; - People must join and remain in the organization · Work role performance must be accomplished in a dependable manner; - they must perform dependably the roles assigned to them · employees must exceed formal job requirements. - they engage in occasional innovative and cooperative behavior beyond the requirements of role but in the service of organizational objectives.
Katz and Kahn cataloged several organizational characteristics that support the open systems theory and have implications for the design of successful organizations: · they recognized the universal law of entropy , which holds that all organizations move toward disorganization or death. However, an open system can continue to thrive by importing more energy from the environment than it expends, thus achieving negative entropy. For example, a failing company might be able to revitalize itself by bringing in a new chief executive who improves the way the company transforms energic inputs. · Another characteristic of organizations is dynamic homeostasis , which infers that all successful organizations must be able to achieve balance between subsystems. For example, a sales department might grow very quickly if it is very successful or demand for its products jumps. But if the manufacturing arm of the company is unable to keep pace with sales activity, the entire organization could break down. Thus, subgroups must maintain a rough state of balance as they adapt to external influences. Katz and Kahn made this same observation with more precision: “ Within every work group in a factory, within any division in a government bureau, or within any department of a university are countless acts of cooperation without which the system would break down. We take these everyday acts for granted, and few of them are included in the formal role prescriptions of any job”