Contemporary Management


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  • Research shows that an unmotivated workforce is often the result of leadership that does not understand the motivational triggers of the individuals that comprise the workforce.In order to produce the quarter-to-quarter results that corporations demand, a systematic approach to discovering the triggers of each individual is necessary.In most corporations, motivation is one of the most misunderstood and improperly used tools. When understood for what it is, and then wielded correctly, leaders and managers use motivationto derive performance and results. The unmotivated workforce becomes motivated and the results follow.
  • What is the definition of motivation?
  • How many of you have actually felt this way at one time or another? Be honest!
  • Which is why SYSTEMS THINKING is critical of our leadership. Being able to see between the lines and know how to motivate each employee by galvanizing under a shared mission, values and principals is key to 21st century organizations.
  • The common denominator here is that in each example, all the people are utilizing their skills and abilities to their fullest and not becoming stagnant.
  • I felt it was very robotic, cookie cutter and went against systems thinking and was way too linear. The video clip of Peter Gibbons illustrates this pretty well. He’s not intrinsically motivated since he really doesn’t seem to care or enjoy his job, and the external motivation is not enough to sustain him, since he hasn’t seen any desired outcome from his previous efforts (short term)
  • Refer back to the TRUE COLORS chart…this ties in with a lot of similarities.
  • Touch on Psychologist David McClelland’s Needs: Achievement, Affiliation & PowerThis again relates to the TRUE COLORS test. We tend to polarize toward what our personalities and desires are (again, based on foundational scripting through out our life…paradigm shifts - Covey)
  • Has anyone heard this common phrase when someone’s phone rings after hours: “I’m not the CEO, I don’t get paid for this”. Is that a motivational perception caused by inequity?
  • Goals must be specific. “Doing your best” or “selling as much as you can” does not have much motivational impact. The fact that the goals are specific and difficult also cause people to develop action plans to achieve them.
  • Implies people are like dogs, or as Scholtes says “jackasses” (carrot & stick analogy). Wrong. People are like cats, stubborn and unpredictable.
  • Very stiff, robotic. Has been successful in standardizing behavior in areas that would require a degree of control and supervision (factories, banks, department stores, construction sites)
  • Example about Google. Personal Mastery from Covey/Senge
  • Reference Scholtes chapter on motivation and performance reviews
  • Scholtes talks about BF Skinner and how companies still practice his draconian and archaic methods of motivation. Essentially, Skinner regards human behavior as a set of conditionable responses. In short, we are “trainable” much as a dog, or a carrot dangling in front of a jackass – and the effectiveness of that method, which is very limited to that species, is less than flattering when they try to manipulate their employees in the same way.
  • Remember our Covey lessons as well: People inherently want to do well at their work. Leadership must shift their paradigm centered in cynicism and negativity and replace it with a more open and fostering environment. “There is no such thing as a bad employee, only employees in bad systems.”
  • Read quote from Scholtes pg. 314
  • Get to know your employees on a level not to manipulate or exploit what motivates them – but seek to first UNDERSTAND them (what drives/motivates them) then be understood (align them to enroll with your company vision). When you give the employee psychological air as Covey states, they cease to
  • Contemporary Management

    1. 1. Brian Hynous
    2. 2. Key points we will cover:The Nature of Motivation Expectancy Theory Need Theories Equity Theory Goal-Setting Theory Learning Theories Pay & Motivation
    3. 3. mo·ti·va·tionˌmōtəˌvāSHənThe reason or reasons one has for acting or behavingin a particular way.The general desire or willingness of someone to dosomething.Psychological forces that determine the direction of aperson’s behavior in an organization, a person’s levelof effort, and a person’s level of persistence in theface of obstacles.
    4. 4.  Motivation Problems Scene from Office Space Movie (1999) | MOVIECLIPS Office Space - Friday is Hawaiian Shirt Day – YouTube How To Motivate Your Employees - YouTube
    5. 5. “Even with the BEST strategy in place and anappropriate organizational architecture, anorganization will be effective only if it’s members aremotivated to perform at a high level.One reason why leading is such an importantmanagerial activity.”
    6. 6. THE NATURE OF MOTIVATION*Intrinsically motivated behavior: behavior that is performed for it’s own sake, motivation is derived from actually performing the behavior. IE. Elementary school teacher who loves teaching children, commercial photographer who relishes in taking creative photographs, the musician whoenjoys playing guitar every week at the coffee shop.
    7. 7. *Extrinsically motivated behavior: is behaviorperformed to acquire material or social rewards, orto avoid punishment. IE. A car salesman who ismotivated by receiving commission on all carssold, a lawyer who is motivated by the high salaryand status that go along with the job, a factoryworker who is motivated by the opportunity to earna stable secure income.
    8. 8. INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC CO-EXIST.PEOPLE ARE MOTIVATED BY BOTH.Examples:A Nurse who is highly motivated by both caring for patientswell-being AND having a secure job with great benefits.A Walsh graduate student taking courses to completehis/her education (however in this example, it may leanmore towards the extrinsic rewards that come with a highereducation, rather than the love of learning itself)*Prosocially motivated behavior: behavior that isperformed to benefit or help others
    9. 9. Outcome: Anything a person gets from a job ororganizationInput: Anything a person contributes to his orher job or organization
    10. 10. EXPECTANCY THEORYBelief is that high levels of effort lead to highperformance and high performance leads tothe attainment of desired outcomes.One of the most popular theories on workmotivation. Because it focuses on all threeparts of an equation: inputs, performance, andoutcomes. People are motivated to put forthmore effort only if they think that their effort willpay off in high performance.
    11. 11. •Expectancy: perception (paradigm) about the extentto which effort results in a certain level of performance•Instrumentality: a perception about the extent towhich performance results in the attainment ofoutcomes•Valence: how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job ororganization is to a person According to this theory: if ALL THREE are high, HIGHER motivation will be a result.
    12. 12. NEED THEORIES basic premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work that satisfy their needs.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs1. Self actualization – Need to realize one’s full potential as a human being2. Esteem Needs- Need to feel good about oneself and capabilities, recognition3. Belongingness needs – Social interaction, friendship, affection, love (BLUE on the color chart)4. Safety needs – Security, Stability, Safe environment5. Psychological needs – food, water, shelter, survival/primal
    13. 13. Alderfer’s ERG Theory As lower level needs (existence) are satisfied, a person is motivated to satisfy higher level needs (growth). When a person is UNABLE to satisfy higher level needs (or isfrustrated), motivation to satisfy lower level needs increases.
    14. 14. Herzberg’s Motivator – Hygiene TheoryThis theory of motivation is known as a two factor theory. It is based upon the notion thatmotivation can be split into hygiene factors and motivation factors. He concluded thatthere were two types of motivation:Hygiene Factors which can demotivate when not present. Hygiene Factors affect thelevel of dissatisfaction, but are rarely quoted as creators of job satisfaction.*supervision*interpersonal relations*physical working conditions*salaryMotivation Factors which will motivate when present. Job dissatisfaction isnt usuallyblamed on Motivation Factors, but they are cited as the cause of job satisfaction.*achievement*advancement*recognition*responsibilityThese two separate needs are the need to avoid unpleasantness and discomfort and, atthe other end of the motivational scale, the need for personal development. A shortage ofthe factors that positively encourage employees (the motivating factors) will causeemployees to focus on other, non-job related hygiene factors.
    15. 15. Equity TheoryA theory of motivation that focuses on people’s perceptions of thefairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs.Inequity, or the perception of a lack of fairnessUnderpayment inequity vs. Overpayment inequityMOTIVATION IS HIGHEST WHEN AS MANY PEOPLE ASPOSSIBLE IN AN ORGANIZATION PERCEIVE THAT THEY AREBEING TREATED EQUITABLY – MEANING, THEIROUTCOMES & INPUTS ARE IN BALANCE
    16. 16. GOAL-SETTING THEORY Theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects. *Goals must be specific & difficult to stimulate high motivation (difficult does not mean unattainable)*Difficult goals also cause people to be more persistent than easy or vague goals.
    17. 17. LEARNING THEORIESFocus on the linkage between performance and outcomes in themotivational equation •Operant Conditioning Theory: people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. 1. Positive Reinforcement 2. Negative Reinforcement 3. Extinction 4. Punishment
    18. 18. Micromanaging makes youfrantic and less productive (USA Today)•Get Feedback (360 degree feedback session)•Avoid Going Overboard –Some managers have an “on/off” switch andeither micromanage or delegate and forget.•Realize that sometimes you still need to Mmanage•Develop Good Infrastructure (SYSTEMS THINKING ANYONE?)
    19. 19. *Organizational Behavior Modification (OB MOD): systematic applicationof operant conditioning techniques to promote the performance oforganizationally functional behaviors and discourage the performance ofdysfunctional behaviors.Works best for behaviors that are specific, objective, and countable –such as attendance and punctuality, making sales, or assemblingsomething, all of which lend themselves to careful scrutiny and control.
    20. 20. FIVE STEPS IN OB MOD:Mangers identify an important behavior Measure frequency the behavior occurs Determine if people know whether they should be performing the behavior and what consequences they receive if perform it Develop & apply strategy entailing use of PR/NR/P/E Re-measure the frequency of behavior, and maintain using the strategy
    21. 21. *SOCIAL LEARNING THEORYSuggests that motivation results not only from direct experienceof rewards and punishments but also from a person’s thoughtsand beliefs. Vicarious Learning: Also known as Observational Learning. Watch and learn. Learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person, and the same person being reinforced for doing so. Self-Reinforcement: Any desired or attractive outcome or reward that a person gives to him or herself for good performance. Self-Efficacy: A person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully..(SELF EFFACING PROPHECY) Michael Jordan motivational look me in the eyes - YouTube
    22. 22. PAY AND MOTIVATIONMerit Pay: A compensation plan based onperformance 1. Commission Pay – paid a % of their sales 2. Profit Sharing – employees receive a share of an organizations profits.Salary increase or Bonus? Bonus in form of Employee Stock Options – used as a motivational tool, predicated on the implied notion that the better the employee does, it will have a ripple effect, and the company will overall do better – sending stock prices up.
    23. 23. Carrots, Sticks & Peter Scholtes
    24. 24. It is Management conceit to believe that one can motivate others. Managers can demotivate, but not motivate. The carrot and the stick approach was developed for use with jackasses and donkeys in mind, and it’s legitimate use is limited to just that species. People all start out motivated. It is legitimate to discover what happened to that original, intrinsic motivation To believe that pay motivates is to believe, quite cynically, that people reserve a certain amount of effort to be left unused until it is bribed out of them. Imagine that beginning next Monday you will be paid twice what you are now paid. Will you work any more effectively? (No, though you may be happier…in the short term)
    25. 25. QUICK EXERCISEBreak into two groups.Elect a spokesperson for your group.Keep the discussion amongst your group, careful not to letthe other group overhear.Take 5 minutes to quickly brainstorm.
    26. 26. High Motivation Rules at SAS Institute•Has won the coveted “100 best companies to Work for 11 years in a row”(2008)•World’s largest privately owned software company, 10,000 employeesworldwide, with $1.9 billion in revenues.•Employees all work 35 hour work weeks.•Managers strive to meet intrinsic needs that motivate employees, even if thatmeans encouraging changing jobs within the company to prevent boredom.•All new product development is in-house, so employees have the opportunity toexperience the excitement of seeing their product come to life.•Work/life balance is a top priority, on-site daycare, medical care, unlimited sickdays, high chairs in the cafeteria, and 200 acres that surround HQ foremployees to spend time with their families.
    27. 27. So what does this mean to you?
    28. 28. LEADERSHIP IS KEY.Where in the organization must I exercise control?•Leaders should not seek to control the individualemployees job performance. Leaders won’t succeed, andif they try, they are liable to make things worse•Leaders have usually sought to control finances. Theseindeed, must be in control, but leaders are probably notthe right people to do it.•The same applies to marketing and sales. When leadersget involved, they are just as likely to mess things up asto affect them positively.
    29. 29. WHAT SHOULD LEADERSDO?•Promote Systems Thinking. This includes a fixation on the customers andthe smooth flow of interdependent activities and events that serve thecustomers well.•Work with all the managers and employees to control the systems,processes, and methods. Control these and continuously improve them.•Seek to create and maintain outstanding systems. The ideal is:outstanding systems, achieving excellent results, with the ordinaryefforts of average people.
    30. 30. Have you heard anyone complain about the EXXXXX Book being too big? We started developingNSS16 because we heard many complaints that the book was too big. We heard things like “whycan’t we just pull the coupons we like out of the EXXXX book that are in our area?” We saw ourcompetitors creating custom products for sports teams and we “couldn’t” because of our “system”. ..3 ½ years later we are a part of a Division specializing in High School fundraising. We have FootballTrifold product, customizable with a national coupon book, a football card, and online membershipthat allows people to take advantage of 90% of what’s in the book printable online. We havecustomizable SS16 where we can pull 16 top offers within core areas of our Ebook and members canutilize our online Ebook. We have customizable SS40, developed for competitive situations andwithin high content areas of the Ebook. We can pull 40 top offers for these situations and people canutilize our online Ebook. In addition, we just launched the FV key tag, a mobile companion, and amobile coupon app that will eventually be a game changer once the public fully understands whatand how they can be used. . .We now have “home grown experts” all over the country that are raising teams more money than ourcompetitors did the year before. . . Tim Smith, Michele Kish, Dave Baker, Stephanie Webb, Sara Dyke,Lew Gumbiner, Mindy Cleeland, Cam Cleeland, Rachael Neely, Ed Myers, and Steve Grande are allpeople who consistently drive VDP products toward $40- $50 per student average. This is a majorvictory when 3 years ago our VDP averages were around $5 per student. . .Although our products are not perfect, they are very good! Remember when signing for yourSS16/SS40 products to keep within areas where we have strong book content. That’s how theproducts were developed. Our merchant partners will do their best to help but these two programsare not like the football cards where we start from scratch and have to sign unique ongoing offers.Look at how far we have come in such a short period of time. Imagine where we will be 2 years fromnow with all these game changing concepts we have going on right now. . . You have made ourdivision and these product lines successful. Thank you.Management
    31. 31. Be the catalyst and inspiration for systemic change – leadership that will help bridge personal/sharedvisions with deep intrinsic motivation & personal mastery within your organization and watch your company take off!!!!
    32. 32. If Inspiration is thespark…Motivation is the fuelthat keeps us going… YouTubeMotivational...Period! – YouTube Inspirational Sport Speeches – YouTube How to Win at Life, Lessons from Rocky - YouTube Inches - YouTube
    33. 33. Discussion Topic: