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Partie I Cours Analyse Sociologique des organisations / Organizational Behaviour

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Partie I Cours Analyse Sociologique des organisations / Organizational Behaviour

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Cours d'analyse sociologique des organisations / comportement organisationnel / Théorie des organisations pour les étudiants de 3ème année à l'INSAT.

Cours d'analyse sociologique des organisations / comportement organisationnel / Théorie des organisations pour les étudiants de 3ème année à l'INSAT.

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Partie I Cours Analyse Sociologique des organisations / Organizational Behaviour

  1. 1. ANALYSE SOCIOLOGIQUE DES ORGANISATIONS (ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR) Dr. Wajdi Ben Rejeb
  2. 2. Course Objectives  Understand organizations: behavior, dynamics, features, characteristics, issues and challenges  Conduct organizational analyses and diagnoses  Propose solutions and recommendations and implement them.
  3. 3. Plan  Chapter 1: Organizational behavior and Management  Chapter 2: The individual  Chapter 3: Groups and Leadership  Chapter 4: Organization, Structure, Strategy and Effectiveness
  4. 4. Ressources  Mullins, L., & Christy, G. (2013). Management & Organisational Behaviour. Pearson Education.  Robbins, S., Judge, T. A., Millett, B., & Boyle, M. (2013). Organisational behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU.  Jones, G. R., & Jones, G. R. (2013). Organizational theory, design, and change. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  5. 5. Organizational behavior and Management Chapter 1
  6. 6. Chapter 1:  Objectives 1. Define organizational behavior (OB). 2. Identify the contributions made to OB by major behavioral science disciplines. 3. Describe how OB concepts can help make organizations more productive. 4. List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. 5. Identify the three levels of analysis in OB.
  7. 7. Organization  Organization  A deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish a specific purpose.  A structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives.  Common Characteristics of Organizations  Distinct purpose  People working together  A deliberate systematic structure
  8. 8. 1-8 The Field of Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior studies the influence that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations. Its chief goal is to apply that knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
  9. 9. Example : Zappos  Online shoe retailer Zappos.com understands how organizational behavior affects an organization’s performance. Zappos maintains good employee relationships by providing generous benefits, extensive customer service training, and a positive, fun-loving work environment.  Employees are empowered to make decisions that increase customer satisfaction and are encouraged to create fun and a little weirdness.” At Zappos, employee loyalty, job satisfaction, and productivity are high, contributing to the company’s growth.
  10. 10. Why Study Organizational Behavior? Organizational Behavior Research Understand organizational events Predict organizational events Influence organizational events
  11. 11. 11 Practical Managerial Problems  How Goals Can Enhance Job Performance  How Jobs Can Be Designed to Enhance Employee Satisfaction  When Individuals and Groups Make Better Decisions  How Organizational Communication Can Be Improved  How Work-related Stress Can Be Alleviated  How Leaders Can Enhance Team Effectiveness
  12. 12. Contributing Disciplines Psychology Sociology Social Psychology Anthropology Many behavioral sciences have contributed to the development of Organizational Behavior
  13. 13. Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Unit of Analysis:  Individual Contributions to OB:  Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception  Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction  Individual decision making, performance appraisal attitude measurement  Employee selection, work design, and work stress
  14. 14. Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Unit of Analysis:  Group Contributions to OB:  Behavioral change  Attitude change  Communication  Group processes  Group decision making
  15. 15. Sociology Unit of Analysis:  -- Organizational System  Contributions to OB:  Group dynamics  Work teams  Communication  Power  Conflict  Intergroup behavior  -- Group  Formal organization theory  Organizational technology  Organizational change  Organizational culture The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
  16. 16. Anthropology Unit of Analysis:  -- Organizational System  Contributions to OB:  Organizational culture  Organizational environment  -- Group  Comparative values  Comparative attitudes  Cross-cultural analysis The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. 1-16
  17. 17. 17 Fundamental Assumptions No “One Best” Contingency Approach Behavior Contingent Upon Certain Conditions
  18. 18. 1-18 Few Absolutes in OB  Impossible to make simple and accurate generalizations  Human beings are complex and diverse  OB concepts must reflect situational conditions: contingency variables Input “A” Condition “C” Behavior “B”
  19. 19. 1-19 Challenges and Opportunities for OB  The workplace is contains a wide mix of cultures, races, ethnic groups, genders and ages  Employees have to learn to cope with rapid change due to global competition  Corporate loyalty has decreased due to corporate downsizing and use of temp workers  Managers can benefit from OB theory and concepts
  20. 20. The Layers of OB The Organization Negotiation Conflict Communication Groups and teams Power and politics The Group Emotions Values and attitudes Perception Personality Motivating self and others The Individual Change Organizational culture Decision making Leadership Groups and teams
  21. 21. Basic OB Model
  22. 22. How Are Managers Different from Nonmanagerial Employees?  Case study : INSAT
  23. 23. How Are Managers Different from Nonmanagerial Employees? • Nonmanagerial Employees – People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. – Examples, associates, team members • Managers – Individuals in organizations who direct the activities of others.
  24. 24. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
  25. 25. What Titles Do Managers Have? • Top Managers – Responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization. – Examples; President, Chief Executive Officer, Vice-President • Middle Managers – Manage the activities of other managers. – Examples; District Manager, Division Manager • First-line Managers – Responsible for directing nonmanagerial employees – Examples; Supervisor, Team Leader
  26. 26. What Is Management? • Management – The process of getting things done effectively and efficiently, with and through people • Effectiveness – “Doing the right things”, doing those tasks that help an organization reach its goals • Efficiency – Concerned with the means, efficient use of resources like people, money, and equipment
  27. 27. What Managers Do
  28. 28. What Managers Do  They get things done through other people.  Management Activities:  Make decisions  Allocate resources  Direct activities of others to attain goals  Work in an organization  A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  29. 29. Management Functions Plan Organize Lead Control Managers
  30. 30. 1-31 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
  31. 31. 1-32 What Roles Do Managers Play?
  32. 32. What Skills Do Managers Need? Robert Katz and others describe four critical skills in managing • Conceptual Skills – Used to analyze complex situations • Interpersonal Skills – Used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate • Technical Skills – Based on specialized knowledge required for work • Political Skills – Used to build a power base and establish connections
  33. 33. Example : John Chambers CEO of Cisco Systems  Succeeding in management today requires good interpersonal skills.  Communication and leadership skills distinguish managers such as John Chambers, who rise to the top of their profession. Chambers is CEO of Cisco Systems, the world’s largest maker of networking equipment.  He is respected as a visionary leader and innovator who has the ability to drive an entrepreneurial culture. As an effective communicator, Chambers is described as warmhearted and straight talking. In this photo Chambers speaks during a launch ceremony of a green technology partnership Cisco formed with a university in China.
  34. 34. Is The Manager’s Job Universal? The previous discussion describe management as a generic activity. In reality, a manager’s job varies with along several dimensions • Level in the Organization – Top level managers do more planning than supervisors • Profit vs. Nonprofit – Management performance is measured on different objectives • Size of the Organization  Small businesses require an emphasis in the management role of spokesperson • National Borders  These concepts work best in English-speaking countries and may need to be modified in other global environments
  35. 35. Management by walking arround MBWA  To practice MBWA, managers reserve time to walk through departments regularly, form networks of acquaintances in the organization, and get away from their desks to talk to individual employees. The practice was exemplified by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard, who used this management style at HP to learn more about the challenges and opportunities their employees were encountering.
  36. 36. Management by walking arround MBWA  The popular television program Undercover Boss took MBWA to the next level by having top executives from large companies work incognito among line employees.  Executives reported that this process taught them how difficult many of the jobs in their organizations were and just how much skill was required to perform even the lowest-level tasks. They also said the experience taught them a lot about the core business in their organizations and sparked ideas for improvements.
  37. 37. Questions  As an employee, would you appreciate knowing your supervisor regularly spent time with workers? How would knowing top executives routinely interact with line employees affect your attitudes toward the organization?  What ways can executives and other organizational leaders learn about day-to-day business operations besides going “undercover?”  Are there any dangers in the use of a management by walking around strategy? Could this strategy lead employees to feel they are being spied on? What actions on the part of managers might minimize these concerns?
  38. 38. A Brief History of Management’s Roots
  39. 39. Early Management  Management has been practiced a long time.  Organized endeavors directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading and controlling have existed for thousands of years
  40. 40. Classical Approaches • Scientific Management  Frederick W. Taylor described scientific management as a method of scientifically finding the “one best way to do a job” 1-43
  41. 41. History of Org Behavior  1900-1930 Scientific Management  Fred Taylor  People are rational economic beings  Work design  Rationality, efficiency, standards  division of labor and management  people are interchangeable parts
  42. 42. Other Classic Approaches • General Administrative Theory  focused on what constituted good management  Max Weber (pictured) described the bureaucracy as an ideal rational form of organization  Henri Fayol identified five management functions and 14 management principles 1-45
  43. 43. History Continued  Classical OB Theory  Fayol and Weber  chain of command  unity of command  division of labor
  44. 44. Behavioral Approaches  Early management writers included  Robert Owen, was concerned about deplorable working conditions  Hugo Munsterberg, a pioneer the field of industrial psychology  Mary Parker Follett recognized hat organizations could be viewed from both individual and group behavior. 1-47
  45. 45. The Hawthorne Studies  Conducted at the Western Electric Company Works these studies:  Provided new insights into individual and group behavior in the behavior of people at work.  Concluded that group pressures can significantly impact individual productivity
  46. 46. Quantitative Approaches • Quantitative Approach  Used quantitative techniques to improve decision making  Evolved from mathematical and statistical solutions developed for military problems during World War II  W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Duran ‘s ideas became the basis for total quality management (TQM)
  47. 47. Contemporary Approaches  Focused on managers’ concerns inside the organization  Chester Barnard wrote in his 1938 book The Functions of the Executive that an organization functioned as a cooperative system  Fred Feildler first popularized the contingency approach (or situational approach) which says that organizations, employees, and situations are different and require different ways of managing
  48. 48. The Individual Chapter 2
  49. 49. Objectives  Understand the role of individuals in organizations  Understand the relationship between individuals’ attitudes, behavior, personnality and motivation, and organizational performance.
  50. 50. Attitudes  Evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable – concerning objects, people or events  Attitudes reflect how one feels about something
  51. 51. Three Main Components of Attitudes Cognition – an opinion or belief “I just found out I am paid 20% less than my coworkers.” Affect – the emotional or feeling segment associated with that belief “I feel angry that I am not being treated fairly.” Behavior – the intention to behave in a certain way “I am going to quit this job soon as I can, and I am taking the red stapler with me!”
  52. 52. Three Main Components of Attitudes
  53. 53. Example
  54. 54. Attitudes Follow Behavior: Cognitive Dissonance Any inconsistency between two or more attitudes, or between behavior and attitudes  Individuals seek to minimize dissonance  The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by:  The importance of the elements creating the dissonance  The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements  The rewards that may be involved in dissonance
  55. 55. Behavior Follows Attitudes: Moderating Variables The most powerful moderators of the attitude- behavior relationships are:  Importance  Correspondence to behavior  Accessibility  Social pressures  Direct personal experience Knowing attitudes helps predict behavior
  56. 56. 4-59 Major Job Attitudes  Job Satisfaction  Job Involvement  Psychological Empowerment  Organizational Commitment  Affective commitment  Continuance commitment  Normative commitment  Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Employee Engagement
  57. 57. 4-61 What Causes Job Satisfaction?  The Work Itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction  Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living  Advancement  Supervision  Coworkers
  58. 58. Job Dissatisfaction
  59. 59. The Consequences of Dissatisfaction exit Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization. voice Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. loyalty Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve. neglect Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen.
  60. 60. The Benefits of Satisfaction  Better job and organizational performance  Better organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB – Discretionary behaviors that contribute to organizational effectiveness, but are not part of employees’ formal job description)  Greater levels of customer satisfaction  Generally lower absenteeism and turnover  Decreased instances of workplace deviance
  61. 61. Implications for Managers Employee attitudes give warnings of potential problems and influence behavior  Satisfied and committed employees exhibit behaviors that increase organizational outcomes  Managers must measure job attitudes in order to improve them  Most important elements a manager can focus on are the intrinsic parts of the job: making the work challenging and interesting  High pay is not enough to create satisfaction
  62. 62. Keep in Mind…  Individuals have many kinds of attitudes about their job.  Job satisfaction is related to organizational effectiveness.  Most employees are satisfied with their jobs, but when they are not, a host of actions in response to the satisfaction might be expected.
  63. 63. Emotions and Moods
  64. 64. Structure of Mood
  65. 65. Source of emotions and moods  Personnality  Day of the Week and Time of the Day  Weather  Stress  Social activities  Age  Etc.
  66. 66. Example :
  67. 67. Exemple  Diane Marshall is an office manager. Her awareness of her own and others’ emotions is almost nil. She’s moody and unable to generate much enthusiasm or interest in her employees. She doesn’t understand why employees get upset with her. She often overreacts to problems and chooses the most ineffectual responses to emotional situations
  68. 68. Emotional Intelligence  Emotional intelligence (EI) is a person’s ability to (1) perceive emotions in the self and others, (2) understand the meaning of these emotions, and (3) regulate one’s emotions accordingly in a cascading model, as shown in Exhibit 4-6.  People who know their own emotions and are good at reading emotional cues—for instance, knowing why they’re angry and how to express themselves without violating norms—are most likely to be effective.
  69. 69. Emotional Intelligence Competence Model
  70. 70. Developing EI  1. Know what you feel.  2. Know why you feel it.  3. Acknowledge the emotion and know how to manage it.  4. Know how to motivate yourself and make yourself feel better.  5. Recognise the emotions of other people and develop empathy.  6. Express your feelings appropriately and manage relationships.

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