Open Access Presentation


Published on

A presentation at the Interdisciplinary Conference of the Graduate Students Association of The University of Ottawa

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Open Access Presentation

    1. 1. Gideon Emcee Christian IDRC Research Intern Open Access Initiative and the Developing World: Using ICT to Foster Development
    2. 2. “ Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society ” Budapest Open Access Initiative
    3. 3. Open Access <ul><li>Free availability of research articles or publications on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute or print the articles or publications,… pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose , without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. (Budapest Open Access Initiative) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Nature of Open Access <ul><li>Free availability on the public Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed to use for any legal purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Subject only to proper acknowledgment </li></ul>
    5. 5. Benefits to developing countries <ul><li>Unrestricted access to knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and reduced cost of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Access to grey literatures from developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded opportunity to publish </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Rise and Rise of Journal Subscription rates Note: all subscription rates are institutional rates; * indicates print and online access for rates in 2002/2003 © Hans Zell (2003): &quot;The Rise and Rise of Journal Prices in African Studies,&quot;   JOURNAL/PUBLISHER   FREQUENCY   SUBS. RATE IN 1989   SUBS. RATE IN 1997   SUBS. RATE IN 2002/03 PERCENT INCREASE SINCE 1997 (BASED ON US $ RATES)   African Journal of the Int’l Institute (Edinburgh Uni. Press)   Quarterly   $121   $200   $374   87% Africa Confidential (Blackwell Publishers)     25 issues/yr     $250     $468     $970*     107%   African Affairs (Oxford University Press)   Quarterly   $65   $65   $230*   253% African Studies (WitUni. Press, now Taylor & Francis)   2 years   $13     $37     $189     410%   Canadian Journal of African Studies   3 years   Can$55     Can$55     Can$95     72%   Journal of Contemporary African Studies (Carfax, now Taylor & Francis)     2 years   ----     $154     $465*     202%  
    7. 7. Expenditure per pupil (1995) <ul><li>North America, $5150 </li></ul><ul><li>Europe $4552 </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America and the Caribbean $444 </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa $87 </li></ul>Increase in per capital educational spending 1985 – 1995 <ul><li>North America +66% </li></ul><ul><li>Europe +152 </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America and the Caribbean +110% </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa –5% </li></ul>Source: Arnove and Torres “ Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local”
    8. 8. Some Open Access Initiatives in Developing Countries <ul><li>Health Inter Network Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) </li></ul><ul><li>Database of African Theses and Dissertations (DATAD) </li></ul><ul><li>African Journal On-line (AJOL) </li></ul><ul><li>Bioline International </li></ul><ul><li>IDRC Digital Library </li></ul>
    9. 15. Obstacles to Open Access in developing Countries <ul><li>Poor State of ICT in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 4 per cent of Africans have Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband penetration is below 1 per cent </li></ul><ul><li>70 per cent of all continental traffic goes outside Africa, driving up costs for consumers. The cost of Internet connectivity in Africa, is the highest in the world — some USD 250-300 per month. </li></ul>International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    10. 16. Other Obstacles <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation without compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Awareness and Misconception of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Research Capacity </li></ul>
    11. 17. There are many problems, particularly health issues that are crying out for solutions. These problems will be addressed most effectively where they are felt most…We know more about these diseases and the seriousness and gravity of the associated problems. For this reason it is important for us, in developing countries, to be able to perform science here. Arunachalam
    12. 18. <ul><li>IDRC supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training and awards programs for Canadians and developing-country nationals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative research between Canadian and Southern partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linkages with Canadian institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small grants projects and activities undertaken by Canadian organizations </li></ul></ul>
    13. 19. “ IDRC will support technical and social innovations that contribute to the betterment of the social, economic, and environmental conditions of the poor, oppressed, and marginalized people in countries of the South. ” IDRC Corporate Strategy 2005—2010