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Opening remarks: Open access and the developing world

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Matt Cockerill, Managing Director, BioMed Central speaks at Open Access Africa 2010

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Opening remarks: Open access and the developing world

  1. 1. Open Access and the Developing World Matthew Cockerill Managing Director, BioMed Central Ltd
  2. 2. The old world of access to knowledge
  3. 3. The new world of access to knowledge
  4. 4. The internet has the potential to radically expand access to knowledge
  5. 5. Digital divide or digital bridge?
  6. 6. African internet connectivity is improving dramatically
  7. 7. Cellphones
  8. 8. Source: African Mobile Factbook 2008 International Telecommunications Union report (2009) “The increase in the number of mobile cellular subscriptions over the last five years has defied all predictions and Africa remains the region with the highest mobile growth rate” Although number of Internet users has also grown faster than in other regions: “Africa’s ICT penetration levels in 2009 are still far behind the rest of the world and very few African countries reach ICT levels comparable to global averages” Growth of mobile phones in Africa
  9. 9. Mobile phone networks are already aiding scientific data gathering
  10. 10. As connectivity improves, other access barriers become significant
  11. 11. Open access journals do away with access barriers
  12. 12. About BioMed Central  Largest publisher of peer-reviewed open access journals  Launched first open access journal in 2000  Became part of Springer in 2008  Now publishes 207 open access journals  >80,000 peer-reviewed OA articles published  All research articles published under Creative Commons license  Costs covered by article processing charge (APC)
  13. 13. BioMed Central and Africa
  14. 14. ComputerAid
  15. 15. BMC/Nature 10K fun run in support of ComputerAid
  16. 16. OA Waiver Fund
  17. 17. All African countries receive automatic fee waiver, except:  Libya  Namibia  Nigeria  South Africa Algeria Botswana Equatorial Guinea Gabon
  18. 18. Growth in manuscript submissions from Africa to BioMed Central
  19. 19. Manuscript submissions from Africa as fraction of total
  20. 20. Top 10 journals for publications from Africa in last 12 months
  21. 21. How can increased access to knowledge via Open Access help Africa?
  22. 22. UN Millenium Development Goals  Reduce child mortality,improve maternal health  Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases  Ensure environmental sustainability  Develop a global partnership for development
  23. 23. Who needs access to the results of research? Public Professionals Researchers
  24. 24. Research on global health issues has expanded greatly  Developing world health issues are finally attracting substantial research spending  Private philanthropic initiatives have played an important role
  25. 25. Why do research if it is not accessible where it is most relevant?
  26. 26.  Wellcome Trust  Medical Research Council  US National Institutes of Health  Howard Hughes Medical Institute  European Research Council  EC Seventh Framework Program Many research funders are now requiring open access
  27. 27.  Harvard University (and other members of Compact for Open Access Publishing Equity)  More than 100 mandatory institution-wide open access policies world-wide http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/  But still very few in Africa… Many universities are now requiring open access
  28. 28. Open Access in practice
  29. 29. Open Access journals
  30. 30. What is open access publishing?  Traditional journals – take ownership of the research – provide access to subscribers only  Open access journals – have no subscription barriers – take advantage of the economics of the internet to allow universal access – research is openly licensed to allow reuse
  31. 31. Who pays?  Open access journals do have costs  Publication fee is a very small fraction of the cost of doing research  Most open access publishers, including BioMed Central, give waivers to developing countries  In other cases, open access journals have central support, so no charges for authors or readers
  32. 32. Open Access publishing, then and now… 20102000 And many more…
  33. 33. African Journals Online
  34. 34. A new industry association
  35. 35. Goals of OASPA  Represents Open Access publishers  Agree common definition of Open Access  Establish and enforce good standards of editorial and business practices amongst members  Identify guidelines and best practices for publishers and institutions in managing payment of publication fees
  36. 36. Malaria Journal - an open access journal case study
  37. 37. Malaria Journal homepage
  38. 38. Annual growth in submissions to Malaria Journal
  39. 39. Top 20 African countries publishing in Malaria Journal (no. or articles)
  40. 40. Impact Factor trend
  41. 41. A highly accessed Malaria Journal article 15,000+ downloads 31 citations
  42. 42. Parasite to Prevention - Malaria Journal’s scientific conference Inaugural conference October 2010, Edinburgh, Scotland Full bursaries for participants from low- income countries, supported by Gates Foundation Next conference 2012, probably in Africa
  43. 43. Other high profile open access journals relevant to tropical diseases
  44. 44. Gateways
  45. 45. The latest open access research on global health issues
  46. 46. The benefits of open access for the developing world
  47. 47. Zambia
  48. 48. Nigeria
  49. 49. The Gambia
  50. 50. Open Access repositories
  51. 51. Open Access repositories  Allow archiving of articles published both in traditional journals and open access journals  Traditional publishers typically only allow author version to be archived  Many require a 6 or 12 month embargo period  Open access articles can be deposited and made immediately available
  52. 52. Open Repository  Hosted digital repository service, operated by BioMed Central  Built on the DSpace open-source platform  Dramatically reduces time and costs involved in setting up, maintaining and developing a repository  Hosting in UK ensures maximum international exposure
  53. 53. Open Repository
  54. 54. MSF 1
  55. 55. MSF 2
  56. 56. How can OA publishers work with Institutional Repositories?  Many institutions now have OA repositories in place  Populating the repositories is often a challenge  Open Access journals provide a stream of immediately available OA content for the repository  BioMed Central is automating this via feeds using the SWORD protocol
  57. 57. Connecting open access journals and open access repositories
  58. 58. InstitutionalInstitutional RepositoryRepository (DSpace/Eprints(DSpace/Eprints etc.etc.)) PublisherPublisher Manuscript Author final version 1 2 Manual deposit to IR
  59. 59. InstitutionalInstitutional RepositoryRepository (DSpace/Eprints(DSpace/Eprints etc.etc.)) Manuscript SWORD Import SWORD Export Published articles from institution’s authors Published article Automated deposit to IR via SWORD
  60. 60. University of Stellenbosch
  61. 61. Thanks, and enjoy the rest of the conference!

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