From Paper to DigitalTransition Challenges   IPA 2012 Congress       Cape Town
A View from theSouth    A view from the SouthThe promise and perils ofdigital media for Africanpublishing
We all agree – we are living inturbulent and changing times
How does this transition look from our vantage point at the southern tip of               Africa?
PFrom print….
… in a context where populations small      and thinly spread over large          geographic areas…
…making costs high…
Communications are often poor  and transport costs high…
…inflating distribution costs…
…customs and exchange controlbarriers block inter-country trade in               Africa…
AttributionNoncommercial Some rightsreserved by transaid images
… dominance of large global playerscan distort the market and can block        global distribution …
Books published (1999)http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/343.png
Book production is low – in themid-2000s, South Africa wasproducing 7,600 titles, to289,000 in the US and 206,000in the UK
Number of books published, by countryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Books_published_per_country_per_year
We could easily sink into Afro-pessimism and see Africa as a basket   case – a ‘bookless continent’..
…but we need to understand themechanisms that are at play in this           scenario
We do have longstanding traditions to draw on, including that of Timbuktu      http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?prod...
NoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by Robert Goldwater Library
…the print tradition at the juncture ofArab and African scholars embedded    in social networking and oral              tr...
We live on a huge continenthttp://www.informationisbeautiful.net/2010/the-true-size-of-africa/
And with Africa manifesting thepromise of continuing economic   growth it is becoming and      important market.
‘…there is a vast and growing new middle class across  the continent: the British, American and European       media house...
Can we celebrate digital media as a  route to new, more expansive         opportunities?
Offshore cables promise an end to the            digital divide
The trajectory of digital       change…
…starts in the academic sector
In South Africa there is governmentsupport for ‘gold route’ open access    publication of local journals
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mararie/3313582639/ CC-BY-                        SA OA and OER are now becoming widelyadopte...
The HSRC Press pioneered a new  model of social science scholarlypublishing, using flexible licensing for dual stream prin...
HSRC digital and print books reach    worldwide and have achievedsubstantially wider exposure than the       traditional p...
Open textbooks get government          support...
http://everythingscience.co.za/
in 2012 the Department of BasicEducation supplied to schools over 4  million copies of free science and Maths textbooks fr...
Does this mean government        publishing?
...or a disintermediated publishing               model?
New devices are making a difference…
The horselesscarriage – thee-reader
http://www.jonmccormack.com/blog/?p=835…has its advantages…
… reaching pupils in rural Africanschools, with the help of mobile          networks…
A more collaborative, interactive model is
Apple iPad interactive     textbooks
But there is a problem…
Attribution Some rights reserved by music2work2Territorial rights     ‘Territorial Rights’
“This title isnot available inyourlocation, Africa”
Apple iTextbooks are not available in              Africa
African titles are only just beginning toappear on Kindle
…for local publishers and booksellers  the problem is the lack of open         platform devices…
…making things complicated for     potential readers…
Gaps in availability generate negative    reactions. Is it easier to accesspublications illegally than to download        ...
AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by Bichuas (E. Carton)
This arises from a neo-colonial      copyright tradition
NoncommercialShare Alike Some rights reserved by cool-art
1947 The British Traditional Market         Agreement constituted British          publishers a cartel in global          ...
The BTMA became the subject of an anti-trust investigation by the United States Department   of Justice in 1974. As a cons...
The term ‘territorial rights’ refers to      limitations which copyright   intermediaries such as publishers       place o...
In South Africa and many other African    countries, parallel importation is      prohibited and criminalised
The mapping of territorial rights onto the   boundaries drawn by the colonial powers   at the Berlin Conference (1984–5) r...
Dysfunctionalbusinessmodels areencouraging‘piracy’       http://www.scribd.com/doc/50196972/MPEE-1-0-1
…resulting in moral panics and enforcement programmes…
New disruptive publishing models are emerging, often with disaggregated           supply lines…
Formal publishing is       only the tip of the            iceberg -Attribution Some rights reserved by natalielucier
…what else is going on in South African              publishing?
Freemium models
EBW Health Care: free onlinecontent, books for sale, accreditationand certification of training provided               for...
Science popularisations reach wide    audiences, often paid for by government or donor contracts….
http://jivemedia.co.za/
Our strength in Africa – mobile         technology
AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by DavidDennisPhotos.com
What is missing – real commitment from the         mobile companies to content.“The key issue for the success of data reve...
Empowerme                          nt is likely to                          happen                          through       ...
Eve GrayCentre for Educational TechnologyIP Law and Policy Research UnitUniversity of Cape Townhttp://www.gray-area.co.zah...
You are free to:                 Copy, share, adapt, or re-mix;                 Photograph, film, or broadcast;           ...
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing
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A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing

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Paper delivered at the International Publishers Association Congress, Cape Town, 2012. The congress focused on 'Publishing in a New Area' and this presentation aimed to present the issues from a South African perspective

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A view from the south: the perils and promises of digital media for African publishing

  1. 1. From Paper to DigitalTransition Challenges IPA 2012 Congress Cape Town
  2. 2. A View from theSouth A view from the SouthThe promise and perils ofdigital media for Africanpublishing
  3. 3. We all agree – we are living inturbulent and changing times
  4. 4. How does this transition look from our vantage point at the southern tip of Africa?
  5. 5. PFrom print….
  6. 6. … in a context where populations small and thinly spread over large geographic areas…
  7. 7. …making costs high…
  8. 8. Communications are often poor and transport costs high…
  9. 9. …inflating distribution costs…
  10. 10. …customs and exchange controlbarriers block inter-country trade in Africa…
  11. 11. AttributionNoncommercial Some rightsreserved by transaid images
  12. 12. … dominance of large global playerscan distort the market and can block global distribution …
  13. 13. Books published (1999)http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/343.png
  14. 14. Book production is low – in themid-2000s, South Africa wasproducing 7,600 titles, to289,000 in the US and 206,000in the UK
  15. 15. Number of books published, by countryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Books_published_per_country_per_year
  16. 16. We could easily sink into Afro-pessimism and see Africa as a basket case – a ‘bookless continent’..
  17. 17. …but we need to understand themechanisms that are at play in this scenario
  18. 18. We do have longstanding traditions to draw on, including that of Timbuktu http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?productid=2216
  19. 19. NoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by Robert Goldwater Library
  20. 20. …the print tradition at the juncture ofArab and African scholars embedded in social networking and oral traditions…
  21. 21. We live on a huge continenthttp://www.informationisbeautiful.net/2010/the-true-size-of-africa/
  22. 22. And with Africa manifesting thepromise of continuing economic growth it is becoming and important market.
  23. 23. ‘…there is a vast and growing new middle class across the continent: the British, American and European media houses have lost us. Our own arebooming, and we are finding deals with CCTV (China) and al-Jazeera. We fly Emirates and Kenya Airways. We make deals with those who see a common and vibrant future being a platform for engagement.’ Binyanvaga Wainaina: Hpw not to Write about Africa in 2012 The Guardian 3 June 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/03/how-not-to-write-about- africa?INTCMP=SRCH
  24. 24. Can we celebrate digital media as a route to new, more expansive opportunities?
  25. 25. Offshore cables promise an end to the digital divide
  26. 26. The trajectory of digital change…
  27. 27. …starts in the academic sector
  28. 28. In South Africa there is governmentsupport for ‘gold route’ open access publication of local journals
  29. 29. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mararie/3313582639/ CC-BY- SA OA and OER are now becoming widelyadopted worldwide and are supported byinternational, regional and national policies
  30. 30. The HSRC Press pioneered a new model of social science scholarlypublishing, using flexible licensing for dual stream print for sale and open access digital
  31. 31. HSRC digital and print books reach worldwide and have achievedsubstantially wider exposure than the traditional print model
  32. 32. Open textbooks get government support...
  33. 33. http://everythingscience.co.za/
  34. 34. in 2012 the Department of BasicEducation supplied to schools over 4 million copies of free science and Maths textbooks from the Siyavula initiative with open access text and support material online..
  35. 35. Does this mean government publishing?
  36. 36. ...or a disintermediated publishing model?
  37. 37. New devices are making a difference…
  38. 38. The horselesscarriage – thee-reader
  39. 39. http://www.jonmccormack.com/blog/?p=835…has its advantages…
  40. 40. … reaching pupils in rural Africanschools, with the help of mobile networks…
  41. 41. A more collaborative, interactive model is
  42. 42. Apple iPad interactive textbooks
  43. 43. But there is a problem…
  44. 44. Attribution Some rights reserved by music2work2Territorial rights ‘Territorial Rights’
  45. 45. “This title isnot available inyourlocation, Africa”
  46. 46. Apple iTextbooks are not available in Africa
  47. 47. African titles are only just beginning toappear on Kindle
  48. 48. …for local publishers and booksellers the problem is the lack of open platform devices…
  49. 49. …making things complicated for potential readers…
  50. 50. Gaps in availability generate negative reactions. Is it easier to accesspublications illegally than to download them?
  51. 51. AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by Bichuas (E. Carton)
  52. 52. This arises from a neo-colonial copyright tradition
  53. 53. NoncommercialShare Alike Some rights reserved by cool-art
  54. 54. 1947 The British Traditional Market Agreement constituted British publishers a cartel in global publishing.Andre Rens in Publishing and Alternative Licensing Models in Africa . Ottowa, IDRC 2010http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/45649/1/132110.pdf
  55. 55. The BTMA became the subject of an anti-trust investigation by the United States Department of Justice in 1974. As a consequence, it was formally terminated in 1976 by British publishers – who continued to adopt the same approach in individual licence agreements with American publishers, so that the pattern persisted until at least the end of the 20th century (Feather 2006: 191; Bryant 1979: 371).Andre Rens in Publishing and Alternative Licensing Models in Africa . Ottowa, IDRC 2010http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/45649/1/132110.pdf
  56. 56. The term ‘territorial rights’ refers to limitations which copyright intermediaries such as publishers place on licences that theyissue, which enable them to engage in price discrimination.Andre Rens in Publishing and Alternative Licensing Models in Africa . Ottowa, IDRC 2010http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/45649/1/132110.pdf
  57. 57. In South Africa and many other African countries, parallel importation is prohibited and criminalised
  58. 58. The mapping of territorial rights onto the boundaries drawn by the colonial powers at the Berlin Conference (1984–5) reduces the viability of African publishers by limiting their markets, thus ensuring continued domination by multinational corporations.Andre Rens in Publishing and Alternative Licensing Models in Africa . Ottowa, IDRC 2010http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/45649/1/132110.pdf
  59. 59. Dysfunctionalbusinessmodels areencouraging‘piracy’ http://www.scribd.com/doc/50196972/MPEE-1-0-1
  60. 60. …resulting in moral panics and enforcement programmes…
  61. 61. New disruptive publishing models are emerging, often with disaggregated supply lines…
  62. 62. Formal publishing is only the tip of the iceberg -Attribution Some rights reserved by natalielucier
  63. 63. …what else is going on in South African publishing?
  64. 64. Freemium models
  65. 65. EBW Health Care: free onlinecontent, books for sale, accreditationand certification of training provided for a fee http://ebwhealthcare.com/
  66. 66. Science popularisations reach wide audiences, often paid for by government or donor contracts….
  67. 67. http://jivemedia.co.za/
  68. 68. Our strength in Africa – mobile technology
  69. 69. AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by DavidDennisPhotos.com
  70. 70. What is missing – real commitment from the mobile companies to content.“The key issue for the success of data revenuesis: how can you create a compelling, financiallyrewarding ecosystem to generate apps, content and services that users want more of?” Roger Southall: Balancing Act http://www.balancingact-africa.com/news/en/issue-no-607/top-story/open- innovation-afri/en
  71. 71. Empowerme nt is likely to happen through collaboration – new partnerships will be neededAttribution Some rights reserved by Anthony_Joel
  72. 72. Eve GrayCentre for Educational TechnologyIP Law and Policy Research UnitUniversity of Cape Townhttp://www.gray-area.co.zahttp://www.cet.uct.ac.zahttp://uctipunit.wordpress.com/about-2/ ! ! ReporttoMellonFoundation 2010! !
  73. 73. You are free to: Copy, share, adapt, or re-mix; Photograph, film, or broadcast; Blog, live-blog, or post video of;This presentation. Provided that: You attribute the work to its author and respect the rights and licenses associated with its components.

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