Project Description Understanding Childhoods through Literacy Development Eunhye Park(PI), Ewha Womens University Jeonghyo Kim, Ewha Womens University Jihyun Lee, Konkuk University Hong-Ju Jun, Paichai University
Definition of literacy in Korea• 문해 [ literacy , 文解 ]• Ability to read and write official language (Han-Gul, the Korean Language)• „literate‟: among over 12 years old, those who can read and write simple sentences written in Korean
Literacy rate of Korean People• 98.3% (2008)• 100% (20-40 year olds)• The „illiterate‟ has almost disappeared- a crusade against illiteracy which started right after independence from Japan in 1945- spread of compulsory education since 1960s• Recent illiterates are mostly the olds, who live in the countryside such as farming and fishing villages
Current Issue on Literacy ECE Teachers The earlier, the betterParents Children
Overview of school system in Korea age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Childcare center School Middle High Elementary school system school school Kindergart en Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3Compulsory education
The project: overview• Title: <Understanding Childhoods through literacy>• Funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea• 2 years: 2011. 5. 1 ~ 2013. 4. 30• Research team- Early childhood education: Eunhye Park(PI), Hong-Ju Jun- Elementary education: Jeonghyo Kim- Literacy education: Jihyun Lee
The project: research questions1. In what ways is literacy taught in kindergarten and elementary school?2. What do children experience regarding literacy in their transition from kindergarten to elementary school?3. How do children, teachers and parents conceptualize “becoming literate” ?4. Is there any gap between curricula and actual practices of literacy education?
The Project: structure Providing practical implicationsUnderstanding “childhoods” for articulation between early focusing on literacy childhood education and elementary education
The project: 8 studies Subjects/p Stages Topics Methods articipants 1. Current state of literacy education in ECE Current kindergarten/childcare centers teachers Questionnair state e 2. Current state of literacy education at homes Parents 3. Teachers’ beliefs and expectations on literacy ECE development and methods of education teachersExpectatio Interview ns & 4. Parents’ beiefs and expectations on literacy using Parentsmeanings development and methods of education images 5. Children’s perspectives on literacy education Children 6. Curricula analysis: National Kindergarten Curricula Document Curriculum and Elementary Curriculum document analysisTransition ECE from 7. Comparative study of literacy teaching teachers InterviewKindergart practices of kindergarten and elementary school Elementary using videos en to teacherselementaryeducation 8. Children’s experiences of literacy in the Ethnography transition period from kindergarten to elementary Children school
Research 1 & 2• Understanding current state of literacy education• Developed questionnaires for parents and ECE teachers• Consisted of questions asking environment for literacy education, current state, and expectations• Plan to distribute the questionnaires to 1500 parents of young children and 1000 ECE teachers across Korea• Data collection will be done by mid-Oct
Research 3, 4, 5• Understanding expectations and meanings that teachers, parents and children have regarding “becing literate”• Understanding what parents and teachers expect to each other regarding literacy education• 60 people for each group• Methods: - interviewing using pictures (making use of visualethnography) - Individual interviews, semi-structured
Process took pictures of “literacy on the wall” in a kindergarten from March through July 2011, twice a month: total of 986 pictures were collected interview teachers in the kindergartenTo understand the context of the activities and the environment in the picturesAsk the teachers to select pictures that they consider to be good practices and bad practicesBased on their responses, 15 pictures to be used for interview were selected Developed interviewing tools ECE teachers Parents
Role of the pictures in interviewing• Teacher-initiated vs. children-initiated• Activity/play vs. worksheet• Expectations on literacy development and education• role of parents vs. role of teachers
In the beginning of the interviews• Ask parents/teachers to arrange the pictures in order of the writing levels(stages). Ask why they think so• Focusing on the highest level, ask why they consider it the best (Orthography? Skill? Attitude? Ability to express thinking? Understanding diverse forms/purpose of writing?)
Main questions for parents• Ask parents‟ expectations on literacy level according to children‟s age: what level children should reach before they enter elementary school? Why?• Ask where their own child is located in the spectrum: are you satisfied? How about his/her peers? Do they care about it?• What did the parents do to help children learn to read and write?• How would you feel if your child goes to elementary school without knowing how to read and write? What would happen?
Main questions for teachers• Where are your students in the spectrum?• Is there a gap in your class between the highest level and lowest level?• How do you teach children who are in diverse level?• Do the children know where they are? Do they compare each other? Do children who can write well feel superiority?• What level do you expect them to reach by the end of this year?• What efforts do you make to help them to reach there?• What was the best/worst practices you did in terms of literacy? What was children‟s reactions?• Is there any gap between what you learned from your preservice teacher training and what you experienced as a teacher? How do you overcome the gap?
Where should we go?• Exploring many possibilities: various ways to use data• Moving From literacy to ”childhood”• Linking the local to global