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Parents as Teachers Program: A Pilot by Gyan Prakash Foundation

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The ‘Parents As Teachers’ program aims to bring about a change in the mindset of low income parents and rural parents about their role in the child’s development and education. The program primarily targeted low-income mothers with children who are yet to enter formal schooling and aimed to increase the capacity of parents to create active childhood experiences that aid the development of their child. The program was implemented over the course of 8 months from January - September 2018 in Pune. The program was a collaboration between Gyan Prakash Foundation and EkStep Foundation.

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Parents as Teachers Program: A Pilot by Gyan Prakash Foundation

  1. 1. 1 Parents as Teachers Program (Learnings from an early childhood program for mothers & children) November 2018
  2. 2. 2 0. Executive Summary 3 1. Introduction 3 1.1. Why early childhood development? 3 1.2. Involvement of Parents 4 1.3. Current State in India 4 2.Program Description 5 2.1. Who are the actors? 5 2.2. Content Modules 6 3. Implementation Details 7 4. Evaluation Metrics 8 4.1. Child Model 8 4.2. Parent Behaviour matrix 8 4.3. Facilitator model 8 5. Results 9 5.1. Quantitative Results 9 5.2. Qualitative Results - Field Observation & Feedback 15 5.2.1. Facilitators 15 5.2.2. Mothers 15 5.2.3. Children 15 6. Unbundling Components 16 6.1. Knowledge 16 6.1.1. Mothers 16 6.1.2. Children 17 6.1.3. Facilitator 18 6.2 Assets 18 6.2.1. Content 18 6.2.1.1. Learning Content 18 6.2.1.2. Assessment Content 19 6.2.2. Integrated Partner App 20 6.2.3. Data Formats 21 6.4 Processes 21 6.4.1. Mothers 22 6.4.2. Facilitators 22 Copyright © (2018) Gyan Prakash Foundation This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-ND 4.0). To view a copy of the license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/
  3. 3. 3 0. Executive Summary Learning happens from birth and learning begins at home. The child’s earliest years provide a unique opportunity to address the different learning needs of a child. The potential benefits include: improved cognitive development, better schooling outcomes and increased productivity later on in life. Existing research on outcomes have shown that returns to investment during the child’s early ages are significant, especially when compared to equivalent investments made much later in life. To ensure children learn while still young, parents play an important role. Parents and family members are the child’s first teachers. For illiterate parents in low-income households, their need to make ends meet and limited literacy severely hampers their ability to spend time and use resources that will be helpful for the development of their young child. Consequently, the children of these parents risk not reaching their developmental potential. Currently, almost 68% of grade 3 students in India cannot read simple English words while 80% can’t perform two-digit subtraction. Since income potential is directly linked to school learning outcomes, these children tend to earn a lot less into adulthood , thus continuing an inter- generational poverty cycle. This book details the components, design, implementation and outcomes of an early childhood program pilot program ( called ‘Parents as Teachers’ program) conducted in collaboration with Gyan Prakash Foundation, Pune with EkStep as a technology partner. The program worked with mothers in low-income families in urban slums to help mothers play a more active role in the development of their child. The program also aimed to bring about a change in the mindset of mothers about their role in their child's’ development and education. Early childhood experiences have shown a profound impact on brain development - affecting learning, health and behaviour. The program also developed an evaluation framework to measure “mindset” change in mothers that can be reused or extended. The program was implemented over the course of 10 months from January - October 2018 in Pune. 1. Introduction 1.1. Why early childhood development? Early experiences last a lifetime! The process of learning which starts as early as at the time of birth and continues for the rest of life, is at its peak during the early years. Additionally, maximum and fastest brain development occurs from birth to 5 years. Early childhood is the most crucial period, as the opportunities missed during the early years cannot be compensated for at later stages of an individual’s life. Various Early Childhood Development(ECD) programs in developed, as well as developing countries, claim to have positive outcomes for children, families and communities. The established key benefits of the ECD programs in the developing world include:
  4. 4. 4 1. Possibility of reduction in social inequality 2. Reduction in school dropout rates 3. Higher enrolments and less repetitions in school 4. Improved cognitive development and scholastic achievements 5. Improved nutrition and health possibilities for child Young children respond best to their environment when caregivers use specific play techniques designed to encourage and stimulate progress to the next level of development. Therefore ECD programs must 1. Sensitize parents on importance of child care 2. Deliver a range of essential services for children and parents 3. Develop capacities of caregivers and teachers 4. Use means of mass communication to enhance caregivers’ parenting knowledge, skills and practices. 1.2. Involvement of Parents Parents and family are the first and foremost social contact for a child. They are able to influence the child’s growth and development in the most meaningful manner. The onus of parenting responsibility is more on parents than any other family member. There is a gradual weakening of traditional parenting knowledge and skills due to increasing migration and emergence of nuclear families. Sensitized parents are a source of spreading awareness at larger level through social peer sharing. Holistic understanding of parenthood is a long-term investment for the child’s future years by simulating the parenting practices acquired during early years 1.3. Current State in India In many underdeveloped and developing countries, only a small portion of children below the age of 5 years attain their full developmental potential because of poverty, nutritional deficiencies and limited opportunities for learning. Hence the governments must take immediate and necessary actions to ensure access to Education for Early Childhood Development [EECD] to prepare all children for a better tomorrow (WHO, 2012) ICDS program, the face of early childhood development education in India, covers approximately 7.6 million pregnant women and lactating mothers and around 36 million children less than six years of age. The ICDS Anganwadi program caters to children between the ages of 2.5 to 5 years, playing an important role in getting children ready for formal school. Unlike urban areas, where children have the choice of
  5. 5. 5 attending private run preschools, most children between 3 to 5 years in rural areas attend the anganwadis program. Parent education and parent awareness is an integral part of the ICDS Anganwadi program. However, research shows that most anganwadis are not effective in supporting parents’ and fostering children’s academic learning. 2. Program Description The ‘Parents As Teachers’ program aims to bring about a change in the mindset of low income parents about their role in the child’s development and education. The program helps to increase the capacity of parents to be directly involved in the learning outcomes of their children. The program ● Targets mothers from urban slums and rural areas with children in the age-group of 3-5 years old. ● Covers 9 ECE content modules, developed by GPF, on topics related to child development, nutrition, parenting and school readiness. These modules are delivered by facilitators through weekly workshops in the community. ● Follows a 6 month cycle, concluding with supporting parents to enrol children into formal school. ● Builds capabilities of local women to become facilitators to deliver the curriculum to the mothers. The ‘Parents As Teachers’ program also piloted the use of content from a technology enabled platform. The modules/content are hosted on the EkStep platform, to eventually help parents access the content from wherever they are, as long as they have a smartphone. Parents can use the content to go back to the information shared during the group sessions and practice the discussed strategies at home. Additionally 5 child-friendly learning modules were created. Parents and children together can view these modules on a technology device (tab or phone), and engage and interact about the content. The goal is to empower low income parents to understand how children learn, and to be able to contribute meaningfully towards their learning and development. These modules focus on developing cognitive and language skills in the child and prepare them to enter formal school in class 1. Making the content available on technology will also ease the process of training facilitators to implement the program, enabling us to scale the program to different low income communities across the State. 2.1. Who are the actors? Mothers and their children The program targeted mothers of the children in the age-group of 3-5 years old in urban slums. Facilitators: ● Are local women from the same slums and villages, selected and trained on a curriculum focusing on issues related to early childhood development and education ● Conduct weekly workshops on topics related to parenting, child development and school readiness. ● Regularly support mothers through home visits to understand their practices at home to support the child’s development.
  6. 6. 6 2.2. Content Modules The ‘Parents As Teachers’ program piloted the use of content from a technology enabled platform. The modules/content are hosted on a technology platform, to eventually help parents access the content from wherever they are, as long as they have a smartphone. Parents can use the content to go back to the information shared during the group sessions and practice the discussed strategies at home. The goal is to empower low income parents to understand how children learn, and to be able to contribute meaningfully towards their learning and development. Making the content available on technology will also ease the process of training facilitators to implement the program, enabling us to scale the program to different low income communities across the state. Module Topic 1 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT In this module, 4 important factors affecting growth and development were discussed: 1) Proper nutrition 2) Health monitoring 3) Love and affection, and 4) Stimulating environment 2 CHILD NUTRITION Role of nutrition in development, 4 food groups and their sources, Nutritious food versus junk food. Recipes which are Nutritious, low cost, made from easily available material are demonstrated. 3 CHILD HEALTH Child Health- Preventive measures of health, monitoring health by indicators and eradication of health related superstitions. 4 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT How to give opportunities for gross and fine motor skill development and using household material 5 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Understanding components of cognitive development and giving stimulation thorough different day to day activities 6 LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Communication with child , Practicing activities to encourage language skills in children , phonic and vocabulary 7 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Understanding the social development process in children and parents role in social development.
  7. 7. 7 8 EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Understanding and handling emotions of children; Understanding disciplining techniques and the impact of the various types of disciplining styles. 9 SCHOOL READINESS Preparing children for formal schooling; Discussing choices such as English medium schools versus vernacular medium schools, private versus public schools, etc., documents required for school admissions. 3. Implementation Details A broad sequence of implementation is given below: 1. Recruiting facilitators from selected slums/ rural areas 2. Training these facilitators on a digital school readiness curriculum developed by GPF that is built on EkStep. 3. Facilitators conducted weekly workshops (once a week) with eligible mothers in a rented space in these slums, and in the anganwadis in the rural areas. 4. Five modules that are child facing, expected to be used at home, were developed- (on cognitive and language development). This involved the parent and the child together viewing and interacting with the content. 5. Facilitators also conducted monthly follow ups with mothers at home to measure behavioural changes in mothers and track growth in the child's’ development. The 9 topic modules discussed during the weekly workshops/group sessions with mothers are developed into content that is hosted on a EkStep’s technology platform. Additionally, parents have access to 5 specially created child-friendly learning modules on a technology device (tab or phone). These modules focus on developing cognitive and language skills in the child, and prepare them to enter formal school in Class 1. Parents and children come to the center to view the content on the tab together. They view one module at a time, and engage and interact about the content they are viewing on the device. For example, to learn about the concept of colours, the mother and the child together go through the module on ‘colours’ which includes a reading a story about colours, a song about colours, understanding the colours of vegetables, fruits and other objects, and also answering a few questions related to colours at the end of the module. This gives the child an opportunity to learn the concept, practice the concept and see its application in day-to-day life. Every module concludes with ideas for parents to teach the same concept at home
  8. 8. 8 4. Evaluation Metrics 4.1. Child Model To measure the impact of the program on children, a baseline and endline tool was developed to measure school readiness of the children entering Std 1. The tool measured children’s performance in: ● Language skills ● Cognitive skills ● Pre-academic Math ● A baseline test was conducted at the beginning of the program. 22 children were assessed on the baseline test ● The endline test was conducted at the end of the program. 27 children assessed on the endline test The program focused on an indirect approach to improve skills in children through intervention with the parents. 4.2. Parent Behaviour matrix To measure the change in parent mindsets, the program focused on parents’ movement on a maturity model that measured the following: ● Parents Motivation and Participation during group sessions ● Parents self report on practices to improve language and cognitive development in children at home ● Parents interaction with children while using digital content This link describes the maturity model in more detail. 4.3. Facilitator model To measure the efficacy of the facilitators, a maturity model was developed to assess their capabilities in: ● Conceptual understanding ● Learning environment ● Content facilitation ● Planning ● Assessment ● Documentation ● Technology This link describes the maturity model for a facilitator in more detail.
  9. 9. 9 5. Results 5.1. Quantitative Results ● Child Outcomes ○ Children’s readiness to enter Class 1 was measured using a School Readiness tool developed by GPF and EkStep. ○ 22 Children were assessed at the beginning of the program (Jan 2018) and 27 children were assessed at the end (August 2018) of the program. (21 children were the same for the pre and the post test. Additionally, 6 children whose mothers had attended the program in the previous groups and eligible for entering class 1 were also assessed; 1 child dropped out). ○ The tool measured competencies in language, Math and Spatial reasoning. 67% children (18 out of 27 children) showed readiness in both Mathematics and Language to enter Std 1 at the end of the program. 74% children showed readiness in language and 70% children showed readiness in Mathematics. Some children showed readiness in language, but not in Mathematics and vice-versa. 19% children lacked readiness in both math and language. ● Difference in Pre-test and Post-test Overall child performance in Language and Math improved from the baseline to the endline test.
  10. 10. 10 ○ Language Results Pre- test (n=22) Post-test (n=27) Children showed improvement in language at the endline test. Children performing in the range of 80 to 100% increased from 36% in the pretest to 52% in the post test. The number of children performing below 60% also reduced from the pretest to the post test.
  11. 11. 11 ○ Analysis of Performance on Specific Competencies under Language Children performed better in concepts related to names of vegetables, fruits, and colours. 85% children were able to name at least 5 vegetables, 78% children were able to name at least 5 fruits, 59% children were able to name at least 5 colours. These form a part of children’s vocabulary, important before starting formal school. Little or no improvement was seen in concepts related to general vocabulary (assessed through picture talk), describing the activities in the picture in complete sentences, and phonics. Some of the possible reasons include: 1. Requires change in parental behaviour and mindset (to speak/converse with the child, bring attention to things in their day-to-day environment, point to pictures and print material and talk about them) 2. Requires parents to have a good vocabulary. 3. Lack of resources such as books, print material etc. at home
  12. 12. 12 ○ Mathematics Results Pre test (n= 22) Post test (n=27) Similar to language, children achieving above 80% marks in Math increased from 36% to 60%. The number of children performing in the 60 to 80% range also reduced from the pretest to the post test.
  13. 13. 13 ○ Analysis of Performance on Specific Competencies under Math Children’s performance in concepts related to ‘counting’ and ‘more and less’, and ‘patterns’ improved in the post test. More than 90% children were able to count the objects shown on the screen (6 pages of counting different objects). No change was observed in concepts related to classification and seriation. These may be complex concepts for parents to practice at home. It is important to note that these assessments were developed and tested by the internal GP team. There is a need to have an external assessment for objectivity of results. Note on Implementation ● Each child took around 20-25 minutes to complete the test (pre as well as post test). ● The facilitator opened each page on the tab, gave the child instructions about to answering the question, asked the child the question on the screen, waited for the child’s answer, and finally, scored the child’s response on the tab. ● Some questions (such as classification, patterning, seriation and puzzle) required the facilitator to present the child with physical materials along with the information on the screen to respond to the question 2. Parent Outcomes: Change in the mindset of parents participating in the program was measured using a Parent Maturity Model. The maturity model was developed to understand parents mindset related to children’s cognitive and language development.
  14. 14. 14 ● 63 % parents were found to be Level 3 and Level 4 at the end of the program ● Since the tool was developed after the program began, a baseline of parents’ mindset on the maturity model could not be mapped at the beginning of the program. ● Parents score on the maturity model is positively and moderately with children’s score on the readiness test (correlation=0.6) ● Factors such as parents’ education level, family support, stress levels in the family, number of children, age of the children and child temperament affect parents’ performance on the maturity model. *Names of the mother and the children have been changed for anonymity A mother’s story Vaishali Jadhav* lives in a joint family set up. There are 6 members in the family. Her in-laws stay with her. Vaishali has two children Alok, 5 years old and Avni, 2 years. Her house is small but very neat and tidy. When she started coming for ECD group she was not aware about many things. She used to feed children only 3 times a day. Children were given money to buy snacks from shop. Alok developed teeth problems due to eating sweets and candies. When she understood the importance of nutritious food she started making new recipes at home. With the help of facilitator she made diet chart for both children. She started following food timetable and stopped buying outside food. Vaishali is housewife but she was not aware about the importance of communicating with children. When children got bored putting on TV was the only option. After language development session she learnt poems and started to sing songs with children. She borrowed books from Gyanprakash library and got into the practice of telling stories to both her children. She has started communicating with children about new things in the surrounding. Her son Atharv was attending tuition class in nearby house. Atharva is in
  15. 15. 15 Note on implementation 27 Parents were assessed parents on a 4 level maturity model, which included ● Motivation and participation in group sessions ● Self report of practices related to language and cognitive skills at home ● Parent-child interactions during use of technology 5.2. Qualitative Results - Field Observation & Feedback 5.2.1. Facilitators 1. Facilitators focused on the concepts that each child had to learn/practice, and approached the mother with that perspective. They spoke to the mother about the concepts that her child needed to practice, and introduced an appropriate module on the tab to cater to those skills. That seemed to motivate mothers to come and look the the modules on the tab with their child 2. Facilitators also spoke to the mothers about the importance of telling stories to children. They told the parents that if they didn’t know how to tell stories of what stories to tell, they could come and see it on the tab. That seemed to appeal to the mothers too. 5.2.2. Mothers 1. Many mothers don’t get to spend one-on-one time with their child at home. However, when they came to the center to see the modules on the tab, they expressed that they like to come and spend time with their child here, without any sort of disturbance. 2. Mothers showed interest in using the tab. They felt good that something so expensive was given to them and they were able to use it well. 3. Some parents were scared/showed anxiety to use the tab. Some facilitators still feel scared to use the tab 4. Overall, it was observed that parents who showed higher motivation to come for the group sessions also showed higher motivation to come and see the modules on the tab. 5. Parents related pictures from the stories to their experiences and practices at home (for example- while reading the story- ‘Maaze Ghar’ parents talked about the pictures in the story and how it was similar to things in their own house) 6. Some parents went beyond just reading the story. They would ask questions related to the pictures (they thought of those questions on their own)- for example, the colours of different objects on the screens, or they would ask the child to count the number of objects. 7. Mothers liked the songs that were integrated into each of the modules 8. Mothers showed interest in watching the same module multiple times- (may be related to the interest of the child). 5.2.3. Children 1. Children were excited to see the content on the tab. They don’t get to see the tab at home, so this was a new experience for them.
  16. 16. 16 6. Unbundling Components This section aims to articulate the lessons, processes and assets from the intervention that could be useful for an NGO that aims to replicate or start an early childhood program of their own. In the process, we have tried to unbundle the important components of the program into 3 sections: 1. Knowledge: We focus on the different actors involved in the intervention and seeks to provide more context to their motivation, challenges and behaviors during the program. 2. Assets: This section contains a list of all the digital assets that were used during the course of the program that can be re-used or modified by any interested party. All of the digital assets are currently available on the EkStep platform and is free to use and modify. 3. Processes: This section focuses on a few core processes in the intervention that the program team has identified as being “important” for the program to be implemented successfully. These processes can be replicated/modified by other parties/partners depending on their context setting. 6.1. Knowledge The different actors involved in the program are: 6.1.1. Mothers a. What do they care about? i. Most of the mothers inducted into the program were working as house-helps in the area. These mothers were working in middle class urban households and it seems that the environment that they work in influenced the aspirations of many mothers. Sending their children to a good school so that they could speak English and being able to use electronic devices just like other people around her were two big aspirations articulated. In fact, telling them that the program has a tablet component was a big draw. ii. All the mothers in the program wanted to support their child in their education but didn’t know how to support their children. They all believe tutions are helpful(can’t evaluate a good tution place) and are always looking for places where they can put their children for the same. iii. Spending time with the children. Many mothers in the program live in large families that they don’t have enough time to spend alone with their children. In that regard, this program was an opportunity for them to spend time with their children one on one. iv. Having a formal support system for mothers to deal with daily challenges that they may face within a household. Before the program, they had no outlet except for a few friends. For a lot of mothers, this program offered them a chance to interact with other mothers and discuss each other’s personal lives. v. Lack of time with the child at home vi. Often, the decision power on behalf of the child does not lie with the mother. Influences from extended family members, husbands influence whether the mother is able to do something for the child or not.
  17. 17. 17 b. What are some of the characteristics of mothers who showed the most improvement in the program? i. Mothers came from smaller families where they had a lot of freedom on what they did during the day. ii. Stay-at-home mothers were more regular than mothers who were working iii. Mothers who were educated were more likely to sustain in the program. iv. Mothers coming from deeply broken households were unlikely to complete the program. *Names of the mother and the children have been changed for anonymity 6.1.2. Children c. What do they care about? i. Children need an opportunity to play, have movement, and take part in activities. Having fun doing whatever they do. d. How is working with young children different from other children? i. Young children need to always be occupied with something. While the mother is learning from the facilitator, it is important that the child is made to do something at the same time. In this program, one of the facilitators was responsible for only taking care of the children while mothers were learning. They usually engaged children in different kinds of play activity. A mother’s story Sudha Thote*, mother of Samar (6 years) and Shrutii (5 years, lives in a nuclear family in Indira Vasahat. Her husband is a driver and spends most of his time outside home. Sudha has to manage all household duties and take care of her children. As her children are still young she would find it difficult to manage both home and children. When she tried to give attention to the children her household work would get neglected and vice versa. After coming to the ‘Parents as Teachers’ group sessions she learned of ways to engage children in meaningful activities. She started communicating with children while doing work. She also got her children to help her in carrying out activities like filling water from tap, folding dried clothes, cleaning vegetables, placing kitchen equipment on the place, all important in developing various skills in children. Sudha is educated up to 10th but she was not confident about helping her children in their daily studies. From the group session she understood how children learn and how mothers can contribute to children’s education. She prepared a 1 to 10 number chart and got her children to help in drawing. She prepared all English letters using sand papers for developing tactile sense. She also prepared picture book from old school text books. Now, she helps her children in their studies through play.
  18. 18. 18 ii. Young children can be very distracted when doing a particular task. It is important that there are a variety of tasks that a child does in a single day to keep them engaged. e. What are the characteristics of children who benefited the most from the program? i. Children who had mothers who were motivated and conducted activities at home that they learned at the center performed better. ii. Mothers who spend time at home with their child performed better. iii. Mothers who were non-native Marathi speakers perform worse since much of the material and discussion was in Marathi. 6.1.3. Facilitator f. What do they care about? i. The motivation to improve with time. ii. This is the first job for many facilitators and to be able to support their household is very empowering. iii. Many of these facilitators are locked out of the job market for various reasons. Hence, many are eager to show what they are capable of and use this opportunity as a stepping to stone to better opportunities. g. How does one pick a facilitator? i. Pick people from the same community. They are found to be more intrinsically motivated to have an impact in their community. It also helps if a known face is used to mobilize participants for the program. ii. Every facilitator is expected to complete a basic degree. iii. The status of the household is important. Facilitators with a lot of issues at home tend perform poorly over time. iv. Pre-existing knowledge and awareness of working with young children helps v. Good communications skills vi. Good decision-making capabilities. 6.2 Assets 6.2.1. Content Digital content for the intervention is broken down into two main parts: 6.2.1.1. Learning Content These digital assets contain lessons for the mother and the child to use during their sessions in the community center. The intervention consists of 9 modules that are primarily made for consumption by mothers. Two modules (Language Development & Cognitive development) are made with the expectation of a mother and a child working together on a tablet. All the content is
  19. 19. 19 currently available in Marathi and is free to be re-used or modified. The general structure used in the learning content is a combination of one or more components given below: a. Module Introduction b. Information on best practices to adopt at home for mothers c. Child-facing modules that contain stories, pictures, audio or video that supports interaction between a mother and a child. d. An assessment at the end of the module to check for understanding A screenshot of a sample module is given below. In this module, a mother and child are expected to go through a poem to engage in a discussion and answer questions at the end of the module. A video that contains a poem for the mothers and children to go through 6.2.1.2. Assessment Content e. For children: Baseline and endline tests for children to take at the beginning and end of the program respectively. Though the topics they test the child is the same, the questions aren’t the same. A screenshot of the post-test is given below: A question from the post-test for a child to answer.
  20. 20. 20 f. For parents: A parent behavior checklist has been created for use by facilitators during the weekly home-visit. Facilitators are expected to fill in the questions regarding the mother. A screenshot of the same is given below: A question for the facilitator to make an observation during the home-visit 6.2.2. Integrated Partner App For any NGO that wants to collect assessment or interaction of their digital content for an individual parent or child will need to have a partner app. EkStep cannot access child/parent level encrypted data that is available in the telemetry. For this, each partner will be provided with a private key to decrypt the data. IPA Introduction Screen Picking the user using Details to be filled the content
  21. 21. 21 6.2.3. Data Formats All the data is collected through telemetry. For this intervention, data was captured and analyzed at the following levels: 1. Baseline/Endline Digital Tests: This table was used to measure the child’s level. The format of the data analyzed included the child name, the question number, the actual response and the score received as shown below 2. Session Summaries: This table was used to measure the usage behaviour of mothers on the tablet. The table contains unique identifiers for mother, the content accessed, the time accessed and how long the content was used. 3. Monitoring interactions on the tablet: This table was used to measure in-content behaviour of parents and children. This table gives summary information on each screen(id) of the content and was used to improve content flow and quality. 6.4 Processes This section aims to list out the different processes involved in the intervention. Any partner/NGO wanting to implement a version of this program will have to keep in mind the following:
  22. 22. 22 6.4.1. Mothers a. Recruitment i. After selecting a location, the first step involved conducting a door-to-door survey of households in the location. The focus of the survey is gather family details. This was done on paper ii. These details are important in order to understand the potential number of mothers that the intervention can reach. It also helps in gauging preliminary interests from mothers. iii. We have often noticed that mothers who are managing multiple jobs have very little time for the program and despite showing interest, tend to drop out of the program over weeks. iv. Once the baseline survey is conducted, an awareness drive is conducted by the facilitators in the community. This is primarily done through poster presentations where mothers and children are invited to learn more about the program. Interested mothers sign up for the program. b. Learning i. Mothers come to the community center once a week to learn about the topic selected for the week. ii. In each session, the facilitator spends about 20 minutes explaining a topic using digital content followed group discussions and practical demonstrations. iii. Items/Processes that are easily doable in the context of the mother to pick up and use were most helpful iv. Colors are difficult to understand. They are not able to identify the color, Similarly, mothers find it easy to recognize animals in their context but difficult otherwise. c. Monitoring/Follow-up i. Each mother is observed at home once a week by the facilitator. The facilitator reinforces what was learnt during the week and gives an opportunity to the mother to ask questions. Mothers who show promising progress are given individual lessons on advanced topics during the home visit. 6.4.2. Facilitators d. Recruitment i. Using the data from the household survey, a list of possible facilitators(women between the age of 20-30 is made) ii. There is an awareness drive that is conducted within the slum that calls for potential applicants within the community. iii. Once a short-list is made, a facilitator is chosen based on the following indicators: 1. Education level 2. Marital Status 3. Employment history 4. Communication skills 5. Family size
  23. 23. 23 e. Training i. Facilitators undergo a rigorous 10-day training program where they are introduced to the early childhood material and taught how to conduct sessions around it. ii. Facilitators are also introduced to digital content on the tablet to increase familiarity with the device and how to integrate them in their lesson plans. f. Monitoring/Follow-up i. Fortnightly field visits from GPF management staff to observe facilitators, document the work and providing feedback ii. Personal one-on-one meetings with facilitators as and when required. Copyright © (2018) Gyan Prakash Foundation This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-ND 4.0). To view a copy of the license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/

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