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AFESC Differentiation and Data2012
 

AFESC Differentiation and Data2012

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This slide show discusses the major elements of differentiation, with a focus on the different types of student data. Accompanying handouts are not included in this set of slides.

This slide show discusses the major elements of differentiation, with a focus on the different types of student data. Accompanying handouts are not included in this set of slides.

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  • Do the K and W of the KWL handout. Have participants write the 2 or 3 most significant K and the 2 or 3 most “pressing” W on separate post it notes to place on the charts in the room. Materials: KWL poster charts and KWL individual handout. Allow table groups to discuss after they have completed recording. Debrief their charted responses.
  • Classroom Practices Inventory handout
  • This is adapted from Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Diane Heacox (2002)
  • Content: what is taught and how students have access to the important information/ideasProcess: how students arrive at understanding/owning the knowledge and skillsProduct: how students demonstrate their knowledge, understanding, ability to “do”Affect: how students link thoughts and feelings in the classroomLearning environment: how it feels AND functions
  • Readiness: current knowledge, understanding, skill level that student has TODAY in light of what will be taught today (not synonymous with ability).Interest: what student is interested in, likes learning and/or thinking about, doing. A great motivator. Helps student connect with new information, understanding and skills by linking with what the student already finds worthwhile and interesting.Learning Preference/profile: preferred mode of learning (influenced by learning style, intelligence preference [Gardner, Sternberg], gender and culture)
  • Readiness: current knowledge, understanding, skill level that student has TODAY in light of what will be taught today (not synonymous with ability).Interest: what student is interested in, likes learning and/or thinking about, doing. A great motivator. Helps student connect with new information, understanding and skills by linking with what the student already finds worthwhile and interesting.Learning Preference/profile: preferred mode of learning (influenced by learning style, intelligence preference [Gardner, Sternberg], gender and culture)
  • Readiness: current knowledge, understanding, skill level that student has TODAY in light of what will be taught today (not synonymous with ability).Interest: what student is interested in, likes learning and/or thinking about, doing. A great motivator. Helps student connect with new information, understanding and skills by linking with what the student already finds worthwhile and interesting.Learning Preference/profile: preferred mode of learning (influenced by learning style, intelligence preference [Gardner, Sternberg], gender and culture)

AFESC Differentiation and Data2012 AFESC Differentiation and Data2012 Presentation Transcript

  • DifferentiatingInstruction in aClimate ofRigor andRelevanceGinny Huckaba, Ed.S.Professional Development SpecialistArch Ford Education Service CooperativeEmail: ginny.huckaba@archford.org
  • ―In education it isnt how much you have committed to memory or even how much you know.Its being able to differentiate betweenwhat you do know and what you dont. Its knowing where to go to find out what you need to know and its knowing how to use the information you get.‖ -William Feather
  • LEARNING OUTCOMESAt the end of this book study, participants will be able to: Identify the components of differentiated instruction. Understand the principles of differentiated instruction. Consider the three student characteristics to plan for differentiated instruction. Take into account the five areas in which differentiation may take place to plan for differentiated instruction. Use student data to plan for, and make adjustments to, instruction. Serve as a resource to others for using formative assessment to guide instruction.
  • NORMS Begin/end on time Phone on silent or ―stun‖ Take care of your needs Honor talk-free zones Be collaborative and engaged Sharpen your saw and have fun!
  • AGENDA Welcome, Introduction Purpose of Differentiation Principles of Differentiation Using Data  Interest  Learning Profile/Preference  Academic  Formative  Summative Planning Instruction  Learning Environment  Grouping Management Reflection Close
  • What do I already know…What do I want to know… …about differentiation?
  • Does differentiating how we teach really that important?Listen to one child’s story before your answer that question…http://bloggingonthebay.edublogs.org/2010/12/15/learning-profile-differentiated-instruction/
  • What is―differentiationof instruction?‖
  • Differentiation:changing the pace, level or type ofinstruction for the purpose ofresponding to individual learners’needs, learning styles or interests.It is:rigorous, relevant, flexible & complex
  • Or, in Maggie’s words:• "This may be true for all students, whether they are seated in a classroom or taking an online course such as this. The material, the activity or assignment, the setting, life in general, and numerous other factors all help determine what learning style will be optimum for a given task.• Translation – vary the lessons, the amount and type of reading, the presentation, the assignments in order to reach the optimum learning style of the participants. In this way you will not ―teach‖ the same consistently and may reach more students’ zone of proximal development. "
  • First step: Start where you are… so, where ARE you?1. Analyze your current instructional plans for degree of challenge and variety.2. Then modify, adapt, design new approaches to respond to students’ needs, interests, learning styles/preferences
  • Adapted from: The Differentiated Classroom, Carol Ann Tomlinson (1999)
  • 8 Key Principles of Differentiation1. Teacher focuses on the essentials (KUD)2. Teacher honors student differences3. Teacher uses assessment & instruction as cohesive and inseparable complements of each other4. Teacher modifies 5 classroom elements5. Teacher engages all students in respectful work6. Teacher and students collaborate in the learning7. Teacher balances group/individual norms8. Teacher and students work together—flexibility
  • 5 Classroom Elementsthat can be differentiated: • Content • Process • Products • Affect • Learning Environment
  • 3 Student Traits to respond to when planning for differentiation:• Readiness• Interest• Learning Profile/Preference
  • DATA
  • Using Data to understand the learner…• Gathering data on your students gives you the tools you need to plan, adjust and differentiate your instruction to best meet their learning needs.• Students also need to know what their strengths are as learners as well as their performance on an ongoing basis (formative).• One set of data is NOT enough to get the ―full picture‖ of how the learner accesses, processes and uses what they are to learn.
  • DATA TYPES: ACADEMIC LEARNER INTERESTSLEARNING PROFILE/PREFERENCE
  • ACADEMIC DATA:• Use a variety of data sources to begin to get to know your students’ academic level of performance: • State tests • Normed tests • Content pre-assessment • Readiness tests • Local (district/school) assessments• But don’t stop there, look to other types of data if you really want to know your students, such as…
  • LEARNER INTEREST DATA:• Interest inventories• Questionnaires and surveys• Parent –provided information• Writing prompts• Discussion• Informal student interviews• Verbal questioning
  • LEARNING PROFILE/PREFERENCE: • There are thousands of ways to get an idea of each student’s learning preference (also called their learning profile or learning style): • Gardner’s multiple intelligences • Sternberg’s triarchic model • VAK • VARK • Teacher observation • Parent survey/interview • Student interview • BE SURE to use a style that is most appropriate (user friendly) for the age and developmental level of your students • Be CAREFUL in using these instruments, be aware that most people’s learning preference is a combination of the categories with a ―leaning‖ toward one of them
  • On-going Assessment forAdjustment to Instruction based on Student Learning
  • USING DIAGNOSTIC DATA AS ON-GOING ASSESSMENT:• Gathering key information about a learner and using it to make decisions about teaching him/her.• These decisions include: • what and how to teach the content • How students should learn to demonstrate their knowledge and skill as a result of learning that content• Where to look for diagnostic data: • Pre-assessments in a variety of formats (not ―for a grade‖) • Continuous formative assessments to INFORM teaching• Some examples of diagnostic tools: • Student writing (journal, essay, etc.), oral response, explanation of a process, performance, demonstration
  • Assessment-planning Questions:• What do I know about my students NOW?• What is it about my students’ content knowledge, thinking and process (demonstration of skill) that I don’t know right now?• How is the final assessment for this unit of study constructed—what is it’s nature and content? • This question indicates the necessity for ―backward design‖ • In other words, what are the important take-aways of this unit and how do I expect my students to demonstrate that they’ve learned the content?)
  • I analyzed the data; now what?:• If students don’t understand the concepts of the content (KUD): • Adjust time needed to teach • Careful selection of methods/strategies to allow vocabulary acquisition, clarity of concepts and depth of thinking• If students are unclear or lack depth in their thinking about the concepts: • Examine/adjust your questions • Give students time and variety of ways to ask questions • Students use journals, graphics or give examples • Plan for opportunities of creating solutions & generalizing ideas
  • Purpose/uses of Ongoing (Formative) Assessment:• Purpose: to continue the process of each student’s learning• Designed and used to determine, in a continual and ―through course‖ manner where the learner is in his/her understanding• To make changes, adjustments, modifications in the instruction to meet the needs of the learner in his/her access to and acquisition of the learning• Reflect the actual content that is being taught at that time• Is diagnostic and, therefore, not ―graded‖ but rather analyzed to guide teacher’s decisions for necessary ―course corrections‖
  • The Power of Ongoing Formative Assessment:• Student self-evaluation/self-reflection: clearest view of student performance• Assessing at transition points (where skill load significantly increases and critical thinking deepens/expands)• Using exemplars with rubrics is powerful and is appropriate in any content and any unit (self-evaluation)• Collaborative analysis by• teacher groups of student work
  • Tips for using student (formative) self-assessment:• Teach students, in advance, how you will use this assessment• Make tools simple to use, easily accessible, not time-consuming• Use information from the self-assessments to aid in planning instruction and to communicate with parents (possibly to prepare student for student-led parent conference)• Keep records of patterns of learning for classes, small groups and individuals• Use those records to note student needs and adjustments of instruction• Use critical questions concepts to determine areas you will use for self-assessment• Can also use process, product or skill steps (spelling, scientific process, sequence of solving math problem)• To allow students to monitor and adjust their own learning: • Use some as feedback tools to give specific, ongoing information to students about their progress • Use some for students to use to give each other feedback
  • Summative (final) assessments:• Gathers information about: • Student depth of understanding of concepts • Level of student communication about what they know (KUD) • Student’s ability to use the concepts to expand their learning• To guide decisions about the next unit of study: • Adjusting methods, materials, timing, grouping to accommodate learning styles/needs of learners’ diversity• May be performance-based rather than paper test, but: • Plan carefully what goes in the directions • Distinguish those directions from what goes in the prompt • Contains critical questions about the key concepts of the unit • Rubric is well-designed • (If other teachers get same results, then it is well designed)
  • Assessing your assessments: THE BIG QUESTION: Is this assessment aligned withthe most important standard of this unit?
  • To answer the alignment question, start with the assessment piece and work backward to the standard• Do a concept check: • What big ideas/concepts/key vocabulary will students demonstrate? • Do the big ideas and concepts in the assessment and standard match? • Examine product, process, skill congruence:• Check for critical thinking: • Circle verbs in your assessment prompt and directions • Circle verbs in the standard that you want students to demonstrate • Are the two sets of verbs aligned? • If not, either abandon the assessment item or change it• Examine product, process, skill congruence: • Determine what students must do to demonstrate KUD of standard • What product, process or skill must they demonstrate • Look at standard and determine if that (product, process, skill) is a logical match for demonstrating learning • (example: standard says ―interpet‖ and your assessment is m/c) • If not a logical math, it is best to start over
  • Questions to ask while analyzing students’ formative and summative results What % of students scored at each level? Look at subgroups’ performance and the adjustments you made to instruction (if any) for each group. Given the results, how well did the strategies you used work? Which strategies would work best—based on the results? What was the level of critical thinking demonstrated by students? Did it match the standards? Did it match the prompt and the scoring guide/rubric? Did I pre-assess for this? Did the students receive instruction and learning opportunities at this level of thinking before the assessment? What did the assignments and assessments look like in terms of student performance? Is there any other evidence that confirms this as a consistent and accurate level of performance? What might have caused these results? (Time spent learning, resources used, strategies for both learning and instruction and goals of the unit/lesson.)
  • Using Assessment Data-- In a Nutshell:1. Before student arrival: examine available, relevant data2. When student arrives: interest and learning profile surveys/observations3. Before instruction of a unit: pre-assessment4. During unit of study: ongoing formative assessments (not all paper/pencil)5. End of unit of study: summative assessmentNOTE: assessment provides direction to you about whichstudents need support to succeed and what particular types ofsupport and in what particular areas
  • PLANNING
  • 3 Guiding Questions:1. What misunderstandings are likely to occur during the unit and how can I prevent them?2. Given the makeup of my class, how can I meet the needs of all students and ensure that they benefit from the learning experiences in the most efficient and effective way(s)?3. Am I holding all of my students accountable for meeting the learning goals—in learning the same information and skills, although they may approach them and reach that high level of learning from different directions?
  • Before and as you design your plan of instruction:1. Identify essential understandings, goals, outcomes2. Identify students with special needs and how to adapt to ensure they learn and achieve at a high level as well3. Design formative and summative assessments4. Design, then deliver pre-assessments based on that unit’s summative assessment.5. Adjust goals, outcomes based on further thinking as designing the assessments
  • While you design and implement your plan of instruction: 1. Design learning tasks/experiences based on pre- assessment results as well as your knowledge of students’ and your content. 2. Make a mental run through each sequence and facet of the lesson, anticipating student needs and possible ―glitches‖ that could occur and adjust. 3. Review plans with a colleague. 4. Gather and organize: materials, supplies, furniture, student movement, groupings, etc. 5. Teach. 6. Make adjustments in: goals, formative assessments, summative assessments based on observations and data gathered during instruction.
  • After you deliver the instruction to your students:1. Examine and evaluate: the lesson’s success with your students.2. Reflect: what evidence do you have that students grasped the important concepts and skills?3. Reflect: what worked, what didn’t, why?4. Record: advice and thoughts about possible changes in the lesson for the future.
  • Planning- steps to take:1. Identify the standard(s), learning goal(s)2. Identify the essential understandings of the standards and write 3-5 essential questions3. Write 3-5 unit questions that point back to the essential question(s) and the standard(s)4. Map the curriculum (see sample map on following slide)5. Determine what area(s) of differentiation will be most appropriate for particular students (or if the lesson will be appropriate for all learners—use student data to support this judgment)6. Design the assessments (formative AND summative) before designing the instructional pieces—use variety of assessment styles7. Design the pre-assessment—based on #1 and #6 (use variety of styles)8. Determine how differentiated the unit is as it is already designed (if it is a unit you have taught in previous years)9. NOW design the instructional pieces
  • Source: Heacox (2002)
  • Source: Heacox (2002)
  • Data and The Instructional Pieces: Decide where differentiation is most appropriate for your students, based on data:  content, process, product, affect and/or environment  readiness, learning preference and/or interest  Or a combination of the above
  • Considering Content, Process, Product, Affect, Learning Environment:• CONTENT: what students should know, understand and be able to do (KUD) as a result of instruction in a particular area of study. It is what is important and matters most, the essential knowledge, of the subject matter.• PROCESS: how the learner accesses and acquires the new knowledge, understanding and skills. It basically begins when the teacher stops talking and tells the learner to begin to work making personal meaning out of the information and skills that he/she has accessed.• PRODUCTS: how the learner demonstrates what he/she has come to know, understand and be able to do at the end of a significant or major unit of study.• AFFECT: the learner’s feelings about the learning environment and situation. Affect includes feeling emotionally and physically safe, secure, belonging to a group, feeling affirmed in their importance as a member of the group.• LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: visible and invisible structure of the classroom that equips the learner and the teacher to work so that individuals and the group benefit from that work. Includes how space, time and materials are used and the flexibility of the learning environment.
  • Considering Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile:• READINESS: the current content knowledge, understandings and skills (KUD) a student has in relationship with the learning that is about to take place. Student who are not ready have learning gaps, but those gaps are not necessarily synonymous with ―ability.‖• INTEREST: those topics and areas that the student is interested in thinking about, doing, learning, and spending time with. Providing linkage between the content and students’ interests help them connect with new information, understanding and skills by making the content in ways that are appealing, interesting, worthwhile and relevant to them.• LEARNING PREFERENCE/PROFILE: a learner’s preferred mode of learning; influenced by learning style, intelligence preference (Gardner), gender, socio-economic and cultural background.
  • Instruction
  • ―In an effective classroomstudents should not only know what they are doing, they should also know why and how.‖ -Harry Wong
  • Characteristics of effective differentiated instruction:• Teachers find out where students are and begin there• Teachers believe in the importance of learner differences• Teachers plan and provide specific instruction that enables each learner to learn deeply and quickly as possible• Time is used flexibly• Teachers use a wide variety of: • Learning groupings • Effective instructional strategies • Formative assessment structures • Collaborative (student-student, teacher-student) devices• Teachers have a clear understanding of the power of curriculum and how to engage learners in instruction• Decisions about delivery, management and planning of differentiated instruction are grounded in common sense
  • Instructional Strategies,some examples:  Stations  Choice boards  Learning centers  4MAT  Lab centers  Agenda/task list  Portfolios  Complex instruction  Small group instruction  Orbital studies  Jigsaw  Entry points  Anchor activities  Tiers  Learning contracts  Varied organizers  Compacting  Varied texts  Problem-based  Varied materials  Group investigation  Varied homework  Independent study  Choices  Varied journal prompts
  • Learning Environment
  • Healthy Classrooms:• Teacher continually developing own expertise• Teacher knowledge and passion for the content• Comprehensible content and instruction• Respect and esteem for student differences/similarities• Relevant, authentic, meaningful content that empowers• All are appreciated• Teaching of the whole person• Linkages• High expectations, lots of ladders to success• Metacognition• Collaborative teaching/learning• Understanding of purpose• Student access to and independence in the learning• Positive energy and humor• Joyful teaching and learning• Overt student discipline• Student self-management of the learning/environment• Engagement
  • Considering Physical Space Think of a variety of ways to arrange your space to allow for whole, individual and small groups to work. Are there other areas, beyond the classroom, that may be used? If furniture can’t be moved, how can people be rearranged within the space? How can quiet and areas of movement and conversation be set up to coexist? How can exemplars, rubrics and student work be displayed while having areas that are free of visual distractions? When furniture is moved temporarily, who will do it, how quickly and at what noise level? How will all know where to appropriately move it? How will we deal with materials and supplies when furniture is moved? Who is allowed to move around the room and under what circumstances? What is the ―movement‖ signal? What is the ―clean up‖ signal? What is the signal for moving from one task/place to another? What happens when someone’s movement is distracting or disruptive to others? What is the warning signal for this?
  • Considering Materials What materials/supplies are always available in the classroom? What materials/supplies are occasionally needed and available? How will materials/supplies be rotated and stored? Which materials may students access? Which materials may only the teacher access? How will students know what materials are appropriate for them to use at a given time? Who will get out/put up materials? What is the signal for that? What is the appropriate noise level? What are the guidelines for sharing materials when it’s necessary? How will we care for materials and supplies? What are the consequences for inappropriate and/or disruptive use of materials and supplies? What is the warning signal for this?
  • Considering Time When will working as a whole group be best? When will small group or individual work helpful? How will students know where to work in certain group configurations and what is the signal to tell them? How will students self-manage when teacher is not directly supervising their work? What rules and procedures will govern the variety of work places and types? How will students signal for help when: teacher is busy with others and teacher is available? What will students do when they have completed their task and others are still working? What will students do if they need more than the allotted time to complete their task? What is the procedure for each student/group to turn in completed work? At what times is student movement appropriate and not? How will students know which task to work on at a particular time and place? How will students be able to know if they are working at a high quality level? What is the procedure and format for students to keep track of their goals, work and accomplishments? How will the teacher manage providing feedback to individual and groups of students? While different student-group configurations are in play, how will the teacher monitor the work of those who are able to work independently as well as those needing closer teacher guidance?
  • Grouping
  • Flexible Groupings Theheart of differentiation! Optimal times: at exit points  When some haven’t yet mastered and others are ready to move on OR  Some would benefit from an advanced task and others from a more basic activity Is NOT: tracking, ability, performance- based or cooperative groups Is not necessarily a full-time grouping; there IS a time and place for whole-group and individual instruction
  • So…what is flexible grouping? Determined by evidence of learning needs or teacher’s perceptive judgment Based on specific learning needs, strengths or preferences Fluid membership (moving in and out of) Groups work on different activities based on needs, strengths, preferences Students grouped and regrouped as appropriate for particular activities Occurs as needed Grouping based on individual students’ skill proficiency, content mastery, interests or learning preferences Number of members is variable, depending on teacher’s judgment, may be single, pairs, triads or quartets Appropriate in all class configurations-even IEP & AP!
  • Management
  • How do I manage it all? Before differentiation of instruction goes ―online,‖ you must have the foundation of effective classroom management solidly in place. If you do, then move past ―Go‖ to the next steps for management of differentiated lessons! If your classroom management leaves you breathless—and not in a good way, get that taken care of first!REMEMBER: Deep and authentic learning does nottake place in chaos!
  • Management Basics Be strong about WHY you are differentiating—rationale based on student readiness, interest and learning profile Start small Start with what you’re already doing—keep and tweak Transition students into the process with short activities for warm-up and cool-down Begin at a pace you’re comfortable with Communicate differentiation methods with parents and students Decide what you can do ahead of time Save time: laminate materials, standardize emails/letters, copy/paste, delicious.com for links you refer to often, think how to utilize technology to save printing costs and time at the printer Empower students in management tasks—you do not have to do it all! Plan directions thoughtfully and purposefully—ahead of time Time differentiated activities when they will best support student success Collaborate with other teachers to build differentiated units that can be shared Allot less time for a task than the student’s attention span—less for basic, more for advanced students Anchor activities for some allow you to focus on those who need your attention Use great care—creating and delivering instruction
  • Management Basics Streamline methods of assigning and moving students into grouping configurations Have a ―home base‖ group for students Plan, plan, plan Give students as much responsibility for their learning as possible Engage students in discussions—bring them into the conversation about procedures, your own thinking, the entire group’s experience with a particular issue in the classroom Be collaborative with students To have power, give power Maintain appropriate relationships with students, neither too soft nor too firm Demonstrate perseverence and flexibility to your students through talking to them about adjustments you make and frustrations that you had and how you overcame them Plan for ways students are held accountable for completing tasks, managing materials and time, and working together collaboratively Have a signal or sign that lets students know when you are available to help them Have a procedure for students to use when they want help and you are busy with another student (create a mind map, for example—must not be ―busy work‖)
  • Let Students Help Manage Procedures, rules and routine:  discuss with and teach to students.  Regardless of grade level—model and students practice.  Allow time for practicing and mistakes—and tell students.  Be consistent and constant in their use—students need and want it. Examples:  Getting teacher’s help signal—when T is busy and available  Noise: what’s acceptable, how to manage and signal to warn  Turning in work  Making use of physical space for learning—moving self and things  Off-limit areas  Preventing and policing ―roaming‖ or ―stray‖ movement behaviors  Teacher’s acknowledgement of on-task behaviors  What to do if (authentically) finish before others  Beginning and ending signals and procedures  Resolving conflicts—especially when working with others  Student record keeping
  • Flexible-group Management Not every group will need as much of your time, be flexible about that (cut yourself some slack). Plan for more time with groups that you suspect will need it. Create tasks for groups that are self-directed--give them checklists of steps to follow as they work. Provide rubrics, checklists and examples (exemplars). Establish and teach behavior guidelines, including the difference between productive/disruptive noise. Set up procedures for students to ask for your help as well as a signal for letting them know when you’re available to help. Teach students expectations for accountability; provide a method (forms, etc.) for them to use to document their work. Establish procedures for students who finish early (having produced quality work). Plan for those students who work productively but still need more time. Consider debriefing with a whole-group discussion, activity, reflection, sharing of work—either at end of the session or beginning of the next class time. Provide opportunities for all students to share—use your observations to bring out points and provide feedback, this will show students you are watching and listening and also adds another dimension to their accountability.
  • ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION1. Good curriculum always comes first.2. All tasks are respectful of every learner.3. When in doubt, teach ―up!‖4. Flexible groupings are used.5. Ongoing assessment and data analysis, always.6. Grade for growth to yield student persistence in learning. (Opportunities to improve and re-evaluate—teaches students perseverence.)
  • So--Where do I begin?1. Focus first on how to think about teaching and learning and individual student needs2. Start small—start with what you already are doing and refine3. Grow—slowly, but grow4. Begin with the end in mind (envision the activity)5. Plan—collaboratively with others when possible/appropriate6. Purposefully design your directions, groupings, environment, grading, routines, procedures, organization, student choices7. Teach students to work for quality8. Get to know your students, early & often9. Empower your students in their learning10. Communicate with parents11. Reflect as you go—be analytical as you look at things12. Don’t give up!
  • Sources:• Gregory, G., editor (2011). Differentiated Instruction. Corwin Press.• Gregory, G. & Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data Driven Differentation in the Standards- Based Classroom. Corwin Press.• Heacox, D. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom. Free Spirit Publishing.• Imbeau, M. (2010). Workshop: Teaching Academically Diverse Learners and Differentiated Instruction: Ideas and Issues to Consider for the Elementary Classroom.• Nunley, K. F. (2006). Differentiating the High School Classroom. Corwin Press.• Strickland, C. A. (2009). Professional Development for Differentiating Instruction. ASCD.• Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. ASCD.• Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding the Needs of All Learners. ASCD.• Tomlinson, C. A. & Cunningham-Eidson, C. (2003). Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum (Grades 5-9). ASCD.• Tomlinson, C. A. & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating Differentiated Instruction + Understanding by Design: Connecting Content and Kids. ASCD.• Wormeli, R. (2007). Differentiation, From Planning to Practice Grades 6-12. NMSA.
  • ―The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individualdifferences among learners.‖ --Yue zheng, 4th century, B.C. ―Xue Ji‖ treatise