ONE TOOL WHICH CAN BE MOST HELPFUL FOR PLANNING FOR STUDENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGES IS A FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT. IT IS AN INFORMAL OBSERVATIONAL ASSESSMENT, WHICH NEEDS TO BE CONDUCTED WITHIN THE NATURAL CONTEXT OF AN ACTIVITY IN THE NATURAL SETTING. EXCELLENT TOOL TO ASSIST WITH COMMUNICATION NEEDS, BEHAVIORIAL NEEDS, AND ACCESSIBILITY TO THE ACTIVITY
Adaptations are the umbrella term which include both accommodations, modifications, and providing access.
Explain students are not expected to meet grade level standards – not diploma track.
Who deserves accommodations? Everyone! Instructional accommodations are not just for students who are struggling. When accommodations are made, all students benefit.
The “Least Dangerous Assumption” leads into a new way of thinking about and educating all students; and to a new image of the type of classroom that will meet the needs of the diverse learner. We are familiar with differentiated classroom but we now need to tie that knowledge to classrooms where there are students with moderate to severe disabilities
You need to be aware of the learning limits and abilities of all students
Why DifferentiateInstruction?To…• Address classroom diversity• Challenge every student• Address gender differences• Consider cultural issues• Draw on student interests• Increase academic learning; decrease learning gaps• Improve student self-efficacy for learning• Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning• Promote self-directed learning behaviors
•Curriculum differentiation is a process used to maximize studentlearning by improving the match between a students individualneeds and the curriculum.•Adapting the curriculum to meet the unique needs of learners bymaking modifications in complexity, depth, and pacing.•Differentiated instruction is a process to teaching and learning forstudents of differing abilities in the same class. (Tomlinson, 1995)•A proactive decision-making process that considers criticalstudent learning differences and the curriculum.•When we teach the same to all kids 1/3 already know, 1/3 will getit, 1/3 wont. This means 2/3 kids are wasting their time(Tomlinson & Schmidt)
Elements that can bedifferentiated• Content• Curriculum & materials• Process• Instructional activities & approaches• Product• Assessments
Purpose ofAssessment• To identify the characteristics of an individualstudent that can impact on their learning andachievement• To assess prior knowledge, experiences, andpreconceptions• To monitor learning progress over time• To support teachers’ problem solving anddecision making• To measure the impact or a DifferentiatedInstruction initiative or specific DifferentiatedInstruction strategies
A Functional Ecological Assessment begins with….• Knowing the targeted learner• Observing what is going on in the general education classroom• Beginning with one specific activity• Noting the natural cues and skills required to participate in the activity• Noting what the teacher is doing• Noting what the students are doing• Looking at with whom is the targeted learner is interacting• Looking to see in what way is they are participating within the activityFunctional EcologicalAssessment
Using the EcologicalDataDevelop intervention strategies based upon• Physical, emotional, sensory needs• Modified materials and/or technology• Individualized instruction• Individualized demonstration of learning,evaluation, and grading
AdaptationsCurricular adaptations are changespermissible in educational environmentswhich allow the student equal opportunityto obtain access, results, benefits andlevels of achievement
Adaptations Include:• Modifications (What)• Changes in the curriculum are made to meet theeducational needs of the students and also toprovide meaningful and productive learningexperiences based on individual needs andabilities• Accommodations (How)• Allow access to the current level of instruction inthe classroom by altering the environment, formatof an assignment or equipment used so allstudents can access the curriculum
ModificationsSome adaptations do alter or lower standards orexpectations and can be termed “modifications.”These modifications, although providing access,will necessitate careful selection of assessmentcomponents to achieve accountability forperformance
11AccommodationsSome curricular adaptations do notfundamentally alter or lower standards orexpectations in either the instructional orassessment phases of a course of studyand can be designated “accommodations”
Nine Types of AdaptationsSizeAdapt the number of itemsthat the learner is expected tolearn or complete.TimeAdapt the time allotted and allowedfor learning, task completion, ortesting.Level of SupportIncrease the amount ofpersonal assistance with aspecific learner.InputAdapt the way instruction isdelivered to the learner.DifficultyAdapt the skill level, problem type, orthe rules on how the learner mayapproach the work.OutputAdapt how the learner canrespond to instruction.ParticipationAdapt the extent to which alearner is actively involved inthe task..Alternate GoalsAdapt the goals or outcomeexpectations while using the samematerials.SubstituteCurriculumProvide different instructionand materials to meet alearner’s individual goals.Center for School & Community Integration, Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Teachers can Differentiate the:CONTENT:Knowledge, skills and attitudeswe want children to learn;differentiating content requiresthat students are pre-tested sothe teacher can identify thestudents who do not requiredirect instructionPROCESS:Varying learning activities /strategies to provideappropriate methods forstudents to explore theconcepts; important to givestudents alternative paths tomanipulate the ideasembedded within the concept(different grouping methods,graphic organizers, maps,diagrams, or charts)PRODUCT:Varying the complexity of theproduct that students create todemonstrate mastery of theconcepts; students below gradelevel may have differentperformance expectations thanstudents above grade level (ie.more complex or moreadvanced thinking ~ Garner’sMultiple Intelligences)According to Students’:READINESS/DEVELOPMENTAL:Some students are ready fordifferent concepts, skills, orstrategies; others may lack thefoundation needed to progressto further levelsINTEREST:Student interest inventoriesprovide information to plandifferent activities that respondto individual student’s interestLEARNING STYLEIndividual student preferencefor where, when or howstudents obtain and processinformation (visual, auditory,kinesthetic; multipleintelligences; environment,social organization, physicalcircumstance, emotional13
Different StrategiesDifferentiation by:Content• The pupils study different materials within the same topic area but do the sameactivities.Activities• The pupils study the same content but do different activities.Negotiation• The pupils study different materials within the same topic area and also dodifferent activities. Teachers help pupils to select appropriate materials.Support• The pupils study the same materials, do the same activities, but receive differentamounts of support from the teacher or from extra printed information.Extension• The pupils study the same materials and do the same activities. Extension workis given to the most able after they have finished the basic activities.
Different Strategies cont’Response• The pupils are set open-ended assignments that can be interpreted at differentlevels.Group Work• The pupils work in mixed ability groups. Pupils help each other by workingtogether and interpreting the tasks at different levels.Gradation• The pupils are given the same information and activities. The activities becomeprogressively more difficult. The pupils work through the activities at differentrates and therefore only the more able do the more difficult tasks.Role• The pupils carry out different activities depending on the role they are playingin a simulation. The roles are matched to the abilities, aptitudes and needs ofthe pupil.
Some Key Guidelinesfor Differentiation• All of you are already doing some differentiation• Take small steps to implement• Use assessment as a teaching tool to extend ratherthan merely measure instruction• Emphasize critical and creative thinking as a goal inlesson design• Engaging all learners is essential
In a differentiated classroom, the teacherproactively plans and carries out variedapproaches to content, process, andproduct in anticipation of and response tostudent differences in readiness, interest,and learning needs.(Tomlinson, 2001)
Who benefits?How is it beneficial?• All students benefit from appropriatelychallenging learning experiences.• Teachers benefit because they cantarget essential skills that all studentsmust have in order to meet the schoolaccountability requirements.
Remember• Kids come in different shapes and sizes aswell as interests, learning profiles, andreadiness levels.• One size does not fit all• One size fits one!