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# Understanding Variable Frequency Drives

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### Understanding Variable Frequency Drives

1. 1. Welcome to Connecting Engineering Students to Industries… nfi Understanding “VFD” Variable Frequency Drive
2. 2. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES What is VFD? How it Works? Induction Motor Facts VFD Practical Examples
3. 3. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES What is VFD ? Variable Frequency Drive Used to control the speed of Motor And make the system intelligent & Saves energy Speed of Motor directly Proportional to Frequency rmp = 120f/p F: Frequency P: Number of Poles
4. 4. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Electric Motor Facts Electric motors account for more than used in industry 63% two-thirds of all energy of the energy consumed is linked to air & liquid flow A typical 50HP industrial motor, with an efficiency of 90%, costs over \$25,000 to operate continuously over a year.
5. 5. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Energy Usage in Office Building Other 17% Ventilation & Cooling 52% Lighting 31%
6. 6. How Does VFD Works?
7. 7. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES How Does VFD vary Frequency? A VFD, AC inverter, or electronic speed controller for AC motors converts the AC supply to DC using a rectifier (diode), then converts it back to a variable frequency by using a inverter bridge. VFD Block Diagram Motor Main Power Rectifier Capacitor Switches (IGBT’s)
8. 8. Lets see how we can save energy using Variable Frequency Drives
9. 9. FAN CURVE – BASIC CHARACTERISTIC OF A FAN At decreasing speed PRESSURE (P) AT A GIVEN SPEED FLOW (Q)
10. 10. FAN OPERATING POINT WITH LOAD PRESSURE (P) Operating Point P = K X Q.Q FLOW (Q)
11. 11. Now lets talk about varying the flow….
12. 12. SYSTEM LOAD PROFILE % TIME RANGE 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 CFM range
13. 13. 100 % 80 % 60 % DUTY CYCLE (% OF TIME) 10 % 40 % 40 % 40 % 10 % CFM
14. 14. Now let’s see the different ways of Air Flow Control…
15. 15. Basic ON/OFF Control SIMPLE METHOD HOME APPLIANCES TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION Q max ON OFF Average Flow rate: Q max x Ton/ (Ton + Toff)
16. 16. Outlet Damper Control
17. 17. OUTLET DAMPER CHARACTERISTICS CURVES SHIFTS AS DAMPER CLOSES 120 100 % PRESSURE (P) Energy = P X Q 60 80 100 % FLOW (Q)
18. 18. OUTLET DAMPER CHARACTERISTICS CURVES SHIFTS AS DAMPER CLOSES 120 100 % PRESSURE (P) Energy = P X Q 60 80 100 % FLOW (Q) Energy Saving = Difference in Area
19. 19. OUTLET DAMPER CHARACTERISTICS CFM HORSE WEIGHTED DUTY CYCLE POWER HP 100 10 35 3.5 80 40 35 14.0 60 40 31 12.4 40 10 27 2.7 TOTAL AVERAGE HORSE POWER REQUIREMENT 32.6
20. 20. VARIABLE SPEED FAN CONTROL At decreasing speed PRESSURE (P) 100 50 20 50 80 100 FLOW (Q)
21. 21. VARIABLE SPEED FAN CONTROL At decreasing speed PRESSURE (P) 100 50 20 50 80 100 FLOW (Q)
22. 22. VFD CHARACTERISTICS CFM HORSE WEIGHTED DUTY CYCLE POWER HP 100 10 35 3.5 80 40 18 7.2 60 40 7.56 3.024 40 10 2.24 0.224 TOTAL AVERAGE HORSE POWER REQUIREMENT 13.948
23. 23. CFM DUTY CYCLE HORSE POWER WEIGHTED HP 100 10 35 3.5 80 40 35 14.0 60 40 31 12.4 40 32.6 TOTAL AVERAGE HORSE POWER REQUIREMENT OUTLET DAMPER CHARACTERISTICS 10 27 2.7 CFM 13.948 TOTAL AVERAGE HORSE POWER REQUIREMENT VFD CHARACTERISTICS DUTY CYCLE HORSE POWER WEIGHTED HP 100 80 60 40 10 40 40 10 35 18 7.56 2.24 3.5 7.2 3.024 0.224
24. 24. SAVING CALCULATION: OUTLET DAMPER VARIABLE SPEED WEIGHTED HORSE POWER 32.6 13.948 x KW/HP .746 .746 x HR/MONTH 730 730 = KWH/MONTH 17753 7596 x COST (INR) 2.5 2.5 = TOTAL COST (INR) 44382.5 18990
25. 25. Saving per month on a single fan…?
26. 26. Now Lets see the Practical Demonstration of VFD
27. 27. Important Parameters used in various Applications Source of Frequency Command • Master frequency determined by digital keypad • Master frequency determined by 0 to +10 V input on AVI terminal • Master frequency determined by 4 to 20mA input on ACI terminal • Master frequency determined by potentiometer on digital keypad
28. 28. Important Parameters used in various Applications Source of Operation Command • Operation determined by digital keypad • Operation determined by external control terminals, keypad STOP is effective • Operation determined by external control terminals, keypad STOP is ineffective
29. 29. Important Parameters used in various Applications STOP Method • Ramp Stop • Coast Stop
30. 30. Important Parameters used in various Applications Maximum Output Frequency Range 0 ~ 400 Hz
31. 31. Important Parameters used in various Applications Acc./ Dec. Time Voltage / Frequency Setting for various Applications
32. 32. Important Parameters used in various Applications Acc S Curve To Smooth the Acc/ Dec. Operation Range 0 - 7
33. 33. Important Parameters used in various Applications Jog Frequency To adjust the Speed of Motor at Jog Mode Jog Acc./ Dec Time 0.1 to 600.0 sec or 0.01 to 600.0 sec
34. 34. Important Parameters used in various Applications Over–Voltage Stall Prevention Over-Current Stall Prevention during Acceleration
35. 35. Important Parameters used in various Applications Operation Control of VFD 2 Wire Control (1)– On/Off & Direction from Toggle Button
36. 36. Important Parameters used in various Applications Operation Control of VFD 2 Wire Control (2) – On/Off & Direction from Toggle Button
37. 37. Important Parameters used in various Applications Operation Control of VFD 3 Wire Control – On/Off from Push Button & Toggle Button for Direction Control
38. 38. Important Parameters used in various Applications Analog Output Signal Analog Frequency Meter (0 to Maximum Output Frequency) Analog Current Meter (0 to 250% of the rated AC drive current) Analog Output Gain 0 ~ 200%
39. 39. Important Parameters used in various Applications Bias Adjustment
40. 40. Important Parameters used in various Applications Bias Adjustment
41. 41. Important Parameters used in various Applications Bias Adjustment
42. 42. Important Parameters used in various Applications Gain Adjustment
43. 43. Important Parameters used in various Applications Gain Adjustment
44. 44. Important Parameters used in various Applications Gain Adjustment
45. 45. Important Parameters used in various Applications Second Source of Frequency Command Keypad Up/Down AVI (0-10V) ACI (4-20mA) Keypad Potentiometer
46. 46. Important Parameters used in various Applications Reverse Operation Inhibition Parameter Lock PLC Operation Jog Acc./ Dec Time 0.1 to 600.0 sec or 0.01 to 600.0 sec
47. 47. VFD saves Energy & make Motor Control Mechanism Intelligent
48. 48. 100+ Video Tutorials Coupon Code in \$99 \$49 https://www.udemy.com/nfi-plc-online-leaning/?couponCode=slideshare Life time Access Course Outline Learn to Code | Code to Learn nfi presentsLearn 4 PLC’s in a Day PLC – Programmable Logic Controller Delta DVP 14 SS + 16 SP • 100+ PLC Video Tutorials Allen Bradley M1000 • Doubt Clearing Complementary LIVE Sessions on Team Viewer Siemens S7 200 • Ladder Logic Programming Schneider • PLC Presentations, PLC Circuits, PLC Codes Analog Cards Programming • FREE PLC Simulation Software for Practice 04 AD – Analog to Digital 04DA- Digital to Analog For more courses visit www.nfiautomation.org
49. 49. PLC & VFD Advanced Course 4 PLC’s Training Platforms \$149 Course Link: Course Highlights: http://www.wiziq.com/course/28882-plc-andac-drives-online-certificate-trainaing-course • 30 Live Practical Classes on PLC, Analog Cards & AC drives- VFD • 100+ PLC Video Tutorials with Lifetime Access & FREE PLC Simulator • FREE Circuits Diagram For more courses visit www.nfiautomation.org
50. 50. Connecting Engineering Students to Industries… Thank You nfi