Chat for Business Purposes


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Chat for Business Purposes

  1. 1. Chats for Business Purposes Francisco Salgado Robles Apr. 21, 2008
  2. 2. Introduction : Description <ul><ul><li>Since the 1990s there has been a growing interest in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the uses of technology in L2 and FL education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Beauvois, 1997; Blake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Lee, 2002; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith, 2003; Warschauer, 1997), specially for its potential for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive and collaborative language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Warschauer, 1997). </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Strategies that NNS of Spanish use to understand and </li></ul><ul><li>make themselves understood when they interact in </li></ul><ul><li>chats with other NNS and NS of Spanish. </li></ul>Introduction : Purpose
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Interaction Hypothesis asserts that learners must be exposed to target language that is not only understandable (i.e., comprehensible input), but also beyond the learner's competence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This research thrust views conversation from the perspective of negotiated interaction, either between NS and NNS or between two or more NNS. This kind of interaction encourages language learners to stretch their linguistic abilities in L2 by means of checking their understanding of the discourse until mutual competence is achieved (Boxer, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, through interaction with others language is best learned (Atkinson, 2002;Doughty & Young, 1986; Ellis, 1994; Gass, 2003; Long, 1983, 1996; Swain, 2000). </li></ul></ul>Introduction : SLA Theory
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ A mutual attempt of two interlocutors to agree on a </li></ul><ul><li>meaning in situations where requisite meaning </li></ul><ul><li>structures do not seem to be shared” (Tarone, 1981: </li></ul><ul><li>288). </li></ul>Introduction : Communication Strategies
  6. 6. Introduction : Communication Strategies Tarone’s (1981) Taxonomy
  7. 7. <ul><li>Given the scantiness of data on CS use in CMC, this study </li></ul><ul><li>aims to answer these questions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RQ 1: What CSs do learners employ during task-based CMC? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RQ 2: How different are the CSs used amongst the interlocutors (i.e., NNS vs. NS / NNS vs . NNS)? ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RQ 3: Are some CSs more effective than others? </li></ul></ul>Introduction : Research Questions
  8. 8. <ul><li>Few studies (Chun, 1994; Lee, 2001, 2002; Smith, 2003) have </li></ul><ul><li>addressed CS use in L2 through CMC from an interactionist </li></ul><ul><li>approach and have found that: </li></ul><ul><li>NNS use a wide range of CSs during task-based CMC and the CMC environment shapes this use; </li></ul><ul><li>A great variety of functions and interactional moves are </li></ul><ul><li>effected when NNS engage in electronic discussions; </li></ul><ul><li>CMC is similar not only to traditional writing in language </li></ul><ul><li>complexity and a variety of styles of interaction, but also to oral discussion in the functions it performs (e.g., topic initiation, familiar style, rapid shifts of topics, use of rhetorical devices and frequent digressions, etc.) </li></ul>Literature Review: Description
  9. 9. <ul><li>A total of 18 participants, distributed in the following </li></ul><ul><li>way: 2 NNS of Spanish (intermediate-mid level of </li></ul><ul><li>proficiency) chatting with 1 NS (heritage speaker) </li></ul><ul><li>enrolled in SPN 3224: Latin American Business </li></ul><ul><li>Environment (intermediate, third-year, conversation </li></ul><ul><li>course) in Fall Semester 2008 at the University of </li></ul><ul><li>Florida </li></ul>Methodology : Participants
  10. 10. <ul><li>15 chat sessions (1 per week) / 30 mins. each (min.) </li></ul><ul><li>Online conversations held using WebCT Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>2 groups: experimental (NNS) and control (NS) </li></ul><ul><li>NNS, NNS + NS (alternating groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Out of class </li></ul><ul><li>Latin-American Business-related topics to discuss (before the class meeting) </li></ul>Methodology : Tasks and Procedure
  11. 11. Significance <ul><li>This study hopes to contribute to the minimal research </li></ul><ul><li>dedicated to the SLA and CALL areas: </li></ul><ul><li>a) from an interactionist standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>and especially… </li></ul><ul><li>b) for less commonly taught courses (i.e., non- </li></ul><ul><li>grammar-based courses) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography <ul><li>Beauvois, M. H. (1997). Computer-mediated communication: Technology for improving speaking and writing. In M. D. Bush (Ed.), Technology enhanced language learning (165-184). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Blake, R. (2000). Computer-mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning and Technology, 4, 120-136. </li></ul><ul><li>Boxer, D. and A. D. Cohen (eds.) (2004). Studying Speaking to Inform Second Language Learning .  Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Chun, D. (1994). Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactive competence. System, 22 (1), 17-31. </li></ul><ul><li>Gass, S. M. (2003). Input and interaction. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The </li></ul><ul><li>handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224-255). Malden, MA: Blackwell. </li></ul><ul><li>Kern, R. (1995). Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and quality of language production. Modern Language Journal , 79(4), 457-476. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, L. (2001). Online interaction negotiation of meaning and strategies used among learners of Spanish. ReCALL, 13, 232-244. </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ (2002a). Enhancing learners communication skills through electronic interaction and taskbased instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 33, 16-24. </li></ul><ul><li>_____________. (2002b). Synchronous online exchanges: A study of modification devices on non-native discourse. System, 30, 275-288. </li></ul><ul><li>Long, M. H. (1983). Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. Applied Linguistics, 4, 126-141. </li></ul><ul><li>_____________. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie, & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of language acquisition. Vol. 2: Second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). New York: Academic Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, B. (2003). The Use of Communication Strategies in Computer-Mediated Communication. System, 31 , 29-53 </li></ul><ul><li>Tarone, E. (1981). Some thoughts on the notion of communication strategy. TESOL Quarterly 15: 285-295. </li></ul><ul><li>Warschauer, M. (1997) Computer-mediated collaborative learning: theory and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Language Journal, 81.3, 470-81. </li></ul>