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Aviation assingment frankfinn Presentation Transcript

  • 1. AVIATIONASSINGMENT
  • 2. contents-HISTORY OF AVIATION.-CURRENT SCENARIO.-MEDICAL EMERGENCY.-ROLEPLAY-INFLIGHT SERVICE-INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTS-DESCRIBE EQUIPMENTS-DUMMY EQUIPMENTS PREPARED-DESCRIBE BOEING 747 & AIRBUS (A300)-air crash-bibliography-acknowledgement
  • 3. NAME:- MADHAVI PANDEYBATCH:- P4ASSESSOR:- SEJAL
  • 4. acknowledgementI take this opportunity to thank the Aviation Faculty Ms. Sejal, my Colleages and my Parents for helping me out for completing the Aviation Project.A heart full thanks to everyone for giving all the assistance in my work.
  • 5. HISTORY OF AVIATION
  • 6. THE MAN WANTED TO FLY LIKE A BIRD IN THE SKY
  • 7. MR. JRD TATA (1904-1993)In 1932, at Mr. Tata’s initiative, the AirlinesDivision of Tata Sons was started. Mr. Tataflew solo from England to India, which gavea lot of promotion to the Civil Aviationsector. Finally, on 15th Oct 1932, a lightsingle engined Puss Moth VT –AND took offrom Karachi on its flight to Mumbai viaAhmedabad. This service was called the‘TATA AIRLINES’ Mr. Tata remainedchairman till 1978. Mr. JRD Tata is thusknown as the ‘Father of Indian CivilAviation’.
  • 8. AIR INDIA INTERNATIONAL WAS SET UP IN 1948 AS THE COUNTRY’SFIRST JOINT SECTOR BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THEPRIVATE SECTOR TO START AN OVER SEAS SERVICE. FIVE YEARSLATER, INDIAN GOVERNMENT DECIDED TO NATIONALIZE THEAVIATION BUSINESS.THE PROPOSED ROUTE SHOWN IN THE ABOVE MAP WAS FROMCROYDON TO KARACHI (PRE-PARTITION).
  • 9. AVIATION BY ITS VERY NATURE CONSTITUTES THE ELITIST PART OF OUR COUNTRYS INFRASTRUCTURE. THIS SECTOR HAS SUBSTANTIAL CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THEDEVELOPMENT OF COUNTRYS TRADE ANDTOURISM, PROVIDING EASIER ACCESS TO THE AREAS FULL OF NATURAL BEAUTY.IT THEREFORE ACTS AS A STIMULUS FOR COUNTRYS GROWTH AND ECONOMIC PROSPERITY.
  • 10. CURRENT SCENARIO WITH LATEST CURRENT AFFAIRS IN AVIATION INDUSTRY
  • 11.  THE INDIAN AVIATION INDUSTRY IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING SECTOR IN THE AVIATION WORLD. THE GOVERNMENT OWNED AIRPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA (AAI) OPERATES 125 AIRPORTS AND CIVIL ENCLAVES OUT OF A TOTAL OF 449 AIRPORTS AND AIRSTRIPS LOCATED THROUGHOUT INDIA. PRIVATE AIRLINES ACCOUNT FOR AROUND 75% SHARE OF THE DOMESTIC AVIATION MARKET ALL OPERATIONAL AIRPORTS HANDLED A TOTAL OF 143.3 MILLION PASSENGERS (105.5 M DOMESTIC AND 37.9 M INTERNATIONAL) IN THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 2011. THE MODERNIZATION COSTS FOR THE TWO AIRPORTS HAS BEEN ESTIMATED AT RS 89 BN (PHASE I) FOR DELHI AND RS 76 BN FOR MUMBAI. A GREENFIELD AIRPORT LOCATED IN NAVI MUMBAI IS BEING PLANNED FOR MUMBAI AS THE SCOPE TO EXPAND THE CURRENT AIRPORT AT SANTA CRUZ IS LIMITED IN THE LONG RUN DUE TO ITS LOCATION AMIDST DENSE URBAN HABITATION AND LACK OF AVAILABLE LAND FOR EXPANSION REQUIREMENTS.
  • 12.  INDIAS 25 BUSIEST AIRPORTS (APR 2010 - MAR 2011) - UPDATE UNDERWAY! AIRPORT IATA CODE PASSENGERS (IN MILLIONS) AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS/DAY CARGO IN TONS (000) 1. DELHI DEL 29.94 600 2. MUMBAI BOM 29.07 670 3. CHENNAI MAA 12.05 389 4. BENGALURU BLR 11.59 223 5. KOLKATA CCU 9.63 130 6. HYDERABAD HYD 7.60 78 7. KOCHI (CIAL) COK 4.34 41 8. AHMEDABAD AMD 4.04 28 9. GOA (DABOLIM) GOI 3.08 7 10. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM TRV 2.53 39 11. PUNE PNQ 2.81 28 12. KOZHIKODE CCJ 2.06 22 13. GUWAHATI GAU 1.93 9 14. JAIPUR JAI 1.66 9 15. COIMBATORE CJB 1.24 7 16. LUCKNOW LKO 1.58 4 17. NAGPUR NAG 1.24 9 18. BHUBANESWAR BBI 1.04 3 19. SRINAGAR SXR 1.04 2 20. INDORE IDR 0.88 5 21. MANGALORE IXE 0.85 <1 22. PATNA PAT 0.84 3 23. AMRITSAR ATQ 0.77 6 24. TIRUCHIRAPALLI TRZ 0.76 2 25. AGARTALA IXA 0.75 7
  • 13. Market size Domestic and international traffic is up 45 percent and 15.1 percent ,respectively . Between May 2008 and 2009 ,airlines have carried 25.5 million domestic and 22.4 million international passengers . Over 135 aircrafts has been added in the past two years alone. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA) estimates domestic traffic to grow 25-30 percent annually and international traffic 15 percent until 2010 .
  • 14. AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTUREAirport Infrastructure Of the 454 airports and airstrips inIndia,16 are designated international airports.Currently 97 airports are owned and operated by the AirportsAuthority of India (AAI).Indias Civil Aviation Ministry aims at 500 operational airportsin the next 12 years, as per a report by Centre for Asia PacificAviation (CAPA)The government aims to attract private investment in aviationinfrastructureMumbai and Delhi airports have already been privatized andare being upgraded at an estimated investment of US$ 4billion over 2006-16.
  • 15. MAJOR AIRPORTS OF INDIA DATA (UNDER CONSTRUCTION)MUMBAI - CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONALIATA/ICAO CODE: BOM/VABBELEVATION: 11 MRUNWAYS (INTERSECTING): HEADING 27-09 ASPHALT 3 489 X 45 M (11 446 FT) ILS CAT-IHEADING 14/32, 2 925 X 45 M (9 596 FT.), ILS CAT I, ASPHALTTERMINALS: TERMINAL 1A, 1B, 1C, T2 SECTIONS B AND C (A DEMOLISHED), NEWTERMINAL UNDER CONSTRUCTIONAIRCRAFT STANDS: 90AEROBRIDGES (INTL/DOM): 11/11OPERATORS (TYPE OF AIRCRAFT): AIR ARABIA (320), AIR FRANCE (B777), AIR INDIA/AIRINDIA EXPRESS (A310, B747, B737, B777, B767), AIR MAURITIUS (767), ANA (B737), BRITISH AW(B747/B777), CATHAY PACIFIC (777), EGYPT AIR (A330), EL AL (767), EMIRATES (A330), ETHIOPIAN(757), ETIHAD (A340), GULF AIR (B767, A320), INDIAN (A320), INDIGO (A320), IRAN AIR (747SP),JAZEERA AW (A320), JET AW (A330, B777, B737, ATR), KENYA AW (B767), KINGFISHER (A320),KOREAN (A330), KUWAIT (A300), LUFTHANSA (B744), MALAYSIA (B777), NORTHWEST (A330), OMANAIR (B737), PAKISTAN INTL (B747), QATAR (A320), ROYAL JORDANIAN (A320), SAUDI ARABIAN(B747), SINGAPORE (B777), SOUTH AFRICAN (A340), SRILANKAN (A320), SWISS (A330), THAI(A330), TURKISH (A310), YEMENIA (A330)DIRECT ROUTES (INTERNATIONAL): ABU DHABI, ADDIS ABABA, AMMAN, AMSTERDAM,BAHRAIN, BANGKOK, BRUSSELS, CAIRO, COLOMBO, DAMMAN, DARWIN, DETROIT, DOHA, DUBAI,FRANKFURT, HONG KONG, ISTANBUL, JEDDAH, JOHANNESBURG, KARACHI, K UALA LUMPUR,KUWAIT, LONDON, LOS ANGELES, MADINAH, MAURITIUS, MUSCAT, NAIROBI, NEWARK, NEW YORKCITY, PARIS, RIYADH, SANAA, SEOUL, SHARJAH, SINGAPORE, SYDNEY, TAIPEI, TEHRAN, TEL AVIV,TOKYO AND ZURICHDIRECT ROUTES (DOMESTIC): UC
  • 16. A BIRDS EYE VIEW OF THE DOMESTIC TERMINALCOMPLEX AT MUMBAIS CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJIINTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. FROM A HEIGHT OF 930 M
  • 17. DELHI - INDIRA GANDHI INTERNATIONALIATA/ICAO CODE: DEL/VIDPELEVATION: 237 MRUNWAYS (PARALLEL): 10/28, 3 810 X 46 M (12 500 FT.), RWY 28 ILS CAT-IIIB, RWY 10 ILS CAT-I, ASPHALT09/27, 2 813 X 46 M (9 229 FT.), RWY 27 ILS CAT-I, ASPHALT11/29, 4 430 X 60 M, ILS CAT-IIIB, ASPHALTTERMINALS: TERMINAL 1D, T2 (INOPERATIVE): 71 000 M², 3 (DOM AND INTL): 480,000 M²TERMINAL 3: ALL AIRLINES EXCL. SPICE JET, INDIGO AND GO AIRTERMINAL 1D: SPICE JET, INDIGO, GO AIRAIRCRAFT STANDS: 69 (EXCL. T3 STANDS)AEROBRIDGES (INTL/DOM): T2: 9, T3: 48 CONTACT STANDS/78 AEROBRIDGESOPERATORS (TYPE OF AIRCRAFT): AEROFLOT(IL9), AEROSVIT, AIR ASTANA (B757), AIR CHINA (B767), AIRFRANCE (B747), AIR INDIA (B747, B777, A310, A320, CRJ), AIR INDIA EXPRESS (B737), AIR MAURITIUS,JETLITE (CRJ,B737), AMERICAN, ARIANA, ASIANA (B777), AUSTRIAN (B767), BRITISH AW (B747/B777), CATHAYPACIFIC (A330), CHINA AL, CHINA EASTERN, CHINA SOUTHERN, CONTINENTAL (B777), DRUK AIR (A319),EMIRATES (B777), ETIHAD, ETHIOPIAN (B767), FINNAIR (A330), GMG (MD82), GULF AIR (A320, B767), INDIGO(A320), JAL, JAZEERA AW, JET AW (B777, B737, ATR, A330), KAM AIR, KINGFISHER (A320,A321, ATR), KLM(B777), KUWAIT AW (A300), LUFTHANSA (A330, B744), MAHAN AIR (A320), MALAYSIA (A330), OMAN AIR,PAKISTAN INTL (B737, B747), QATAR AW(A330), ROYAL JORDANIAN (A310), ROYAL NEPAL (B757), SAUDIARABIAN, SINGAPORE (B777), SPICE JET (B737), SRILANKAN (A320), SWISS, TAJIKISTAN, THAI AW, TURKISH,TURKMENISTAN (B737), UZBEKISTAN, VIRGIN ATLANTIC (A340)DIRECT ROUTES (INTERNATIONAL): ABU DHABI, ADDIS ABABA, ALMATY, AMMAN, AMSTERDAM, ASHGABAT,BAHRAIN, BANDAR ABBAS, BANGKOK, BEIJING, BISHKEK, BRUSSELS, CHIC AGO, COLOMBO, DAMASCUS,DAMMAN, DHAKA, DOHA, DUBAI, DUSHANBE, FRANKFURT, GUANGZHOU, HELSINKI, HONG KONG, ISTANBUL,JEDDAH, KABUL, KARACHI, KATHMANDU, KIEV, KUALA LUMPUR, KUWAIT, L AHORE, LONDON, MADINAH,MAURITIUS, MILAN, MUNICH, MUSCAT, MOSCOW, NEWARK, NEW YORK, PARO , PARIS, RIYADH, SEOUL,SHANGHAI, SINGAPORE, TAIPEI, TASHKENT, TEHRAN, TOKYO, VIENNA AND ZURICHDIRECT ROUTES (DOMESTIC):
  • 18. A FULL BIRDS EYE VIEW OF DELHI IGIA AIRPORT FROM A HEIGHT OF 7.3 KM. THE INTERNATIONALTERMINAL IS LOCATED NEAR THE BOTTOM LEFT CORNER AND THE DOMESTIC TERMINAL 1D ON THERIGHT-SIDE SANDWICHED BETWEEN THE TWO PARALLEL RUNWAYS (9/27 IS THE UPPER RUNWAY WHILE10/28 IS THE LOWER ONE). NEW RAPID TAXIWAYS HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED TO FACILITATE SPEEDIERGROUND MOVEMENT OF AIRCRAFT. A NEW INTEGRATED TERMINAL 3 WAS OPENED IN 2010.I IGIA AIRPORTFROM A HEIGHT OF 7.3 KM. THE INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL IS LOCATED NEAR THE BOTTOM LEFTCORNER AND THE DOMESTIC TERMINAL 1D ON THE RIGHT SIDE SANDWICHED BETWEEN THE TWOPARALLEL RUNWAYS (9/27 IS THE UPPER RUNWAY WHILE 10/28 IS THE LOWER ONE). NEW RAPIDTAXIWAYS HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED TO FACILITATE SPEEDIER GROUND MOV EMENT OF AIRCRAFT. ANEW INTEGRATED TERMINAL 3 WAS OPENED IN 2010 .
  • 19. AIR TRAFFIC Domestic air traffic is likely to be more and touch 86.1 million passengers by 2007 ,states the market research firm Phocis . According to data compiled by Airport Authority of India (AAI) ,24.62 million people flew on international routes to and from India during April -January 2007-2008 .this was the growth of 16.2 percent over the same period last fiscal. the growth of domestic air passengers was at even at a faster rate of 26.1 percent ,with 72.60 million people availing aircraft services . Simultaneously ,freight traffic on both domestic and international increased by healthy 8.2 percent and 12.6 percent respectively .
  • 20. THE INDIAN AVIATION INDUSTRY IS AMONG THE WORLD’S FASTEST GROWIN G INDUSTRIES. IT HASUNDERGONE HUGE TRANSFORMATION FOLLOWING THE LIBERALIZATION OF TH E AVIATION INDUSTRY ININDIA. ONCE OWNED BY THE GOVERNMENT, THE AVIATION SECTOR OF INDI A IS NOW PRIVATELY OWNED WITHFULL SERVICE AIRWAYS AND AFFORDABLE CARRIERS. ALMOST 75% OF THE DOMESTIC AVIATION SECTORCONSISTS OF THE PRIVATE AIRLINES. EARLIER VIEWED AS A COSTLY MEA NS OF TRANSPORTATION,AFFORDED BY FEW, AIR TRAVEL IS NOW CHEAP AND CAN BE AVAILED BY M ANY.CONTINUED GROWTH HAS BEEN SHOWN BY THE AVIATION INDUSTRY IN INDI A, IN RECENT YEARS. IN THEYEAR 2008, IT GREW AT A CAGR OF ABOUT 18% THAT ACCOUNTS FOR US$ 5.6. IN AUGUST 2007, 3.67 MILLIONPASSENGERS AVAILED THE SERVICES OF DOMESTIC AIRLINES, WHICH WAS ABOUT 26% MORE INCOMPARISON TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR. IT IS ESTIMATED BY THE CENTRE F OR ASIA PACIFIC AVIATION (CAPA)THAT THE DOMESTIC TRAFFIC WILL GROW UP BY ALMOST 25% TO 30% BY THE YEAR 2010 WHILE THEINTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IS SUPPOSED TO GO UP BY 15%. BY 2010, 100 MILLION PASSENGERS WILL AVAILTHE AIR NETWORK SERVICE IN INDIA. IN THE YEAR 2010, AN INVESTMENT OF US$ 9 BILLION HAS BEENINCURRED BY THE AVIATION MINISTRY WITH THE AIM TO MODERNIZE THE EXISTING AIRPORTS.GROWTH OF INDIAN NETWORKIN JUNE, 2010, THE MARKET LEADER WAS THE JET AIRWAYS WITH A SHARE OF 26.5 %. NEXT IN LINE ISKINGFISHER AIRLINES WITH 21%, AND AIR INDIA WITH 16.9%. HYDERABAD INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RANKSAMONG THE TOP 5 AS PER THE ANNUAL SURVEY OF THE AIRPORT SERVICE QUALITY (ASQ) PA SSENGERS.NEW AIRPORTS AND TERMINALS ARE BEING DEVELOPED. THE ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN WITNESSED BY THEAVIATION SECTOR IN 2008 OWING TO FALL IN NUMBER OF PASSENGERS COUPLED WITH HIGH FUEL COS TAND SEVERE COMPETITION FROM NUMEROUS OTHER AIRLINES, ASSUMED A G RADUAL GROWTH FROM 2009.AT PRESENT THE GROWTH RATE OF INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC TRAVEL HAS EXCEEDED 35%, WHICH ISTHE WORLD’S HIGHEST.
  • 21.  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AVIATION SECTOR MODERNIZATION OF THE AIRPORTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MRO SEGMENT POLICY ON AIRPORT SECURITY POLICY ON THE MERCHANT AIRPORTS AUGMENTATION OF FLEET FOREIGN EQUITY INVOLVEMENT
  • 22. AVIATION SECTOR OUTLOOK Aviation Sector Outlook As per the Investment Commission of India, the aviation sector is likely to boom further in the coming years, attracting huge investment. Passenger traffic is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 15 per cent in the next 5 years. The Vision 2020 statement announced by the Ministry of Civil Aviation, envisages creating infrastructure to handle 280 million passengers by 2020. Investment opportunities of US$ 110 billion envisaged up to 2020 with US$ 80 billion in new aircraft and US$ 30 billion in development of airport infrastructure.
  • 23. FUTURE OF INDIAN AVIATIONINDUSTRYTHE FUTURE AVIATION INDUSTRY ISESTIMATED TO GROW AT A RATE OF25 % TILL THE YEAR 2012. ALSO,ABOUT 100 MILLION PASSENGERSARE EXPECTED TO BE HANDLED BYTHE AIRLINE INDUSTRY, WHICH IS ATPRESENT 44 MILLION PASSENGERS.BY THE YEAR 2020, ABOUT 280MILLION PASSENGERS AREEXPECTED TO BE HANDLED BY THEMINISTRY OF CIVIL AVIATION.
  • 24. MEDICALEMERGENCIES ON BOARD
  • 25. HOW TO COMMUNICATE ON BOARD ASKINGFOR MEDICAL HELP ?????IN THE CASE OF MEDICAL EMERGENCY OFFLIGHT MY ROLE IS TO DO ALL THE PRE-FLIGHTCHECKS RELATED TO EMERGENCIES AND TOCO-OPERATE AND CO-ORDINATE WITH THEOTHER CREW MEMBERS TO DEAL WITH ANYSITUATION. MY ROLE IS TO SHOW QUICKNESS& REMAIN CALM , COMPOSED & ATTENTIVEDURING THE FLIGHT. I HAVE TO FAMILIAR WITHTHE RULES AN REGULATIONS OF MY WHILSTWHEN I AM WORKING. I SHOULD KNOW THELOCATION & USE OF ALL THE EMERGENCYEQUIPMENTS ON BOARD.IN AN MEDICAL EMERGENCY MY ROLE IS TOGIVE FIRST-AID AND TAKE CARE OF THEPATIENT DURING THE FLIGHT IF PATIENT ISSERIOUS THEN I WILL ASK FOR ASSISTANCE ONBOARD MEDICAL PROVIDERS (DOCTOR) ANDWILL RELEASE THE MEDICAL KIT TO THEPROVIDER WITH APPROPRIATE CREDENTIALS.
  • 26. First Aid Procedure for Asthma Attack CAUSE: ASTHMA IS A MULTI-FACTIONAL DISEASE WHICH MAY BE TRIGGERED BY ALLERGY, EXERCISE, COLD AIR, SMOKE OR INFECTION. SYMPTOMS: SEVERE SHORTNESS OF BREATH, WHEEZING, COUGHING, DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING VICTIM IS USUALLY ANXIOUS AND IS AFRAID HE IS SUFFOCATING. THIS TENDS TO PROLONG THE ATTACK. FIRST AID: VICTIM USUALLY HAS HAD ATTACKS BEFORE AND CARRYS HIS OWN MEDICATION WITH HIM. ASSIST VICTIM IN TAKING HIS MEDICATION. ADMINISTER LOW FLOW OF OXYGEN . KEEP THE CASUALTY CLAM AND REASSURE THEM. ASK THE PATIENT TO SIT IN A POSITION THAT THEY FIND MOST COMFORTABLE, OFTEN LEANING FORWARD WITH ARMS RESTING ON THE TABLE OR BACK OF THE CHAIR. DO NOT LIE THE CASUALTY DOWN.
  • 27. First aid procedure for air sickness CHOOSING SEATS WITH THE SMOOTHEST RIDE IN REGARDS TO PITCH (THE SEATS OVER THE WINGS IN AN AIRPLANE ] SITTING FACING FORWARD WHILE FOCUSING ON DISTANT OBJECTS RATHER THAN TRYING TO READ OR LOOK AT SOMETHING INSIDE THE AIRPLANE. EATING DRY CRACKERS, OLIVES OR SUCK ON A LEMON, TO DRY OUT THE MOUTH, LESSENING NAUSEA. PROVIDING A CARBONATED BEVERAGE. IN CASE OF MILD CASES OF MOTION SICKNESS AND BEFORE GOING FOR SMALL TRIPS OVER THE COUNTER MEDICATION CAN BE A VERY EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURE THEY ARE MECLIZINE BONNIE ANTIVERT DRAMAMINE PROVIDING THE PATIENT AIR SICKNESS BAG.
  • 28. First aid procedure for shockDO NOT LET THE CASUALTY MOVE UNNECESSARILY,EAT, DRINK, OR SMOKE.DO NOT LEAVE THE CASUALTYUNATTENDED. REASSURE THE CASUALTYCONSTANTLY.TREAT ANY CAUSE OF SHOCK WHICH CAN BEREMEDIED (SUCH AS EXTERNAL BLEEDING).LAY THE CASUALTY DOWN, KEEPING THE HEADLOW.RAISE AND SUPPORT THE CASUALTY’S LEGS (BECAREFUL IF SUSPECTING A FRACTURE).LOOSEN TIGHT CLOTHING, BRACES, STRAPS ORBELTS, IN ORDER TO REDUCE CONSTRICTION AT THENECK, CHEST AND WAIST.INSULATE THE CASUALTY FROM COLD, BOTH ABOVEAND BELOW. CONTACT THE EMERGENCY SERVICE.CHECK AND RECORD BREATHING, PULSE AND LEVELOF RESPONSE. BE PREPARED TO RESUSCITATE THECASUALTY IF NECESSARY.
  • 29. First aid procedure for fractured patient USE BLANKETS, PILLOWS, SPRINTS, OR SLINGS TO IMMOBILIZE THE INJURED AREA. ELEVATE IF POSSIBLE. FOR ADDED SUPPORT, CAREFULLY WRAP PILLOW AROUND FRACTURED AREA AND IMMOBILIZE JOINTS ABOVE AND BELOW. SECURE WITH GAUZE. NEVER APPLY A SPLINT OR SLING TOO TIGHT ON EITHER SIMPLE OR COMPOUND FRACTURES AS CIRCULATION MAY BE IMPAIRED.
  • 30. First aid procedure for stroke patient •CHECK THE FACE BY ASKING THE VICTIM TO SMILE. IF ONE SIDE OF HIS FACE SAGS, HE MAY BE HAVING A STROKE. ASK THE VICTIM TO RAISE BOTH OF HIS ARMS. IF ONE ARM BEGINS TO DROOP DOWN TO THE BODYS SIDE, THE VICTIM MAY BE HAVING A STROKE. LISTEN TO THE VICTIMS SPEECH. HE MAY BE HAVING A STROKE IF HIS SPEECH IS SLURRED OR UNINTELLIGIBLE. CHECK TO MAKE SURE THE VICTIM IS BREATHING; IF THEY ARE NOT, BEGIN CPR. IF YOU DO NOT KNOW CPR, PUSH ON THE VICTIM’S CHEST AT LEAST 100 TIMES PER MINUTE. THE VICTIM’S CHEST SHOULD BE COMPRESSED BY AT LEAST TWO INCHES EVERY TIME YOU PRESS DOWN. IF THE PERSON IS VOMITING, POSITION HIM ON HIS SIDE WITH HIS ARM UNDER HIS HEAD SO THAT HE DOESN’T CHOKE IF THE VICTIM’S SYMPTOMS SUBSIDE AND HE APPEARS TO BE BACK TO NORMAL, DO NOT ALLOW HIM TO RESUME ANY NORMAL ACTIVITY. KEEP HIM COMFORTABLE IN A PRONE POSITION UNTIL HELP ARRIVES. HE MAY HAVE HAD A TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK (TIA), ALSO KNOWN AS A WARNING STROKE OR MINI-STROKE. A TIA CAN BE A PRECURSOR TO A MORE SEVERE STROKE.
  • 31. First aid procedure for epilepsy•REMAIN CALMSTAY WITH PERSONTIME SEIZUREPROTECT FROM INJURYROLL INTO RECOVERY POSITION AFTER JERKINGSTOPS OR IMMEDIATELY IF VOMITEDMAINTAIN PRIVACY AND DIGNITYOBSERVE AND REASSURE UNTIL RECOVEREDSUPPORT HEAD AND PROTECT AIRWAY AS REQUIRED
  • 32. ditching
  • 33. WHAT IS DITCHING???????A WATER LANDING IS, IN THE BROADEST SENSE, ANY LANDING ONA BODY OF WATER IS CALLED DITCHING.ALL WATERFOWL, THOSE SEABIRDS CAPABLE OF FLIGHT, AND SOMEHUMAN-BUILT VEHICLES ARE CAPABLE OF LANDING IN WATER AS AMATTER OF COURSE.THE PHRASE "WATER LANDING" IS ALSO USED ASA EUPHEMISM FOR CRASH-LANDING INTO WATER IN AN AIRCRAFT NOTDESIGNED FOR THE PURPOSE. THE NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETYBOARD OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT DEFINES "DITCHING" INITS AVIATION ACCIDENT CODING MANUAL AS "A PLANNED EVENT INWHICH A FLIGHT CREW KNOWINGLY MAKES A CONTROLLED EMERGENCYLANDING IN WATER. (EXCLUDES FLOAT PLANE LANDINGS IN NORMALWATER LANDING AREAS.)" SUCH WATER LANDINGS ARE EXTREMELYRARE FOR COMMERCIAL PASSENGER AIRLINES.
  • 34. Equipments required during the water landing/ditching • LIFE JACKET AIR PUMP SURVIVAL KIT LOCATOR BEACON SEA ANCHOR SEA MARKER
  • 35. Ditching role play
  • 36. ROLE PLAY-DITCHING•I (Madhavi), Snehal, Deepak, Monica and Namrata were played the cabin crew role while ditching of anaircraft. In keeping with the time available we decided to loose items should be secured orremoved from the flight deck - at impact, loose items may fly around causing injuries and,after ditching, loose items may float and obstruct evacuation.•Any available clothing items should be worn (to improve chances of survival in the water)and a life jacket put on.•Again, time permitting, the cabin was prepared and the passengers fully briefed. Lifejackets should be donned by all, but not inflated. A reminder to passengers not to inflatetheir life jackets is extremely important.•We Located and considered the deployment of any life rafts carried and/or the plans forthe detachment of slides, which will be used as floatation devices, to prevent their loss .•. A call on the cabin/public address system should made, (typically at 200 ft), to warnother crew and passengers of imminent impact with the surface and to about the "Brace"position. Although a flight crew function, the cabin crew must be prepared to give this callas appropriate.
  • 37. Role Play - Equipments
  • 38. Role Play- Welcome Drinks On Board For PassengersINFLIGHT DRINKSBUSINESS CLASS PASSENGERS WERE SERVED FRUIT JUICES,REFRESHING DRINKS, COFFEE, TEA, A RANGE OF BEERS, A WIDESELECTION OF INTERNATIONAL SPIRITS AND A CAREFULLY SELECTEDCHOICE OF WINES.IN THE ECONOMY CLASS WE OFFERED FRUIT JUICES, REFRESHINGDRINKS, COFFEE AND TEA..WE ALSO SERVE CHIPS AND NUTS.A SPECIAL MENU CONTAINING ELEMENTS OF ASIAN CUISINE WAS BEENDESIGNED FOR THE PASSENGERS. ALL THE DISHES WERE CREATEDAFTER CONSULTATION AND COOPERATION WITH CHEFS AND CREW ONBOARDS.DRINKS ON DOMESTIC FLIGHTSPASSENGERS ON DOMESTIC FLIGHT WERE SERVED COFFEE ANDTEA. OCCASIONALLY, IN THE CASE OF SHORT FLIGHTS, WE SERVEDFRUIT JUICE AND WATER INSTEAD OF TEA AND COFFEE.
  • 39. Task 3
  • 40. Unaccompanied minor Embarkation & disembarkation procedure and related documentsAN UNACCOMPANIED MINOR IS A PASSENGER WHO ISBELOW THE AGE OF 18YRS & TRAVELLING ALONE. THESPECIAL SERVICE FOR THEM ARE:-THEY ARE BOARDED FIRST AND DEPLANED FIRST.HE/SHE IS HANDED OVER TO THE CABIN CREW OF THERESPECTIVE AREA BY THE GROUND STAFF.THE DOCUMENTATION AND PAPERS ARE GIVEN TO THECABIN CREW.EMERGENCY PROCEDURE SUCH AS FASTENING SEAT-BELT, USAGE OF OXYGEN MASK IS TOLD UNM OR DONE BYTHE CABIN CREW.THEY ARE SHOWN THE WAY TO GALLEY, LAVATORY ANDCREW SEATS.SPECIAL CARE IS TAKEN OF THESE PASSENGERS.
  • 41. GIVEAWAYS LIKE TOYS &BOOKS ARE GIVEN TO KEEP THE UNM OCCUPIED.OFTEN WHEN THE UNM TRAVELLING IS AN INFANT, A STEWARDESS/ HOSTES S FLIES AS AN‘SUPERNUMERY’ (EXTRA CREW) ON BOARD & OCCUPIES A PASSENGERS SEAT TO LOOK AFTERTHE INFANT.VARIETY OF BABY MEALS OFFERED ON BOARD. FORMALITIES/ DOCUMNETATION REQUIRED FOR UNM’S BEFOREEMBARKATION:-CHILD TRAVELING ALONE ARE CLASSIFIED AS “UNACCOMPANIED MINORS” FOR WHI CHTHE MANDATORY FORMALITIES SHOULD BE COMPLETED.UNM’S FORM ALWAYS IN 3 COPIES WHITE, PINK AND YELLOW.BIRTH CERTIFICATE, BIRTH RECORD, BIRTH REGISTRY DOCUMENT OR HEALTH CARE CARD(WITH BIRTH DATE), . PHOTOCOPIES ARE REQUIRED. FOR INTERNATIONAL TRAVELCHILDREN MUST MEET THE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS AT CUSTOMS.DOCTORS CERTIFICATE, FIT TO FLY CERTIFICATE AND INDEMNITY BOND ARE THE NECESSARYDOCUMENTS.
  • 42. CONCLUSION FROM THIS TASK I LEARNED ABOUT SPECIAL HANDLING PASSENGERS THEIR REQUIREMENTS ANDSPECIAL SERVICE PROVIDED TO THEM.
  • 43. TASK 4
  • 44. Emergency equipments used in emergency CONTENTS:- 1.SMOKE HOOD 2.OXYGEN MASK 3.FIRE AXE 4.ASBESTOS GLOVES 5.FIRE EXTINGUISHER 6.OXYGEN BOTTLE 7. MEGA PHONE 8.ELT 9.LIFE JACKET
  • 45. Smoke hood A SMOKE HOOD IS A PROTECTIVE DEVICE. A TRANSLUCENT AIRTIGHT BAG SEALS AROUND THE HEAD OF THE WEARER WHILE AN AIR FILTER HELD IN THE MOUTH CONNECTS TO THE OUTSIDE ATMOSPHERE AND IS USED TO BREATHE. SMOKE HOODS ARE INTENDED TO PROTECT VICTIMS OF FIRE FROM THE EFFECTS OF SMOKE INHALATION. HIGH QUALITY SMOKE HOODS ARE GENERALLY CONSTRUCTED OF HEAT RESISTANT MATERIAL LIKE KEMPTON, AND CAN WITHSTAND RELATIVELY HIGH TEMPERATURES. THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF A SMOKE HOOD IS THE FILTER THAT PROVIDES PROTECTION FROM THE TOXIC BYPRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION. VIRTUALLY ALL SMOKE HOOD DESIGNS UTILIZE SOME FORM OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL FILTER AND PARTICULATE FILTER TO SCREEN OUT CORROSIVE FUMES LIKE AMMONIA AND CHLORINE, AS WELL AS ACID GASES LIKE HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE. THE DEFINING CHARACTERISTIC OF AN EFFECTIVE SMOKE HOOD IS THE ABILITY TO CONVERT DEADLY CARBON MONOXIDE TO RELATIVELY HARMLESS CARBON DIOXIDE THROUGH A CATALYTIC PROCESS. SMOKE HOODS PRESENT ON AIRCRAFT, ALSO CALLED PROTECTIVE BREATHING EQUIPMENT , TYPICALLY GENERATE OXYGEN FOR APPROXIMATELY 30 SECONDS. THE OXYGEN IS KEPT IN A CLOSED CIRCUIT, USUALLY THANKS TO A TIGHT NECK SEAL. A SCRUBBER SYSTEM MAY BE PRESENT TO REDUCE THE LEVELS OF CARBON DIOXIDE, AND IS BREATHABLE FOR AROUND 20 MINUTES. WHEN THE OXYGEN SUPPLY ENDS, THE HOOD MUST BE REMOVED TO AVOID SUFFOCATION. THEY ARE INCLUDED IN PREPAREDNESS KITS, AFTER THE SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS.
  • 46. Oxygen maskAN OXYGEN MASK PROVIDES A METHOD TO TRANSFERBREATHING OXYGEN GAS FROM A STORAGE TANK TO THE LUNGS.OXYGEN MASKS MAY COVER THE NOSE AND MOUTH (ORAL NASAL MASK)OR THE ENTIRE FACE (FULL-FACE MASK). THEY MAY BE MADEOF PLASTIC, SILICONE, OR RUBBER.MOST COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT ARE FITTED WITH OXYGEN MASKS FORUSE WHEN CABIN PRESSURIZATION FAILS. [ IN GENERAL, COMMERCIALAIRCRAFT ARE PRESSURIZED SO THAT THE CABIN AIR IS AT A PRESSUREEQUIVALENT TO NO MORE THAN 8,000 FEET ALTITUDE (USUALLYSOMEWHAT LOWER ALTITUDE), WHERE ONE CAN BREATHE NORMALLYWITHOUT AN OXYGEN MASK. IF THE OXYGEN PRESSURE IN THE CABINDROPS BELOW A SAFE LEVEL, RISKING HYPOXIA, COMPARTMENTSCONTAINING THE OXYGEN MASKS WILL OPEN AUTOMATICALLY, EITHERABOVE OR IN FRONT OF THE PASSENGERAND CREW SEATS, AND IN THE LAVATORIES.IN THE EARLY YEARS OF COMMERCIAL FLIGHT, BEFORE PRESSURIZEDCABINS WERE INVENTED, AIRLINER PASSENGERS SOMETIMES HAD TOWEAR OXYGEN MASKS DITHERED MAIN KINDS OF OXYGEN MASKS AREUSED BY PILOTS AND CREWS WHO FLY AT HIGH ALTITUDES: CONTINUOUSFLOW, DILUTER DEMAND, AND PRESSURE DEMAND. RING ROUTINEFLIGHTS.THREE MAIN KINDS OF OXYGEN MASKS ARE USED BY PILOTS AND CREWSWHO FLY AT HIGH ALTITUDES: CONTINUOUS FLOW, DILUTER DEMAND,AND PRESSURE DEMAND.
  • 47. Fire axeFIRE AXES ARE PROVIDED TO OBTAIN EMERGENCYACCESS TO AREAS AND PARTS OF THE AIRPLANEWHICH ARE NOT EASILY ACCESSIBLE (E.G. BEHINDSIDEWALL, ELECTRICAL OR CEILING PANELS). THEHANDLE IS INSULATED TO PROTECT AGAINSTELECTRIC SHOCK.IN THE PAST, FIRE AXES MIGHT BE FOUND IN THEFLIGHT DECK AND IN THE PASSENGER CABIN BUTON MOST CARRIERS, IN COMPLIANCE WITH ANTI-TERRORISM REGULATIONS AND PROCEDURES,AXES ARE NO LONGER CARRIED IN THEPASSENGER/CARGO COMPARTMENT.FIRE AXE – IT HAS A PICK-SHAPED POINTED POLL(AREA OF THE HEAD OPPOSITE THE CUTTINGEDGE). IT IS OFTEN DECORATED IN VIVID COLORSTO MAKE IT EASILY VISIBLE DURING ANEMERGENCY. ITS PRIMARY USE IS FOR BREAKINGDOWN DOORS AND WINDOWS.
  • 48. Asbestos glovesASBESTOS GLOVE, ISAN INSULATED GLOVE OR MITTENUSUALLY WORN TO PROTECT THEWEARERS HAND FROM HOT OBJECTSSUCH AS OVENS,STOVES, COOKWARE, FIRE ETC.FABRIC GLOVES CONSIST OF HEATINSULATIONSURROUNDED BY COTTON FABRIC,USUALLY CONSISTING OFDECORATIVE PATTERNS. NEWEROVEN GLOVES ARE OFTEN TREATEDWITH SILICONE, WHICH MAKES THEMRESISTANT TO WATER AND STAINS,OR MADE OF STRONGER SYNTHETICMATERIALS SUCHAS KEVLAR OR NOMEX.
  • 49. Fire extinguisherA FIRE EXTINGUISHER OR EXTINGUISHER,FLAME EXTINGUISHER IS AN ACTIVE FIREPROTECTION DEVICE USED TOEXTINGUISH OR CONTROL SMALL FIRES,OFTEN IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. IT ISNOT INTENDED FOR USE ON AN OUT-OF-CONTROL FIRE, SUCH AS ONE WHICH HASREACHED THE CEILING, ENDANGERS THEUSER (I.E., NO ESCAPE ROUTE, SMOKE,EXPLOSION HAZARD, ETC.), OROTHERWISE REQUIRES THE EXPERTISEOF A FIRE DEPARTMENT. TYPICALLY, AFIRE EXTINGUISHER CONSISTS OF AHAND-HELD CYLINDRICAL PRESSUREVESSEL CONTAINING AN AGENT WHICHCAN BE DISCHARGED TO EXTINGUISHA FIRE.
  • 50. Oxygen bottleOXYGEN BOTTLE IS A TERM USED FOR SUBSTANCESWHICH ARE GASEOUS AT STANDARD TEMPERATUREAND PRESSURE (STP) AND HAVE BEENCOMPRESSED AND STORED IN CARBONSTEEL, STAINLESS STEEL, ALUMINUM, ORCOMPOSITE BOTTLES KNOWN AS OXYGEN BOTTLE.OXYGEN TANKS ARE USED TO STORE GAS FOR:INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES INCLUDING THE MANUFACTUREOF STEEL AND MONEL.OXYACETYLENE WELDING EQUIPMENT AND SOMEGAS CUTTING TORCHESUSE AS THE LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS FOR ROCKETENGINESMEDICAL BREATHING GAS AT MEDICAL FACILITIES AND ATHOMEBREATHING AT ALTITUDE IN AVIATION, EITHER INAN UNCONTROLLED DECOMPRESSION EMERGENCY, ORCONSTANTLY (IN THE CASE OF UNPRESSURIZED AIRCRAFT)OXYGEN FIRST AID KITSGAS BLENDING FOR CREATING DIVING BREATHING MIXESSUCH AS NITROX, TRIMIX AND HELIOXOPEN-CIRCUIT SCUBA SETS - MAINLY USED FORACCELERATED DECOMPRESSION IN TECHNICAL DIVINGSOME TYPES OF DIVING REBREATHER: OXYGENREBREATHERS AND FULLY CLOSED CIRCUIT REBREATHERSBREATHING OXYGEN IS DELIVERED FROM THE STORAGETANK TO THE USERS BY USE OF THE FOLLOWINGMETHODS: OXYGEN MASK, NASAL CANNULA, FULL FACEDIVING MASK, OXYGEN TENT, AND HYPERBARIEOXYGEN CHAMBER .
  • 51. megaphoneMEGAPHONE, IS A PORTABLE, USUALLYHAND-HELD, CONE-SHAPED HORN USEDTO AMPLIFY A PERSON’S VOICE OROTHER SOUNDS TOWARDS A TARGETEDDIRECTION. THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BYCHANNELING THE SOUND THROUGH THEMEGAPHONE, WHICH ALSO SERVES TOMATCH THE ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE OFTHE VOICE CORDS TO THE AIR. THENATURAL HUMAN VOICE TENDS TOSPREAD EVENLY IN ALL DIRECTIONS,WHEREAS WHEN IT IS SENT THROUGH AMEGAPHONE, THE SOUND ISCONCENTRATED IN A GIVEN DIRECTIONAND THE COUPLING OF ITS ENERGY TOTHE AIR OPTIMIZED, [WHILE IF A LISTENERIS TO THE SIDE, IT IS MORE DIFFICULTTO HEAR WHAT IS BEING SAID.SASAIDID .
  • 52. Emergency locator transmitor (ELT) EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) IS A COMPACT, SELF CONTAINED RADIO TRANSMITTERCARRIED ON BOARD AIRPLANES TO FACILITATE ACCURATELOCATION AND TIMELY RESCUE OPERATION IN EVENT OF ANY DISTRESS SITUATION.
  • 53. Life jacketLIFEJACKETS OR LIFE VESTS AREMANDATORY ON AIRPLANES TRAVELLINGOVER WATER (IN WHICH CASE THEYCONSIST OF A PAIR OF AIR CELLS(BLADDERS) THAT CAN BE INFLATED BYTRIGGERING THE RELEASE OF CARBONDIOXIDE GAS FROM A CANISTER—ONECANISTER FOR EACH SEPARATE CELL. ORTHE CELLS CAN BE INFLATED "ORALLY"THAT IS BY BLOWING INTO A FLEXIBLETUBE WITH A ONE-WAY VALVE TO SEALTHE AIR IN THE CELL). LIFEJACKETS MUSTALSO BE SUPPLIED ON COMMERCIALSEAFARING VESSELS, ACCESSIBLE TO ALLCREW AND PASSENGERS AND TO BEDONNED IN AN EMERGENCY.
  • 54. DUMMY SAFETY EQUIPMENTS Oxygen bottle
  • 55. FIRE EXTINGUISHER Contains HALON It is a device used to contain and overcome fire Halon are bright red in color . Halon is a chemical that envelopes fire ,cutting of the air supply and further absorbing the oxygen surrounding the fire. Halon is used for electrical and general fires.
  • 56. Oxygen mask with first - aid kit  Oxygen mask with first – aid kit  Canisters of pure oxygen placed in the cabin for first aid and smoke fighting purposes .  Kit is used in minor cases of injury or an emergency .  Contain general items for treatments and can be administered by the crew .
  • 57. MEGAPHONE  Megaphone :  Hand held loudspeakers used by crew to enable them to direct emergency evacuation procedures by being heard over various sounds associated with the emergency .
  • 58. Life vests  Life vests :  Automatically inflatable vests found under every seat on board to help in floating during ditching .  Childrens life vests is also present in smaller size .
  • 59. Radio beacon  Radio beacon :  A radio device on board to give out emergency signals on particular frequencies in case of an emergency with no contact with outside world .  Found in the bins as well as in the slide / rafts.
  • 60. Task 6
  • 61. Describe airbus 380 and Boeing 747 airbus a- 380Engines: Four Rolls-Royce Trent 900turbofans or four General Electric/Pratt& Whitney GP-7200 turbofansTypical cruising speed: Mach 0.85(850 km/h)Range: 14,800 km (8,000 nm)Max takeoff weight: 560,000 kg(1,234,600 lb)Wingspan: 79.8m (261 ft 10 in)Length: 72.75m (238 ft 8 in)Passenger seating: 555 passengerson two decks in a three-classarrangement, and up to 800passengers in a one-classarrangementCost: About $250 million US
  • 62. Boeing 747 Boeing 747Engines: Four GEnx-2B67turbofansTypical cruising speed: Mach0.855 (855 km/h)Range: 14,815 km (8,000 nm)Max takeoff weight: 435,456 kg(960,000 lb)Wingspan: 68.5 m (224 ft 9 in)Length: 74.2 m (243 ft 6 in)Passenger seating: 450passengers in a typical three-class configurationCost: About $205 million to$240 million US
  • 63. BOEING747 – AIRBUS 380  The 747 has the advantage over the A380 in cruise speed and range, but also very slightly. The 747 is also a lot smaller. Many airports are widening their taxiways and hangars to fit the A380. The 747 is basically the same size as the 747-400, except it has increased performance. However, the A380 can seat many more passengers than the 747 - the most of any commercial airliner ever created. The running costs are also expected to be lower than those of the 747, which may make airline ticket prices lower. Add to that the brand-new features that make the A380 seem like less of a cramped, commercial airliner and more like a luxurious cruise ship - lounges, bars, gymnasiums, duty-free stores and even a salon. The seats are also more spread-out, even for economy class.  The 747 price is also considerably lower than the A380s - but for the extra $10 million or so airliners will be able to get a lot more, and their passengers will have a much more comfortable flight.  Add to that the A380 has about 100 more seats than the 747. Overall, passengers will prefer to fly on the A380 more than they will prefer to fly on the 747, even if it means spending a little longer in the aircraft.
  • 64. Case study-actual mishap of an air crashNEW DELHI: THE COUNTRY WOKE UP SATURDAY MORNING TO ONE OF THE DEADLIEST AI R TRAGEDIES INMANGALORE. AIR INDIA EXPRESS FLIGHT 812 FROM DUBAI TO MANGALORE, CARRYING 166 PASSENGERS, GOTCOMPLETELY BURNT, KILLING 158 PEOPLE AND EIGHT MIRACULOUS SURVIVORS.TIMELINE OF THE MISHAPAT 2AM ON THE 22ND OF MAY THE ILL-FATED AIR INDIA EXPRESS FLIGHT 812 TOOK OFF FROM DUBAIINTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. CAPTAIN GLUSICA, A SERBIAN EXPAT, WAS IN CHARGE.ITS A FOUR-AND-A-HALF HOUR LONG FLIGHT TO MANGALORE. THE FLIGHT WAS SCHEDULED TO TOUCH DOWNAT ABOUT 6.30 IN THE MORNING.THERE WERE 166 PASSENGERS ON BOARD -- 137 ADULTS, 19 CHILDREN, FOUR INFANTS AND SIX CREWMEMBERS. MOST OF THEM WERE FROM KERALA, HEADING BACK FROM THE GU LF, EACH WITH A DATE TO KEEPWITH THEIR LOVED ONES.AS THE NARROW-BODIED BOEING 737-800 APPROACHED THE TABLE-TOP RUNWAY AT MANGALORE, THE WINDSWERE CALM, ITS A BIT CLOUDY. BUT VISIBILITY WAS CLEAR UP TO SIX KILOMETERS.CAPTAIN GLUSICA AND HIS CO-PILOT CAPTAIN SS AHLUWALIA WERE CLEARED BY MANGALORE AIRPORT TOAPPROACH FOR LANDING. ABOUT 10 MILES SHORT OF THE RUNWAY, THE PLANE SWITCHED OVER TO THEINSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.WHAT HAPPENED NEXT IS A MYSTERY AT THE MOMENT. THE AIRCRAFT HIT THE TARMAC ABOUT 2000 FEETBEYOND ITS TOUCHDOWN POINT. THAT PROVED FATAL FOR THE AIRCRAFT A S IT SIMPLY DID NOT HAVEENOUGH RUNWAY LEFT TO BREAK ITS SPEED.THE PLANE HIT A FENCE, BROKE THROUGH THE AIRPORT BOUNDARY WALL A ND FELL INTO THE GORGEBEYOND, BREAKING INTO TWO AND CATCHING FIRE ON IMPACT.OF THE 166 PEOPLE ON BOARD, 158 PERISHED BUT THERE IS A MIRACULOUS ESCAPE FOR EIGHTPASSENGERS.REPORTS SUGGEST THAT THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RECEIVED NO DISTRES S SIGNAL IN THE MOMENTSBEFORE LANDING. SO THE REASON FOR ONE OF THE COUNTRYS WORST AVI ATION DISASTERS IS STILL AMYSTERY.
  • 65. ACKNOWLEGEMENT Any attempt any level cannot be satisfactorily completed without the support and guidance of the learned people. I would like to immense gratitude to SEJAL for her constant support and motivation that has encouraged me to come up with the assignment .I am also thankful to all other members of frankfinn and my batch mates who have rendered their whole support to all time for thesuccessful completion of the assignment