American colonies


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American colonies

  1. 1. American Colonies<br />Francisco Martinez<br />
  2. 2. Native American Life in the Americas<br />The indigenous people of the Americas had complex societies, great agriculture, great hunters, great engineering, and great empires.<br />In 17th century the indigenous society disintegrated because of the chaos that struck colonial Mexico. <br />The natives in Mexico were being abolished of their native culture by religious theater, brotherhoods, processions, and festivals. <br />Opechancanough was a great example of the life of a native leader. He achieved leadership in the Indian tribes. Indians desired to procure the colonists muskets and the attempts of the English to convert and “civilize” the Powhatans.<br />
  3. 3. Native American Life in the Americas<br />He helped the Indians achieve and train them in firearms. That allowed Indians to become marksmen. <br />Diego Vasicuio was a native priest in native Mexico. From the beginning of the colonial period, the Spanish attempt to convert the Indians of Peru into sincere Catholics were thwarted by the tenacious survival of indigenous religious beliefs and practices that the priests loosely termed “idolatry”. <br />Diego was one of the key elements in the perpetuation of traditional religious thought. There were hundreds of others like Diego that did the same. <br />
  4. 4. Native American Life in the Americas<br />Some Indians gained respect of the Englishman and established trading rights with each other. This caused some trifles with other natives and other tribes.<br />The marriage of young Aztec noblepersons was contracted between the families of the two parties and celebrated with a nuptial dance followed by a feast. <br />Royal families in native Mexico would have up to 150 children, like Moctezume II. <br />However, the Aztec noble families fell captive to the forces of the Spaniards. Aztecs were great warriors, but their enemies partnered up with the Spaniards to fight the Aztecs, receiving some incentives. Some, noble positions were kept by the same native men. <br />The Native woman were very appealing to the conquistadors. <br />
  5. 5. Native American Life in the Americas<br />Indian slaves’ days were numbered, more than half the populations of some of these colonies died in the terrible epidemic of measles. They were the most despised, dehumanized, and least vigorous human group that existed in colonial America. <br />Two groups of people that were classified: Algonquians and the Iroquoians. Jesuits dealt with both these groups. The Algonquians depended on hunting and had different dialects, the Iroquoians cultivated corn and other crops. <br />Some Indians like the Montagnais excelled above all in the technology of transportation. <br />
  6. 6. Native American Life in the Americas<br />Native Americans saw different animals, thunder and waterfalls, as having their own spirits and personalities. <br />Lived in assembled villages, cultivate fields which is sufficient food to maintain all the tribes year around. They live in peace and friendship within each tribe. They are gentle and not easily annoyed. They conceal resentment. They are very social and spend time with family and friends. <br />Make new marital alliances. They have laws: they punish murderers, thieves, traitors, and witches. There is government and law in the Indian life. <br />
  7. 7. African Life in the Americas<br />Most of the slaves used to be Guanche, but they inconveniently and rapidly died from new diseases. So they were replaced by importing Africans to work the sugar plantations. <br />By 1500, the Portuguese annually bought about eighteen hundred African slaves, primarily to labor on the Canaries and Madeiras. <br />African slaves brought diseases to work on their plantations – killing many Europeans. <br />Those African maladies then added to the epidemics that devastate the Native Americans in colonial America. <br />
  8. 8. African life in the Americas<br />Beginning in 1518 to Hispaniola, the colonizers imported growing numbers of slaves from West Africa. <br />Prior to 1820, at least two-thirds of the twelve million emigrants from the Old to the New World were enslaved Africans rather than free Europeans.<br />Most of the slaves were put to work on tropical or subtropical plantations raising cause crops – primarily sugar, rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton, and coffee – for the European Market.<br />By 1700, people of African descent prevailed in the American tropics, especially around the Caribbean. <br />
  9. 9. African life in the Americas<br />On the coast of Africa were the most valuable slaves. The number one place in the 1800s for the most exporting of slaves in Africa was Sierra Leone. <br />In the tropical lowlands of the Caribbean coast, the Indians were replaced by imported African slaves and their offspring – which included mulattoes sired by Hispanic masters.<br />African, along with Indians, were at the bottom of the racial hierarchy. <br />People were in fear, especially in Carolina, that their slaves might combine with defiant Indians to merge a slave rebellion with frontier war. Grew more punishment on slaves by their masters. <br />
  10. 10. Spanish and French on slavery<br />Africans were kept apart from the Indians. <br />Indian slaves were traded for African slaves. African slaves were more valuable because they lived longer. <br />No religious instruction took place on a Barbados or Carolina plantation.<br />Spanish and French usually tried to Christianize their slaves. <br />Carolina became the first colony with a black majority. The majority was concentrated in the rice-growing district: the hot, humid, marshy lowlands of the costal plain. <br />The black majority preserved African traditions and languages and built their quarters in an African style. <br />
  11. 11. Dutch colonies<br />The Dutch extended their religious toleration to New Netherland.<br />Only the Dutch Reformed Church could hold public services. <br />New Netherland became the most religiously and ethnically mixed colony in North America. <br />A tenth of the inhabitants were enslaved Africans, mostly owned by the Dutch West India Company.<br />The company rewarded favored slaves with a status called “half-freedom”, which permitted free movement within the colony and the rights to marry and own private property, in return for an annual payment in grain, furs, or wampum. <br />
  12. 12. Dutch<br />Woman enjoyed greater legal rights and economic opportunities. <br />Married couples formed an economic partnership that shared in the profits and losses. <br />The colony suffered from its reputation for arbitrary government and Indian wars. <br />The Dutch lacked the masses of roaming poor who became indentured servants in the tobacco and sugar colonies established by the English. <br />They did not generate a disaffected religious minority such as the Puritans who founded New England. <br />
  13. 13. Sources<br />Academic article: <br />The Export of Slaves from Africa, 1821-1843 <br /> David EltisThe Journal of Economic History, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Jun., 1977), pp. 409-433 <br /> Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Economic History Association<br />American Colonies<br />Chapter: Colonizers<br />Chapter: New Spain<br />Chapter: Carolina<br />Chapter: middle colonies<br />Chapter: Revolutions<br />The Jesuit Relations<br />Introduction<br />Chapter 1<br />Chapter 2<br />Struggle & Survival:<br />Chapter: Opechancanough<br />Chapter:DiegoVasicuio<br />Chapter: Red Shoes<br />Chapter:Isabel Moctezuma<br />Chapter: Francisca<br />The Aztecs: Rise and Fall of an Empire<br />Chapter: The aftermath of the Conquest<br />Chapter: The empire builders<br />