Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Mexico's History (brief)


Published on

brief history of Mexico for class

Published in: Business
  • Mabanster, I have not checked my Slideshare account for a few years but thank you for your post. I hope this was not deemed disrespectful to your country. It was intended to teach my students some of the basics. Please let me know which slides were not accurate and which ones need editing. Thank you for your help.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I'm a teacher in San Luis Potosi Mexico, bicultural school, I teach History of Mexico in ENGLISH, thnx for you PPP I showed to my students and eventhough its not totally accurate it allow us to know how people from other countries look at our history, some of the sentences and pics were fun, the History of Mexico is very rich and some passages are controversial still nowadays, again thnx for your PPP
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I like your slideshow, Mr. Engel!
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Mexico's History (brief)

  1. 1. History of Mexico
  2. 2. Pre-Columbian Societies <ul><li>Mayans </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mayans <ul><li>Were greatest civilization and were on decline when Spanish arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Are regarded as the fathers of first hieroglyphic writings in Western Hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented own calendar. Why was this important? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Chichen Itza, Uxmal and Mayanspan were three important Mayan cities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>They worshipped the sun god with blood sacrifice. Often, bloodletting was used instead of whole life sacrifice. Stingray spines were used as knives. Blood was drained from strange places on body. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayans were warriors and often their captives were double-sacrificed. Their hearts were cut out for the sun and their heads were drained of blood for the earth. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>By the time the Spanish arrived their empire had experienced famine, drought and they were undergoing a civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to note that archaeologists have found evidence of advanced trade routes established by Mayans throughout the New World by unearthed pottery in various locations as far away as the Mississippi River area. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aztecs
  8. 8. <ul><li>Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Settled mainly in Valley where Mexico City is now located. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcame swampy location of Tenochtitlan. (Swamp explains the 1985 earthquake devastation of Mexico City because the Spanish filled in the swamp.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Aztecs also worshipped the sun. Really dug the human sacrifice thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day coat of arms on Mexico’s flag comes from Aztec religion where an ancient leader was told to settle “where an eagle was killing a serpent on a blue cactus.” </li></ul>
  10. 12. Exploration and Colonization <ul><li>Hernan Cortez landed at Vera Cruz in 1519 </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed Tenochtitlan in 1521 </li></ul><ul><li>Killed Montezuma </li></ul><ul><li>Ushered in 300 years of Iberian domination of Mexico. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Church doctrine allowed the Requirement to vanquish and enslave those who did not submit to it. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to encomienda system where Indian labor was used and abused. </li></ul><ul><li>Creole elite rose from Spanish colonizers. Began to have own desires. </li></ul>
  12. 14. What did Spanish Crown do to bring drive for Independence? <ul><li>Allowed Mexico to be ruled almost autonomously in line with crown. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided an army that at times did not do enough to protect creoles. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed itself to fall victim to wars in Europe and massive inflation due to influx of silver and gold from the New World to the old, thus devaluing and weaking the crown. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost the hereditary line to the Bourbons who then eroded legitimacy of the Church and the creoles themselves. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Aftershocks of Napoleon <ul><li>Real calls for independence arose when during the Napoleonic Wars, Nappy put his brother Joseph Bonaparte (1808 to 1813 ) on the throne of Spain. Brought into question the idea of legitimacy. A revolutionary Junta had sprung up in Spain as well. It declared itself the ruling body of Spain in absence of the Monarch. </li></ul><ul><li>Who did the Mexicans owe allegiance to, the deposed monarch, the Junta, Joseph or themselves? Eventually Joseph is forced to leave the throne of Spain by force and the Spanish Crown is restored, but the seeds of revolution were sown. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Father Miguel Hidalgo <ul><li>Led first armed revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Against Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>He had 80,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to a </li></ul><ul><li>Race war in some </li></ul><ul><li>Regards. Creoles </li></ul><ul><li>Killed as well as </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Hidalgo went to war in 1810 against Spanish troops. </li></ul><ul><li>He had several victories but the creole elite turned against him. </li></ul><ul><li>He was betrayed and killed. </li></ul><ul><li>He is regarded as a Mexican patriot and there is a state named after him. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Augustine de Iturbide <ul><li>Supported by Creole ranchers </li></ul><ul><li>And land owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Declared himself Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Upon defeat of Spanish in </li></ul><ul><li>1821. </li></ul><ul><li>Inept administrator. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Enlightened urbanites force Iturbide to abdicate with the help of the army. </li></ul><ul><li>The army, oddly enough, was not paid well under Iturbide…. hmm…what kind of dictator doesn’t pay his army well? </li></ul>
  18. 20. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF MEXICO, 1824 <ul><li>Elections were held and a constitution was drafted based on the U.S. Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Central American States split from Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective leadership by presidents led to a worsening economy. </li></ul>
  19. 21. General Santa Anna
  20. 22. Santa Anna <ul><li>Originally supported Iturbide. </li></ul><ul><li>Had kicked the Spanish out of Vera Cruz fortress. </li></ul><ul><li>1829, he helped defeat invading Spanish forces at Tampico. </li></ul><ul><li>1833, he won elections as a liberal and became President. He had ousted Bustamante’s government by force in 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>1834 established dictatorship and conservatives placed in high offices. </li></ul>
  21. 23. By 1835… <ul><li>Illegal Aliens from the US outnumbered citizens of Mexico in Texas… </li></ul><ul><li>These illegal aliens violated the Mexican anti-slavery laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Texans decided to leave Mexican rule and the US sent troops to help. </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Alamo <ul><li>Santa Anna messed up because his tactics from previous campaigns involved the execution of POW’s and other vicious practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna led a military campaign against the separatist insurgents and took the Alamo, leaving no survivors. </li></ul><ul><li>“Remember the Alamo” </li></ul>
  23. 25. The Alamo
  24. 26. <ul><li>The Defenders of the Alamo, Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett, etc. were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>One woman was said to have survived and been released with her daughter. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Battle of San Jacinto <ul><li>Ended the Texas War of Independence (1835-1836) </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna was captured. Mexico lost Texas to forces of Stephen Austin and Sam Houston. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Republic of Texas would remain disputed until 1845 when it was annexed by the US and finally the question of Texas statehood was solved by the Mexican-American War of 46-48. </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna deposed at home while being captured by the Americans. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Throughout the rule of Santa Anna… <ul><li>Santa Anna’s fellow leaders were corrupt. Also, the opposition was usually bribed into compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandits roamed the countryside and robbed people without much to deter them. </li></ul><ul><li>Creole landlords and the Church held the most political sway. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Benito Juarez </li></ul>
  29. 31. Benito Juarez <ul><li>He came to power because Mexico’s population was in revolt against Santa Anna’s policies. The poor were angry. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1855 liberals took power and stripped the military and church of many of their privileges and re-distributed land to non-whites. </li></ul><ul><li>This prompted a civil war that lasted from 1858 to 1860. </li></ul><ul><li>Benito, a full-blooded Indian, becomes president in 1861 </li></ul>
  30. 32. Benito Juarez, the Poor Man’s President <ul><li>In order to stop Mexico’s poor from paying so much taxes and to stop inflation, Juarez stops paying foreign debt to France, England and Spain… </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>So France, England and Spain invade. </li></ul><ul><li>French continue to occupy Vera Cruz and march on Mex. City to install an Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Archduke Maximilian of Austria is Napoleon III’s choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Juarez and others fight. An important General is Porfirio Diaz. </li></ul><ul><li>Max is defeated and executed in 1871. </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Juarez returns in 1871 to rule but dies shortly thereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>Another liberal president comes to power but… </li></ul>
  33. 37. General Porfirio Diaz !
  34. 38. While Juarez brought a type of egalitarian ideal to Mexico, Diaz brought Mexico out of the Stone Age <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is not Porfirio Diaz. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a professional wrestler. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrestling is popular in Mexico, too. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See, other countries are crazy just like us. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 39. <ul><li>Diaz had been instrumental in defeating the occupying French. </li></ul><ul><li>After Juarez’s death, Diaz held a successful coup de etat </li></ul><ul><li>Mestizo’s were allowed in the political structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz’s Rurales were efficient in putting down insurrection. </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>Porfirio’s followers are Porforistas. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz’s regime is good for conservatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz encouraged foreign investments in oil and minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>He had railroads, schools, universities and hospitals built. </li></ul><ul><li>His style of rule has been called “paternalistic despotism” </li></ul>
  37. 41. Paternalistic because… <ul><li>He added to the quality of life for most Mexicans . </li></ul><ul><li>His rule was peaceful for 35 years. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a reputation abroad for stability and therefore foreign companies invested in Mexico. </li></ul>
  38. 42. Despotic because… <ul><li>There were no political parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians (considered the lowest class) starved. </li></ul><ul><li>He bribed, killed, jailed or exiled his opponents. </li></ul>
  39. 43. People fed up with starving <ul><li>The masses of Indians who held no power and the poor peasants of the countryside were upset by 1908 with Porfirio not helping them. </li></ul><ul><li>Francisco Madero wrote a book about how the Mexicans needed free elections. He was exiled but came back to Mexico. He was supported by several factions who also wanted to overthrow Dias. </li></ul><ul><li>Dias smells the change in the air and abdicates. </li></ul>
  40. 44. Mexican Politics get interesting <ul><li>1910 </li></ul>
  41. 45. Battle Royale for Power <ul><li>Key Players: Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Carranza, Woodrow Wilson, J.J. Pershing, Madero </li></ul><ul><li>Minor Players: the soldiers of all sides </li></ul><ul><li>Really Minor Players: the Oompa Lumpas </li></ul>
  42. 46. Madero started as the US’s #1 Choice <ul><li>He could not control the revolution and although he served as President until 1913. The Porfirista military executed him. </li></ul>
  43. 47. 1913, The US supports Gen. Huerta <ul><li>This makes Pancho Villa madder than a flea-bit dog… </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. decides that Huerta is incompetent and lands Marines at Vera Cruz and Tampico. Huerta flees in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Obregon fights Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata for power. </li></ul>
  44. 48. Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
  45. 49. <ul><li>1917 Pancho Villa flees north and Zapata heads south. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to Woodrow Wilson cutting off arms and funds to Villa, Villa attacks Columbia, New Mexico and kills eight Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>J.J. Pershing sent to crush Villa. Never finds him but wastes thousands of dollars on this Punitive Expedition. </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Pancho will be assassinated while in retirement. </li></ul>
  47. 51. <ul><li>1928 President Elect Obregon is assassinated. </li></ul><ul><li>His college Plutarco Elias Calles establishes a new political party to unify the disparate factions of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>It is called the PNR then PRM and then… </li></ul>
  48. 52. PRI <ul><li>Institutionalized Revolutionary Party. </li></ul><ul><li>It will rule Mexico for the majority of the 1900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Calles will rule for ten years. He will have a labor oriented government. HE WILL NATIONALIZE FOREIGN INVESTMENTS. He will fight a civil war with the church and redistribute land. </li></ul>
  49. 53. Plutarco Calles
  50. 54. 1946-1970 <ul><li>The PRI will dominate Mexican politics </li></ul><ul><li>The economy will grow and there will be a general stability. </li></ul>
  51. 55. PRI has a bicameral legislature Its appeal is that it represents all people and interests
  52. 56. Important Aspects of the PRI <ul><li>The power of the military and church declines </li></ul><ul><li>6 year presidential terms are culminated when the incumbent picks his successor </li></ul><ul><li>Little dissent is tolerated </li></ul><ul><li>PRI bribes opposition in positions of influence (opponents were the National Action Party PAN and the small communist party) </li></ul><ul><li>Post WWII, the party becomes pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Every Pres. Since Lazario Cardenas stressed industrialization to the expense of welfare. </li></ul>
  53. 57. PRI would buy elections <ul><li>Bribes given to voters </li></ul><ul><li>Dead voters were registered and voted. </li></ul><ul><li>Each state leader of the PRI was responsible for achieving a PRI victory during the elections. </li></ul>
  54. 58. 1970’s <ul><li>Inflation rose from 3% annually in the 60’s to 40% by 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Much strikes and labor dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread Rural poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Echeverria became President with 80% of the vote. </li></ul>
  55. 59. Echeverria <ul><li>Increased control of federal businesses from 50 to 750. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased federal spending in rural areas by 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Women given more rights </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum wage doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to end corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Took neutral stance in foreign affairs which upset the US </li></ul><ul><li>This all jeopardized the PRI’s Unity </li></ul>
  56. 60. Echevarria <ul><li>Liberals were mad too—conservatives took over last liberal newspaper the excelsior </li></ul><ul><li>Little income redistribution was achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Security became lax—internal political terrorism became frequent </li></ul>
  57. 61. 1976 <ul><li>Lopez Portillo took Presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Had a $5 billion economic development plan with Mexican business firms </li></ul><ul><li>In 1976 there was 50% unemployment and 22% inflation </li></ul><ul><li>3.2% population growth annually </li></ul>
  58. 62. Election Rules revised in 1977 <ul><li>Opposition parties could hold 25% of legislative seats </li></ul><ul><li>This breathed new life into PAN and the communist parties. </li></ul><ul><li>But, between 1974 and 1978, 376 political opponents disappeared at the hands of the “White Brigade” </li></ul><ul><li>To Appease rival parties, 400 political prisoners were released by 1978 amnesty law. </li></ul>
  59. 63. 1980 <ul><li>Held seat in UN Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowed massively from IMF before receiving anticipated oil revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Objected openly to US embargo of Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Aided Sandinistas in Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><li>Scolded US for backing UK in Falklands war against Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>Tuna War </li></ul>
  60. 64. 1981 <ul><li>Oil Glut (Remember borrowing from the IMF? How are they going to pay back loans?) </li></ul><ul><li>Established trade ties with USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan will visit to reestablish US relations </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. Portillo embezzeled est. 3.5 billion into various accounts for himself and comrades </li></ul><ul><li>Peso devalued by 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Dog Hill </li></ul>
  61. 65. 1983 <ul><li>De La Madrid took over as president tried to help economy (Portillo had nationalized banking system) </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation rate 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Debt 65 billion </li></ul>
  62. 66. 1984 <ul><li>Issues own “Monroe Doctrine” against US involvement in Nicaragua. </li></ul>
  63. 67. 1985 <ul><li>Mexico City earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 dead </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 billion worth of damage </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 homeless </li></ul><ul><li>De La Madrid initially refused US help. This cost lives. </li></ul>
  64. 71. <ul><li>Ground Movements - Intensities and Accelerations - Liquefaction Effects </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Earthquake of 19 September 1985 caused strong ground motions which lasted for about three to four minutes - a rather unusual duration even for a great earthquake . Strong shaking was felt over an area of about 825,000 square kilometers. Seismic intensities and accelerations differed from point to point depending on geologic conditions. The quake was felt by about 20 million people in Mazatlan, in the State of Sinaloa to Tuxtla Gutierrez in the State of Chiapas, and as far away as Corpus Christi, Brownsville, McAllen, Ingram and El Paso and Houston, in Texas and even in Guatemala City. </li></ul>
  65. 72. 1986 <ul><li>Foreign Debt 105 billion, mostly to 53 US banks </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia drops mass oil on world market (Mexican oil income drops) </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation 106% </li></ul><ul><li>1988- US gives Mexico a 3.5 billion loan </li></ul>
  66. 73. 1988 <ul><li>PRI is challenged by a coalition party and responds with assassination of two leaders of the National Democratic Front (FDN) </li></ul><ul><li>During election the ballots were guarded by army. </li></ul><ul><li>Balloting occurred on July 6, 1988. Results released on Sept. 10 </li></ul><ul><li>PRI holds power. </li></ul>
  67. 74. 2000-2006 <ul><li>Rule of Vicente Fox </li></ul>
  68. 75. What are the current issues in Mexico <ul><li>“ a giant sucking sound”…H. Ross Perot on NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>Drug cartels (80% of US cocaine comes through this country) </li></ul><ul><li>NEW people in Power, where is PRI </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration to US </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico City’s pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Maquiladoras </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery is rampant </li></ul>