Black Sea position : COM(2007) 160 final Black Sea Synergy communication 11 April 2007 Community accession to the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution is a priority. Arctic position : COM/2008/0763 final 20 November 2008 “ Enhance input to the Arctic Council in accordance with the Community’s role and potential. As a first step, the Commission will apply for permanent observer status in the Arctic Council.“
Criteria to be used by MSs for the use of the GES descriptors are laid down in COM Decision
Links within Art 8
Transcript of "Casazza (1)"
La Direttiva Quadro sulla Strategia per l’Ambiente Marino (Direttiva 2008/56/CE)Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Gianna Casazza European Commission DG Environment, Marine Unit
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive EU’s legal instrument for the protection of our seasOverall objective: achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EUs marine waters by 2020.Adoption of an ecosystem-based and Overarching Goal: Achieve GES of EU’s Marine Waters integrated approach to the by 2020 management of all human activities which have an impact on the marine environment. Protected Sustainable Common Ecosystems Uses Approaches Clean, of Europe’s CooperationRegional approach to implementation, healthy, productive marine resources at the EU and regional level and establishment of European Marine seas Regions
Marine StrategiesEach EU Member State must progressively put in place its own “Marine Strategy” (actionplan), consisting of several stepsThey must cooperate among themselves and with neighbouring countries: Regionalcooperation, where possible, using existing Regional Institutional Structures, such asRegional Sea Conventions (at all different stages of the Strategies)Building on EU legislation and policies, such as Water Framework Directive Habitat and Birds Directive Common Fishery PolicyInternational agreements, i.e. HELCOM, OSPAR, UNEP/MAP, Black Sea Convention
Steps for National Marine Strategies development Initial assessment: - analysis of essential features/characteristics, (Annex III, tab.I) - pressures and impacts, (Annex III, tab.II), on marine waters - economic and social analysis of their use and cost of degradation Determine Good Environmental Status (indicative list of elements: Annex I, and 2012 Annex III) Establishment of Environmental Targets and indicators Monitoring programmes: compatible with existing provisions, 2014 methods consistent across the Marine Region (comparability) Programmes of Measures to be taken 2015 Entry into operation of programmes 2016 Building upon existing activities developed within EU Directives and Regional Sea Conventions 2020To achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status in the marine environment Adaptive management , with regular review (every 6 years)
Implementation Steps Main Steps of a Marine Strategy: • Initial assessment (IA) of current environmental status of MS waters • Determination of GES • Establishment of environmental targets and associated indicators • Monitoring programme for ongoing assessment and regular updating of targets • Programme of measures to achieve or maintain GES • Review of the different steps
Regional CooperationNEA subregions:-Greater North sea-Celtic sea-Bay of Biscay and Iberian coast-Atlantic ocean, Macaronesianregion (Azores, Madeira,Canaries) Mediterranean subregions MSFD -Western Mediterranean -Adriatic sea -Ionian sea and Central Mediterranean
Building on existing EU legislation & policiesWater Framework Directive: Objective: achieving ‘Good Status’ for all EU groundwaters, rivers, lakes, coastal waters, etc. by 2015. 6-year planning cycle, River Basin Management Plans development. First reviewed in 2015. Reduces marine pollution from land-based sources and protects ecosystems in coastal watersHabitats and Birds Directives: Europe’s key laws on nature conservation Provide special protection for key sites (the Natura 2000 network), animal/plants species and habitat types Integration of these sites in MPAs networkCommon Fisheries Policy: Collaborative way for managing the EU’s shared seas and fisheries Objective: Ensuring that Europes fisheries are sustainable and do not damage the marine environment. Planned reform in 2011 – integration of issue of environmental impacts of fishing
Integrating relevant EU Directives & Conventions r e ate Tid el hw res dary nm nm line Lev TL) F un200 12 3 nm 1 nm B ase (MH Bo MSFD, if not already covered by MSFD other Directives Chemical status Water Framework Directive Ecological status Natura 2000 network OSPAR (Northeast Atlantic) HELCOM (Baltic Sea)
Good Environmental Status (GES) “The environmental status of marine waters where these provide ecologicallydiverse and dynamic oceans and seas which are clean, healthy and productive” (Art. 3(5)). Marine resources are used at a sustainable level, ensuring their continuity for future generations. Ecosystems are fully functioning and resilient to human-induced environmental change; Biodiversity is protected and biodiversity decline caused by human activities is prevented; Substances and energy introduced in the marine environment by human activities do not cause pollution effects.
Determination of GES (Art.9)GES shall be determined at the level of Marine Region (or subregion), onthe basis of the “qualitative descriptors” in Annex Itaking into account indicative lists of Elements in Annex III:Tab.1: characteristics: physical and chemical features, habitat types, biologicalfeatures and hydromorphologyTab. 2: pressure and impacts of human activities
Annex I Annex IIIQualitative descriptors Characteristics Physical and chemicalD 1 Biodiversity •Topography, bathymetry • Nutrients, O2D 2 Non-indigenous species Habitat types • Predominant seabed and water columnD 3 Fisheries habitat typesD 4 Food webs Biological features • Phytoplankton, ZooplanktonD 5 Eutrophication • benthic flora and fauna • Fish populationsD 6 Seafloor integrity • Marine mammals • BirdsD 7 Hydrographic conditions OthersD 8 Contaminants • Contaminants in sediment and biotaD 9 Contaminants in seafood Pressures / Impacts • smothering, sealingD 10 Litter • physical damage • underwater noiseD 11 Energy introduction • litter(noise) • nutrients input • introduction of non-indigenous species • fishery
Criteria and relatedindicators referred tothe 11 Descriptorsfor determiningGoodEnvironmentalStatus
GES: Common principles, tailored indicators GES Descriptors Descriptor 10 – Marine litter does not cause harm to high level, generic across Europe the coastal and marine environment •Characteristics of litter in the marine and coastal environment GES Criteriawill be based on characteristics which define •Impacts of litter on marine life what GES means in each Member State Indicators: •Trends in the amount of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines GES Indicators •Trends in the amount of litter in the water column and provide the final level of details. deposited on the sea-floor •Trends in the amount, distribution and where possible, composition of micro-particles • Trends and composition of ingested plastics by marine animals Targets Possible Targets (examples): If the targets are met, GES • X% of overall reduction in the volume of litter on should be achieved coastlines from 2010 levels by 2020. • Less than 10% of northern fulmars (sea bird) having more than 0.1 g plastic particles in their stomach • No increase of micro-plastics by 2020
Criteria for biodiversity descriptors BIODIVERSITY NON-INDIGENOUS SPECIESSpecies distribution • Abundance of non-indigenous species•Population size • Impact of invasive species•Population condition FISH POPULATIONS•Habitat distribution•Habitat extent • Level of pressure of fishing•Habitat condition • Reproductive capacity of the stock•Ecosystem structure • Population age and size distribution FOOD WEBS Productivity of key species / groups• Proportion of selected species at the top offood webs• Abundance/distribution of key groups/species SEAFLOOR INTEGRITY •Physical damage and substrate characteristics •Condition of benthic community
Article 8 - Assessment Art. 8 Based on Annex III8.1a – analysis of the essential features andcharacteristics, and current environmental Table 1 – characteristicsstatus8.1b – analysis of the predominant pressures Table 2 – pressures and impactsand impacts, including human activity No guidance – but some MS are8.1c – analysis of the economic and social use following a sector by sectorof marine waters and of cost of degradation approach
Activity Pressure State Activity A Pressure X Component A Oil & gas Underwater noise Cetaceans IMPACTS Activity B Component B Sand & Fish gravel Pressure Y Component C extraction Contamination Seabirds Activity C Component D Shipping Pelagic habitat Pressure Z Physical Activity D Component E disturbance Fishing Seabed habitat Assessment of Assessment of Economic & pressures state social analysis Art 8.1b Art 8.1a Art 8.1c Table 2 Table 1
Common Implementation StrategyMarine Directors: highest level political group focused on the overall implementation of the MSFDMarine Strategic Coordination Group: prepares material for all CIS and oversees the work of the WGs, facilitating interactions.Working Groups (WG): provide a platform for discussions between MS to help them with the implementation of the Directive. WG on GES: supports MS in their determination of what GES means for their marine waters. WG on Economic and Social Analysis (ESA): supports MS with their economic and social analysis of the use of their marine waters WG on Data, Information and Knowledge Exchange (DIKE): supports MS with their data reporting obligations Technical Sub Groups: at the moment two, covering Noise and Litter, focusing on emerging areas of particular concern.
The word ECOLOGY is the union of two greek words: Oikos + logos The study of the house House + study (home, niche, territory)The word ecology is very close and complementary to another word ECONOMY Oikos + nomos The household management House + manage Key message: “no clean sea” means “no maritime economy”