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Int. Roundtable on Transboundary Waters Management, 15-16.12.2011, Ivica Trumbic


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Coastal and Marine Environment Protection
International Roundtable on Protection and Sustainable Use of Trans-boundary Waters in South East Europe, 15-16 December 2011, Zagreb, Croatia

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Int. Roundtable on Transboundary Waters Management, 15-16.12.2011, Ivica Trumbic

  2. 2. • The Mediterranean hydrologic drainage basin stretches over more than 5 million km2 km2.• Rivers play a particular role in the water circulation, geochemistry and ultimately in sustaining the marine productivity in the Mediterranean Sea• 10 largest rivers of the Mediterranean Sea are the Rhone, Po, D i Buna, Nile, N P Drin- B Nil Neretva, Eb Tib Adi Ebro, Tiber, Adige, S h Seyhan and Ceyhan• Of the three continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa) which (Europe Asia discharge into the Mediterranean Sea, dominant contributions are from Europe• About 25% of total discharge occurs in the Adriatic
  3. 3. • Many developed coastal areas of the Mediterranean suffer from the effects of an increased influx of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous• Sources i l d untreated h S include t t d human sewage, animal waste, t i l t transportation, t ti fertilizers, and industrial discharges• For nitrogen the largest emitters are urban wastewater treatment (31%), livestock farming ( g (19%), and the metal industry (11%) ), y( )• The main sources of phosphorus emissions are from fertilizer manufacturing (63%), livestock farming (20%), and urban wastewater treatment (8%)• Agriculture has been identified as the largest non-point source of pollutants to the th• The basins draining into the Mediterranean Sea cover a total area of about 1.9 million km2 (excluding the upper Nile Basin) and include 24 countries• Nutrients in run-off reach the sea via transport through groundwater wetlands run off groundwater, wetlands, rivers and lakes..• While the overall inputs of nitrogen (about 1.5-4.5 million tonnes per year) and phosphorous (about 0.1-0.4 million tonnes per year) are relatively low compared to other seas (e.g., Black Sea), nonetheless, these nutrients are problematic in (e g Sea) nonetheless coastal areas.
  4. 4. • Barcelona Convention and its Protocols• Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities (adopted 1980, in force 1983 (LBS Protocol, amended 1996, in force 2008)),• Integrated Coastal Zone Management ( g g (ICZM Protocol, adopted 2008, in force 2011)
  5. 5. What is MedPartnership?A collective effort for the protection of theenvironmental resources of the MediterraneanIt is led by UNEP/MAP and the World Bank, co-funded by GEF and involving other relevantinternational cooperation Agencies, InternationalFinancial Institutions (IFIs) and bilateral andmultilateral donors
  6. 6. Objectives jImplement the Strategic Action Programmes and NationalAction PlansImplement ICZM ProtocolLeverage long-term financing for environmental protectionEnsure, through the replication process, that the follow-upembedded in the Barcelona Convention and MAP system
  7. 7. What?Partnership: UNEP/MAP and World Bank12 countries and Palestine Authority12 executing partners6 big donors + countries’ and agencies co-financing countries agencies’2 major components: Regional Project and InvestmentFund4 sub-components and more than 10 investment projects46 demonstration projects50 mil. USD Regional Project; 75 mil. USD Investment Fund
  8. 8. Regional Project: Components andSub-componentsComponent 1Integrated Approaches for the Implementation of th SAP and NAPs:I t t d A h f th I l t ti f the SAPs d NAPICZM, IWRM and Management of Coastal Aquifers1.1 Management of coastal Aquifers1.2. Integrated Coastal Zone Management1.3. Integrated Water resource ManagementComponent 2 SAPMED Component 4 SAPBIO Component 3Pollution from Land- Project Coordination, Conservation ofbased activities including Replication and Biological Diversity:POPs: Implementation of Communication Implementation of SAP-SAPMED and related strategies, and BIO and related NAPsNAPs Management and M&E 3.1.Conservation of Coastal2.1 Facilitation of policy 4.1. Project Coordination, Marine Diversity throughand legislation reforms for Management and M&E the development of apollution control (sus financing) Mediterranean MPA2.2 Transfer of 4.2 Information and NetworkEnvironmentally Sound Communication Strategies 3.2. Promote theTechnology (TEST-MED) gy ( ) 4.3. Replication Strategy sustainable use of fisheries2.3. Environmentally sound resources in themanagement of equipment, Mediterranean through thestocks and wastes development andcontaining or contaminated application of Ecosystem-by PCBs in national based Managementelectricity companies of y p ApproachesMediterranean countries
  9. 9. Coastal zone, water and aquifer management q gSub-comp 1.1. Aquifers and groundwater: Sub-com 1.2: Integrated Coastal Zone1.1.1 Assessment of risk and uncertainty related to Management (ICZM)Mediterranean coastal aquifers; 1.2.1. Support activities in preparation of1.1.2. Regional Actions for Coastal Aquifer National ICZM Strategies and NationalManagement Action Plans;1.1.3.Legislative, institutional and p g , policy reforms y 1.2.2. Application of ICZM approach,for Coastal Aquifer Management; tools and techniques in demonstration areas; Sub-com 1.3: Integrated Water Resource Management g g (IWRM): 1.3.1. Contribute to develop the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) Strategy for Water in the Mediterranean 1.3.3. Catalyze Action and Build Capacity on National IWRM Planning 1.3.3. Develop IRBM and dialogue in globally important river basin(s) and adjacent coastal area ( ) j
  10. 10. Croatia1.1.2.5 Implementation of eco- Case study on implications 2.1.7. to 2.1.9.hydrogeology applications for of ratification of ICM Protocol on Permit, Inspectionmanagement and protection national legislation (PAP/RAC) and Complianceof coastal wetlands (UNESCO Systems (MEDPOL)IHP) Coastal aquifer1.1.1.2 Coastal vulnerability mapping,aquifer Novljanska Žrnovnica karstic spring a st c sp g Demonstrationmapping, Pula (UNESCO IHP) Project on financialcoastal aquifer sustainability(UNESCO IHP) mechanisms for at least three new MPAs in different Inception, planning, zoning areas (RAC/SPA) - and development of new MPAs – Vis Montenegro, Island (RAC/SPA) Croatia, Albania Identification of local stakeholder participation mechanism for the pilot MPAs Demonstration Organize specific technical Project in Croatia: assistance and exchange/twining Management and M&E programmes to provide on-site on site plans for the existing assistance to new-MPAs managers, MPAs - Lastovo, Mijiet, practitioners and relevant authorities Telascica, Brijuni, Kornati (WWF-MedPO)
  11. 11. Bosnia and Herzegovina2.1.7. to 2.1.9. Permit, Characterization ofInspection and priority marine sites suitable toCompliance Systems become MPAs - country coast(MEDPOL) - Bosnia- assessment in Montenegro,Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Morocco (RAC/SPA) 3 1 2 1 Establish priority activities needed to create MPAs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Lebanon, Libya, Montenegro and Syria (RAC/SPA)
  12. 12. Albania ICZM Plan in demo area Support to the1.1.2.2 Integration of groundwater of high environmental sensitivity preparation of ICZMmanagement in ICZM and IWRM (PAP/RAC) Montenegro-Bojana Montenegro Bojana NAPs (PAP/RAC) -planning systems (UNESCO IHP) ICZM Plan and Albania - Buna AlbaniaBojana Bay ICZM Plan 1.3.3. Develop IRBM and dialogue in globally important river basin(s) 2.3. Environmentally Sound and adjacent coastal area (GWP- Management of equipment, Med) - Buna river as part of the stocks and wastes containing extended Drin river system or contaminated by PCBs in national electricity companies of Mediterranean countries 2.1.7. to 2.1.9. Permit, (MEDPOL) - Albania Inspection and Compliance Systems (MEDPOL) - Albania, Demonstration Project on financial sustainability mechanisms for at least three Establish priority activities needed to create MPAs in new MPA i diff MPAs in different areas t Bosnia and Herzegovina, Lebanon, Libya, Montenegro and (RAC/SPA) - Montenegro, Syria (RAC/SPA) Croatia, Albania Characterization of priority marine sites suitable to become MPAs - country coast assessment in Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Morocco (RAC/SPA)
  13. 13. Ecosystem Approach• Strategy for integrated management of land water and living resources land, that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way (CBD)• Places human needs at the centre of biodiversity management It aims management. to manage the ecosystem, based on the multiple functions that ecosystem perform and the multiple uses that are made of these functions. functions The ecosystem aproach does not aim for short-term economic short term gains, but aims to optimize the use of an ecosystem without damaging it (IUCN)
  14. 14. “Conventional” vs. Ecosystem Approach* Conventional Approach“Conventional” Ecosystemapproach approachTop down ParticipatoryOne objective: production Multiple objectivesSectoral, individual resources Interaction with other sectorsFarm scale (local) most common Multiple (nested) scalesPredictiveP di ti Adaptive Ad tiScientific knowledge Extended knowledgePrescriptions IncentivesCorporate Public/Transparent*adapted from FAO
  15. 15. MAP Project: Road Map1. Definition f1 D fi iti of an ecological Vi i f th M dit l i l Vision for the Mediterranean.2. Setting of common Mediterranean strategic goals.3. Identification of important ecosystem properties and assessment of ecological status and pressures. l i l t t d4. Development of a set of ecological objectives corresponding to the Vision and strategic goals.5. Derivation f5 D i ti of operational objectives with i di t ti l bj ti ith indicators and t d target l t levels. l6. Revision of existing monitoring programmes for ongoing assessment and regular updating of targets.7. Development7 De elopment and review of rele ant action plans and programmes re ie relevant
  16. 16. Vision“ A healthy Mediterranean with marine and coastal ecosystems that are productive and biologically diverse for the benefit of present and future generations”
  17. 17. Integrated Coastal Zone Management M t• ICZM is a continuous proactive and adaptive process of resource continuous, management for environmentally sustainable development in coastal areas• ICZM requires a multidisciplinary approach, solution of problems within i ltidi i li h l ti f bl ithi “sectors” instead of transferring the problems to other “sectors”, participation of all interested parties, as well as integration among sectors, institutions and government levels• ICZM requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between coastal resources, their uses and the mutual impacts of p development on the economy and the environment
  18. 18. Guidelines
  19. 19. Cetina River Watershed and Adjacent Coastal Area
  20. 20. Basic Principles of ICARM pRespect the integrity of river basin and coastal ecosystemsaccepting limits on the use of resources p gEnsure the strategic importance of renewable resources forsocio-economic developmentAllow f the multiple use of resources integratingAll for h li l f i icomplementary activities and regulating/separating conflictingonesEnsure multi-sectoral and multi-level integration in decisionmaking linking broad scale management to local levelinterventionsAllow for participation of all actors particularly local populationin the planning p p g process to assure effective management g
  21. 21. Focus for ICARMAt the local scale ICARM would be focused on: • controlling key processes especially water and material/ sediment flows • managing critical socio-economic issues/factors; • controlling waste/pollution • assuring quantity and quality of water arriving downstream which is important for coastal sediment budgets and for the conservation of habitats, wetlands, deltas, estuaries • protecting areas of high ecological value of mutual interest such as wetlands, river d l l d i deltas and estuaries d i • siting of projects and structures
  22. 22. At the national scale ICARM would be focused on: • establishing a mechanism for co-ordinating goals and decisions of all stakeholders • integrating socio-economic considerations with natural and environmental ones • identifying and evaluating human pressures • linking broader issues/changes with river basin and coastal systems
  23. 23. At the international scale ICARM would focus on: • establishing resource monitoring schemes t bli hi it i h • establishing large ecosystem management schemes
  24. 24. Ivica Trumbic Project Manager UNEP/MAP GEF Strategic Partnership for the g p Mediterranean Large Marine Ecosystem MedPartnership p Athens, Thank you!