Pontillas, J. Role of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserves in Climate Change Adaptation


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Role of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserves in Climate Change Adaptation

Pontillas, J.

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Pontillas, J. Role of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserves in Climate Change Adaptation

  1. 1. PALAWAN COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STAFF & PALAWAN STATE UNIVERSITYThe Role of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Reserves inClimate Change Adaptation: Experience from PalawanBiosphere Reserve in the PhilippinesRYAN T. FUENTESJOHN FRANCISCO A. PONTILLASMICHAEL D. PIDOPresented by:JOHN FRANCISCO A. PONTILLAS
  2. 2. Aims Present the ongoing initiatives of Palawan Biosphere Reserve with respect to climate change issue, and the challenges and opportunities encountered by Palawan BR managers in the pursuit of sustainable development BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  4. 4. Characteristics of Palawan BR 666,338 has. of terrestrial forest cover (2005), or 9.5% of the forest cover of the Philippines 58,400 has. mangrove forest (2005), the highest mangrove assemblage in the country, or 40% of the extent of mangroves in the Philippines high concentration of endemic plants and animals BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  5. 5. New species are still being discovered … New forest gecko (Luperosaurus gulat), Brown et al. 2010 Spectacular species of pitcher plant (Nepenthes attenboroughii), Robinson et al. 2009 BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  6. 6. Natural resources rich fishing grounds outstanding ecosystems – limestone formations, long beaches, coral reefs onshore mineral deposits – nickel, gold, manganese fossil fuels in offshore areas – oil, natural gas BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  7. 7. …and Our PEOPLE• 970,232 (2007) projected population• 3.64% Annual population growth rate (1995-2000)• Approximately 12 in-migrants in every 36 individuals added to our population annually• 53 ethnolinguistic groups • 3 indigenous peoples group
  8. 8. The Road to UNESCO MAB andSEP Law1982 – Integrated Environmental Program under Palawan Integrated Area Development Project Office with funding from EEC (EU); a province-wide study on the appropriate course of development for Palawan was undertaken1983, 1985 – formulation of a comprehensive plan to balance development and environmental protection1987 – Strategic Environmental Plan (SEP) Draft was finalized1990 – Palawan was inscribed as one of the biosphere reserves of UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program1992 – passage of the SEP Law in Congress BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  9. 9. Method / Primary strategy: ZONING The central strategy of the SEP Law is a zoning strategy called the ECAN: Environmentally Critical Areas Network ECAN is a graded system of protection and development control over the whole province BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  10. 10. Terrestrial Core Zone ECAN zones Restricted Use Area Buffer Controlled Use Area Zone Traditional Use Area Multiple Use Zone Coastal Core Zone Transition/Buffer Area Multiple use Zone Sustainable/General Use Area
  11. 11. Topography Elevation and slope are used as parameters in the mapping of ECAN zones 1,000 meters 100 m 500 – 1000 m 100 – 300 m & above 300 – 500 m & below Restricted Controlled Traditional Multiple Core zone use use use use area area area zone50% slope 18 – 36% 0 – 8% & above 36 – 50% (Rugged) 8 – 18% (Flat to (Broken) (Steep) (Moderate) Gentle) BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  12. 12. Overlay analysis using GIS The “ecanization” of Palawan is defined as “the process of delineating and marking the boundaries of the different zones in both land and sea, the identification of prescribed activities and resource use for each zone, together with the enforcement of regulatory measures to prevent practices that are destructive of the environment” (1994 PCSD Resolution) BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  13. 13. TerrestrialECAN zonesmap ofPalawan* BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  14. 14. ECAN helps cushion the adverse impactsof climate change Mapping of ECAN zones is compatible with identifying ecological/biodiversity “hotspots” because “habitat of endangered species” is one of the criteria or areas in need of immediate protection and conservation. ECAN zoning is a way of identifying hazard-prone areas as physical parameters are used in its mapping. ECAN zones can be an indicator of suitability for land use activities and a decision-support framework in determining the optimal location for various development options, such as ecotourism, agriculture, and housing. BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  15. 15. State of Palawan forestsIn the span of 60 years (from 1946 to 2005), the forestcover of Palawan was reduced in half! YEAR FOREST COVER PERCENTAGE OF PALAWAN (hectares) 1946 1.3 million 89% 1983 779,600 68% 2005 666,338 46% BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  16. 16. State of Palawan forests YEAR FOREST Hectares % Average Annual COVER Loss Loss Rate of OF (Total) Between Loss PALAWAN years (hectares) (hectares)1946 1.3 million1992 738,886 561,114 43.16% 12,1982005 666,338 72,500 9.81% 5,577  The IEP reported an alarming decline of 19,000 hectares per year from 1979 to 1984. BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  17. 17. Carbon sequestration in Palawan forests Carbon stock values of different forest cover in Palawan Province (2010) Forest cover Carbon Area Total Carbon Value at density* (hectares) stock US$15/tC (tC/ha) (million tons) (trillion pesos)** Old growth 349.81 189,771.8 66.4 41.8 forest Mossy forest 204.25 21,600.8 4.4 2.8 Residual forest 336.4 373,278.2 125.6 79.1 Mangrove 174.9 58,399.6 10.2 6.4 643,050.4 206.6 130.1 * Values from Lasco et al. 1999 as cited in Cruz et al. 2008. ** 1 US$ : PhP 42 BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  18. 18. Economicindustries co-existingwith protectedareas
  19. 19. Challenge to ECAN: Highly Extractive Industries…Mining
  20. 20. Challenge to ECAN: Highly Extractive Industries…Live Reef Fish Industry
  21. 21. Management implications:ECAN as a spatial strategy Resilience, representativenes and protection of ecosystems are some of the benefits that the zonation of ECAN bestows upon the environment. In the Palawan BR, the connectivity cycle can be extended to the linkage of the economy and environment as both are not mutually exclusive but rather mutually reinforcing concerns. ECAN then acts as a dual blanket of protection to life- support and economic systems. As an evolving zoning strategy, it has the adaptability to be integrated into any planning and regulatory frameworks and management schemes. It is scalable since it can be adapted from small areas to large scale ones. BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  22. 22. Management implications:ECAN as a spatial strategy A key consideration is the island character of the Palawan BR that makes it susceptible to sea level rise and storm surges. Conflicts in land use and natural resource utilization are foreseen to escalate given the increasing national and international demand for both renewable and non- renewable resources. The challenge remains in the governance aspect. The primary need of governance in Palawan is the maximization of political will to continue to develop industries that are environment-friendly and economically attractive. Protected areas should be acknowledge as part and parcel of economic BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  23. 23. Management implications:ECAN as a spatial strategyTwo major constraints to the sustainable development ofPalawan: heavy reliance on activities that are extractive of natural resource base, and the kind of priorities and utilization that the government pursues in terms of public sector investments. BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  24. 24. Management implications: Four main sectors of economic activities Creation and marketing of carbon sinks Ensure that Promote tourist CLWUPs contain destinations specialized macro-industries Primary for each sector municipality. Prevent the creation of Secondarypassive service areas or the Develop air andeconomically “dead zones.” sector seaport facilities in Palawan Tertiary sector Sourcing of renewable energy; building of energy Assessment of urban Quaternary efficient facilities centers Building information and sector communication technology (ICT) highways BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  25. 25. FINAL WORDS  Biosphere reserves and the strategy of ECAN zoning are established to demonstrate the harmonious co- existence between humans and their environment especially in the face of the negative impacts of unequivocal climate change.  This co-existence is already happening in Palawan BR, to some extent.  The optimal functionality of ECAN still requires a more efficient allocation of political will and the build-up and strengthening of its social capital – its people. BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  27. 27. International Conference on Biodiversity and Climate Change, 01-03 February 2010, Manila, PhilippinesThe Role of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Reserves in Climate Change Adaptation: Experience from Palawan Biosphere Reserve in the Philippines Ryan T. Fuentes1, John Francisco A. Pontillas1, and Michael D. Pido2 john_pontillas2001@yahoo.com/oed@pcsd.ph/www.pcsd.ph 1Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff, 2Palawan State University
  28. 28. Land cover Land cover is derived from interpretation of satellite imageries Brushland, Brushland, Primary Residual Built-up & forests & Residual Grassland, forests Settlements Mangroves forests Agricultural (A & D lands) areas Restricted Controlled Traditional Multiple Core zone use use use use area area area zone Maximum Controlled Sustainable Area of Watershed Logging & Stable Projects; Protection Protection Mining Agriculture Industrialization BIOSPHERE RESERVE
  29. 29. Management implications:Four main sectors of economic activities Production and extraction of raw materials Manufacturing and utilizing raw materials derived Primary from the primary sector sector Secondary sector R & D needed to Tertiary produce products sector from raw materials Service sector Quaternary sector BIOSPHERE RESERVE